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1.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3467-3477, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is debate as to whether there is an increased risk of COVID-19 infection in people with Parkinson's disease (PD), possibly due to associated factors. This study aimed to systematically review the factors associated with COVID-19 in people with PD. METHODS: A search was carried out in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science up to November 2020 (updated until 1 April 2021). Observational studies that analyzed factors associated with COVID-19 in people with PD were selected and revised. RESULTS: The authors included six studies (four case-controlled studies and two cross-sectional studies) in the qualitative and quantitative syntheses. The authors found that the following factors were associated with COVID-19 in people with PD: obesity (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.07-2.99, I2 : 0%), any pulmonary disease (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.17-3.15, I2 : 0%), COVID-19 contact (OR: 41.77, 95% CI: 4.77 - 365.56, I2 : 0%), vