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1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263266, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705228

ABSTRACT

Characteristics of patients at risk of developing severe forms of COVID-19 disease have been widely described, but very few studies describe their evolution through the following waves. Data was collected retrospectively from a prospectively maintained database from a University Hospital in Paris area, over a year corresponding to the first three waves of COVID-19 in France. Evolution of patient characteristics between non-severe and severe cases through the waves was analyzed with a classical multivariate logistic regression along with a complementary Machine-Learning-based analysis using explainability methods. On 1076 hospitalized patients, severe forms concerned 29% (123/429), 31% (66/214) and 18% (79/433) of each wave. Risk factors of the first wave included old age (≥ 70 years), male gender, diabetes and obesity while cardiovascular issues appeared to be a protective factor. Influence of age, gender and comorbidities on the occurrence of severe COVID-19 was less marked in the 3rd wave compared to the first 2, and the interactions between age and comorbidities less important. Typology of hospitalized patients with severe forms evolved rapidly through the waves. This evolution may be due to the changes of hospital practices and the early vaccination campaign targeting the people at high risk such as elderly and patients with comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Machine Learning , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paris/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
2.
Soins ; 67(862): 39-41, 2022.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671160

ABSTRACT

The various lockdowns linked to the Covid-19 epidemic have modified the use of communication tools, the Internet and social networks. In the context of the walk-in clinic or the child psychiatric evaluation interviews conducted at the Maison des adolescents of the Cochin Hospital in Paris, families were able to discuss the difficulties arising from this new use. Certain transgenerational, cultural and usual misunderstandings were discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Paris , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Networking
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(4): 2153-2162, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655411

ABSTRACT

The Paris metropolitan area, the largest urban region in the European Union, has experienced two national COVID-19 confinements in 2020 with different levels of restrictions on mobility and economic activity, which caused reductions in CO2 emissions. To quantify the timing and magnitude of daily emission reductions during the two lockdowns, we used continuous atmospheric CO2 monitoring, a new high-resolution near-real-time emission inventory, and an atmospheric Bayesian inverse model. The atmospheric inversion estimated the changes in fossil fuel CO2 emissions over the Greater Paris region during the two lockdowns, in comparison with the same periods in 2018 and 2019. It shows decreases by 42-53% during the first lockdown with stringent measures and by only 20% during the second lockdown when traffic reduction was weaker. Both lockdown emission reductions are mainly due to decreases in traffic. These results are consistent with independent estimates based on activity data made by the city environmental agency. We also show that unusual persistent anticyclonic weather patterns with north-easterly winds that prevailed at the start of the first lockdown period contributed a substantial drop in measured CO2 concentration enhancements over Paris, superimposed on the reduction of urban CO2 emissions. We conclude that atmospheric CO2 monitoring makes it possible to identify significant emission changes (>20%) at subannual time scales over an urban region.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Bayes Theorem , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Paris , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1094, 2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634513

ABSTRACT

France went through three deadly epidemic waves due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing major public health and socioeconomic issues. We proposed to study the course of the pandemic along 2020 from the outlook of two major Parisian hospitals earliest involved in the fight against COVID-19. Genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were performed on samples from patients and health care workers (HCWs) from Bichat (BCB) and Pitié-Salpêtrière (PSL) hospitals. A tree-based phylogenetic clustering method and epidemiological data were used to investigate suspected nosocomial transmission clusters. Clades 20A, 20B and 20C were prevalent during the spring wave and, following summer, clades 20A.EU2 and 20E.EU1 emerged and took over. Phylogenetic clustering identified 57 potential transmission clusters. Epidemiological connections between participants were found for 17 of these, with a higher proportion of HCWs. The joint presence of HCWs and patients suggest viral contaminations between these two groups. We provide an enhanced overview of SARS-CoV-2 phylogenetic changes over 2020 in the Paris area, one of the regions with highest incidence in France. Despite the low genetic diversity displayed by the SARS-CoV-2, we showed that phylogenetic analysis, along with comprehensive epidemiological data, helps to identify and investigate healthcare associated clusters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paris/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261024, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy has been proposed as an option to help organize the healthcare system to face the unprecedented number of patients hospitalized for a COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in intensive care units (ICU). It is, however, considered a particularly high-risk procedure for contamination. This paper aims to provide our experience in performing tracheostomies on COVID-19 critically ill patients during the pandemic and its long-term local complications. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of patients tracheostomized for a COVID-19-related ARDS in two university hospitals in the Paris region between January 27th (date of first COVID-19 admission) and May 18th, 2020 (date of last tracheostomy performed). We focused on tracheostomy technique (percutaneous versus surgical), timing (early versus late) and late complications. RESULTS: Forty-eight tracheostomies were performed with an equal division between surgical and percutaneous techniques. There was no difference in patients' characteristics between surgical and percutaneous groups. Tracheostomy was performed after a median of 17 [12-22] days of mechanical ventilation (MV), with 10 patients in the "early" group (≤ day 10) and 38 patients in the "late" group (> day 10). Survivors required MV for a median of 32 [22-41] days and were ultimately decannulated with a median of 21 [15-34] days spent on cannula. Patients in the early group had shorter ICU and hospital stays (respectively 15 [12-19] versus 35 [25-47] days; p = 0.002, and 21 [16-28] versus 54 [35-72] days; p = 0.002) and spent less time on MV (respectively 17 [14-20] and 35 [27-43] days; p<0.001). Interestingly, patients in the percutaneous group had shorter hospital and rehabilitation center stays (respectively 44 [34-81] versus 92 [61-118] days; p = 0.012, and 24 [11-38] versus 45 [22-71] days; p = 0.045). Of the 30 (67%) patients examined by a head and neck surgeon, 17 (57%) had complications with unilateral laryngeal palsy (n = 5) being the most prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: Tracheostomy seems to be a safe procedure that could help ICU organization by delegating work to a separate team and favoring patient turnover by allowing faster transfer to step-down units. Following guidelines alone was found sufficient to prevent the risk of aerosolization and contamination of healthcare professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/surgery , Tracheostomy/methods , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Paris , Personnel, Hospital , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
6.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 41(3): 445-454, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611417

ABSTRACT

This st udy aims to evaluate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in locked-down family households to determine viral dynamics and immunity acquisition. COVID-19 individuals and their households in lockdown under the same roof during early spring 2020 were interviewed and tested using rapid immunochromatographic lateral flow antibodies assays (LFA) between July and September 2020. Outcomes were secondary infection rate (SIR) among contacts, household infection rate, and predictors of transmission. We enrolled 87 households including 87 COVID-19 index cases (female 78.2%; median age: 47.0 years, IQR: 42.0-51.5) and 255 contacts (males: 52.9%; median age: 19.0 years, IQR: 11.0-43.5) consisting of their children (42%) or spouses/partners (28.2%). A total of 95/255 contacts were SARS-CoV-2 antibody positive leading to a SIR of 37.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 31.3-43.5%). Viral transmission was observed in 54 households (62%). SARS-CoV-2 infection was asymptomatic in 33/95 (34.7%) of SARS-CoV-2-positive contacts. Independent predictors of virus transmission from index to contacts were housing surface area < 60 m2 (OR: 5.6 [1.1; 28.2] and a four-member family compared to five (OR: 3.6 [1.2; 10.3]). Households represent a high-risk setting for SARS-CoV-2 transmission through close contact within the family amplified by the number of family members and the housing surface area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paris , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
Indoor Air ; 32(1): e12967, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553741

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the impact of the lockdown restriction measures in the Paris area on the variation of in-vehicle ultrafine particle (UFP) and black carbon (BC) concentrations between the pre- and post-lockdown period and professional drivers' working conditions and practices. The study was conducted with 33 taxi drivers. UFP and BC were measured inside their vehicles with DiSCmini® and microAeth® , respectively, on two typical working days pre- and post-lockdown. Job characteristics were self-reported. Our results showed that post-lockdown, both the number of clients and journey duration significantly decreased. Taxi drivers opened their windows significantly more and reduced the use of air recirculation. UFP decreased significantly by 32% and BC by 31% post-lockdown, with a weaker positive correlation compared to pre-lockdown. The reduction of in-vehicle UFP was due mainly to the reduction of traffic flow and ventilation settings, though the latter probably varied according to traffic conditions. The variation of in-vehicle BC also tended to be related to the decrease in traffic flow post-lockdown. We emphasize the role of traffic emissions on in-vehicle air pollution and that preventive measures such ventilation settings would help to minimize the exposure of professional drivers and passengers to air pollutants.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution, Indoor , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Paris/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
8.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(11): 1733-1738, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2020 COVID-19 pandemic led to a strict lockdown in France from March 17 to May 11, 2020. After the lockdown, the French strategy to mitigate the impact of SARS-CoV-2 relied partly on investigations of all confirmed cases. Monitoring collective settings is particularly important since SARS-CoV-2 seems prone to superspreading events (SSEs). METHODS: Our study is based on data gathered in Paris from May 11 to December 31, 2020, by the Ile-de-France Regional Health Agency (RHA) to investigate cases occurring in collective and high-risk settings. Specific events in high-risk settings were systematically transmitted to the RHA, and screenings were organized by the facilities, while other settings were reported when three cases were identified within a short period. These settings were more difficult to identify through the surveillance system since no systematic screening was organized by the facility, leaving screenings to rely on the national contact-tracing programme. No official superspreading threshold has been set for SARS-CoV-2. We defined a SSE as an event involving ten cases. RESULTS: We analysed 15,706 events associated with 38,670 cases, representing an average of 2.70 cases per event. Most clusters occurred in educational facilities, workplace environments, social care settings, and healthcare facilities. SSEs represented 3.4% but accounted for 28% of all cases reported. The highest number of SSEs occurred in college settings (12.6%), followed by hospitals and retirement homes. Educational facilities had the lowest number of SSEs, with around 1% in preschools and elementary schools. CONCLUSIONS: We observed different SSE rates in each setting. Preschools and primary schools represented the majority of events but experiencing very few SSEs. Colleges were prone to SSEs and were associated with a high number of secondary cases. These findings provide some insights on contact tracing activities and SARS-CoV-2 transmission in different settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Paris/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
9.
J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod ; 51(1): 102255, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487857

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study focuses on changes in gynecologic surgical activity at Hospital Foch, Paris, France during the first French COVID lockdown in 2020. Additional goals include the evaluation the extent of the postponement suffered for each type of surgery and estimate the possible negative impact for patients. STUDY DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective, chart-review cohort study in the gynecology department of Hospital Foch. Comparison of all patients scheduled, postponed and operated during the first COVID lockdown (March 14, to May 11, 2020) versus the same period in 2019. Postponed surgeries were classified into 4 scheduling interval categories according to the Society of Gynecology Oncology (SGO) recommendations: urgent (without delay), semi-urgent (1-4 weeks), non-urgent (>4-12 weeks) and elective (>3 months) and evaluated to determine whether COVID-19-related delays of surgeries fell within guidelines. The potential "loss of chance" or medical risk associated with postponed surgeries was estimated according to a composite criterion including death, aggravation of expected tumor stages/grades in cancers, increase in surgical complexity compared to that initially planned, need for preoperative transfusions, start of morphine consumption during preoperative treatment for opiate-naive patients, additional hospitalization or consultations in emergency room and delay in treatment when surgery was urgent. RESULTS: During the 2020 French COVID lockdown, 61 patients had a surgical procedure and 114 were postponed; in the comparator 2019 group, 232 patients underwent surgical procedures, indicating an overall decrease of 65% of activity. Analysis of differences between the two years revealed a reduction of 64% in emergency procedures, 90% of functional pathologies, and 13% of cancers. According to SGO guidelines, the only type of surgical procedures that had excessive delay was the semi-urgent group, where time to surgery was 6.7 weeks [range 5.4-10 weeks] instead of the recommended interval of 1-4 weeks. Among postponed surgeries there were 10 patients (8.7%) with a potential "loss of chance" according to the composite criteria, all included in the semi-urgent group. CONCLUSION: The COVID 19 pandemic was responsible for a significant decrease of activity in the surgical department of Hospital Foch. Difficulty of rescheduling surgeries was responsible for an increased delay in semi-urgent operations. In almost 9% of postponed surgeries, there was a potential "loss of chance", which likely represents only the tip of iceberg of collateral damages due to COVID 19 pandemic in this surgical unit. These data show the importance of continuing to treat pathologies requiring urgent or semi-urgent surgery during pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/trends , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Female , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Hospital Departments/organization & administration , Hospital Departments/trends , Humans , Middle Aged , Paris , Retrospective Studies
11.
Dig Liver Dis ; 54(1): 10-18, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a dramatic impact on cancer diagnosis and treatment. Most patients newly diagnosed with digestive system cancer are aged 65 and over. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, observational, multicentre cohort study based on prospectively collected electronic health records. All adults aged 65 or over and having been newly treated for a digestive system cancer between January 2018 until August 2020 were enroled. RESULTS: Data on 7882 patients were analysed. The first COVID-19 lockdown period led to a 42.4% decrease in newly treated digestive system cancers, and the post-lockdown period was associated with a 17% decrease. The decrease in newly treated digestive system cancer did not differ as a function of age, sex, comorbidities, primary tumour site, and disease stage. The proportion of patients admitted to an emergency department increased during the lockdown period. We do not observe a higher 3-month mortality rate in 2020, relative to the corresponding calendar periods in 2018 and 2019. CONCLUSION: To avoid a decrease in newly treated cancers during future lockdown periods, access to healthcare will have to be modified. Although 3-month mortality did not increase in any of the patient subgroups, the 2020 cohort must be followed up for long-term mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Digestive System Neoplasms/epidemiology , Digestive System Neoplasms/therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Paris/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 355, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was frequently used to treat patients with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-associated acute respiratory distress (ARDS) during the initial outbreak. Care of COVID-19 patients evolved markedly during the second part of 2020. Our objective was to compare the characteristics and outcomes of patients who received ECMO for severe COVID-19 ARDS before or after July 1, 2020. METHODS: We included consecutive adults diagnosed with COVID-19 in Paris-Sorbonne University Hospital Network ICUs, who received ECMO for severe ARDS until January 28, 2021. Characteristics and survival probabilities over time were estimated during the first and second waves. Pre-ECMO risk factors predicting 90-day mortality were assessed using multivariate Cox regression. RESULTS: Characteristics of the 88 and 71 patients admitted, respectively, before and after July 1, 2020, were comparable except for older age, more frequent use of dexamethasone (18% vs. 82%), high-flow nasal oxygenation (19% vs. 82%) and/or non-invasive ventilation (7% vs. 37%) after July 1. Respective estimated probabilities (95% confidence intervals) of 90-day mortality were 36% (27-47%) and 48% (37-60%) during the first and the second periods. After adjusting for confounders, probability of 90-day mortality was significantly higher for patients treated after July 1 (HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.02-5.07). ECMO-related complications did not differ between study periods. CONCLUSIONS: 90-day mortality of ECMO-supported COVID-19-ARDS patients increased significantly after July 1, 2020, and was no longer comparable to that of non-COVID ECMO-treated patients. Failure of prolonged non-invasive oxygenation strategies before intubation and increased lung damage may partly explain this outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Paris/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
15.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(12): 1426-1439, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442081

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to an unparalleled influx of patients. Prognostic scores could help optimizing healthcare delivery, but most of them have not been comprehensively validated. We aim to externally validate existing prognostic scores for COVID-19. METHODS: We used "COVID-19 Evidence Alerts" (McMaster University) to retrieve high-quality prognostic scores predicting death or intensive care unit (ICU) transfer from routinely collected data. We studied their accuracy in a retrospective multicenter cohort of adult patients hospitalized for COVID-19 from January 2020 to April 2021 in the Greater Paris University Hospitals. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were computed for the prediction of the original outcome, 30-day in-hospital mortality and the composite of 30-day in-hospital mortality or ICU transfer. RESULTS: We included 14,343 consecutive patients, 2583 (18%) died and 5067 (35%) died or were transferred to the ICU. We examined 274 studies and found 32 scores meeting the inclusion criteria: 19 had a significantly lower AUC in our cohort than in previously published validation studies for the original outcome; 25 performed better to predict in-hospital mortality than the composite of in-hospital mortality or ICU transfer; 7 had an AUC > 0.75 to predict in-hospital mortality; 2 had an AUC > 0.70 to predict the composite outcome. CONCLUSION: Seven prognostic scores were fairly accurate to predict death in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The 4C Mortality Score and the ABCS stand out because they performed as well in our cohort and their initial validation cohort, during the first epidemic wave and subsequent waves, and in younger and older patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cohort Studies , Hospitals, University , Humans , Paris , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(11): 2389-2395, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340466

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, other respiratory illnesses decreased worldwide. This study described the consequences of public health measures on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) severe infections in France, where an interseasonal resurgence of RSV occurred recently. All patients admitted to Necker Hospital (Paris) between August 2018 and April 2021 with a diagnosis of RSV-associated acute lung respiratory infection (ALRI) were enrolled. Characteristics of subjects with RSV-associated ALRI in 2020/2021 were compared to those infected during the two previous outbreaks. Overall, 664 inpatients were diagnosed with RSV-associated ALRI: 229, 183, and 252 during the 2018/2019, 2019/2020, and 2020/2021 outbreaks, respectively. During autumn 2020, a national lockdown began in France but schools remained open. A 3-month delayed RSV epidemic occurred at the end of this lockdown. Compared to previous outbreaks, the 2020/2021 epidemics involved more children aged 6 to 11 months (25.8% versus 13.1%, p < 0.0001), but less infants aged < 6 months (41.3% versus 56.6%, p < 0.0001) and less adults (0.0 versus 2.7%, p < 0.0001). Shorter length of stay at hospital, less frequent requirement of admission to intensive care unit, use of non-invasive ventilation, and/or high-flow nasal oxygen were observed in 2020/2021 than during previous epidemics (p < 0.0001). Delayed RSV outbreak was associated with more hospitalizations for ALRI, higher age of pediatric inpatients, but milder median clinical phenotype. Reinforced public health measures (even while keeping nurseries and schools open with mandatory face masks since six years of age) could impact, at least transiently, the burden of RSV-related hospitalizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Public Health , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infection Control , Male , Pandemics , Paris/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
17.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(5): e552-e555, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339716

ABSTRACT

Cancer patients are a highly vulnerable group in the COVID-19 pandemic and it has been necessary for oncology units to adapt to this unexpected situation. We present our management of outpatients with cancer during the pandemic. We applied two major adaptations: extending the intervals between injections for maintenance therapy and protocol adaptation for patients with comorbidities. Between 17 March and 30 April 2020, 406 patients were treated in our outpatients department. Protocols were adapted for 94 (23.1%) patients. Among them, 49% had an extended interval between treatment administrations, 22.3% had modified protocols to reduce toxicity, 20.2% had therapeutic interruptions and 5.3% did not receive their treatment because of a COVID-19 infection. Overall, protocol adaptations concerned more than 20% of the patients. This pandemic was an opportunity for oncologists to re-examine the risk versus benefit balance of administering immunosuppressive treatment and highlighted that oncology daily routine should not be applied automatically.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Hospitals, University , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Outpatients , Pandemics , Paris , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 93(1): 24-31, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338876

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion rate after COVID-19 may be influenced by disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMO-SD). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the seroprevalence and the quantity of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in a cohort of patients with MS or NMO-SD. METHODS: Blood samples were collected in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between 19 February 2020 and 26 February 2021. SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity rates and Ig levels (anti-S IgG titre, anti-S IgA index, anti-N IgG index) were compared between DMTs groups. Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used to estimate the influence of DMTs and other confounding variables on SARS-CoV-2 serological outcomes. RESULTS: 119 patients (115 MS, 4 NMO, mean age: 43.0 years) were analysed. Overall, seroconversion rate was 80.6% within 5.0 (SD 3.4) months after infection. 20/21 (95.2%) patients without DMT and 66/77 (85.7%) patients on DMTs other than anti-CD20 had at least one SARS-CoV-2 Ig positivity, while this rate decreased to only 10/21 (47.6%) for patients on anti-CD20 (p<0.001). Being on anti-CD20 was associated with a decreased odd of positive serology (OR, 0.07 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.69), p=0.02) independently from time to COVID-19, total IgG level, age, sex and COVID-19 severity. Time between last anti-CD20 infusion and COVID-19 was longer (mean (SD), 3.7 (2.0) months) in seropositive patients compared with seronegative patients (mean (SD), 1.9 (1.5) months, p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 antibody response was decreased in patients with MS or NMO-SD treated with anti-CD20 therapies. Monitoring long-term risk of reinfection and specific vaccination strategies in this population may be warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04568707.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Neuromyelitis Optica/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paris , Seroepidemiologic Studies
19.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(11): 2379-2388, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338227

ABSTRACT

Nasopharyngeal sampling for nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) is the standard diagnostic test of coronavirus disease 2019. Our objectives were to assess, in real-life conditions, the diagnostic accuracy of a nasopharyngeal point-of-care antigen (Ag) test and of saliva NAAT for detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in ambulatory care. This was a prospective cohort study from 19 October through 18 December 2020 in two community COVID-19 screening centers in Paris, France. Two nasopharyngeal swabs and one saliva sample were simultaneously collected. Diagnostic accuracies of nasopharyngeal Ag testing and of three saliva NAAT methods were assessed as compared to nasopharyngeal NAAT. A total of 1452 ambulatory children and adults were included. Overall, 129/1443 (9%) participants tested positive on nasopharyngeal NAAT (102/564 [18%] in symptomatic and 27/879 [3%] in asymptomatic participants). Sensitivity was 94%, 23%, 96%, and 94% for the three different protocols of saliva NAAT and for the nasopharyngeal Ag test, respectively. Estimates of specificity were above 95% for all methods. Diagnostic accuracy was similar in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Diagnostic accuracy of nasopharyngeal Ag testing and of saliva NAAT is similar to that of nasopharyngeal NAAT, subject to compliance with specific protocols for saliva. Registration number: NCT04578509.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Specimen Handling/methods , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Paris , Point-of-Care Testing , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
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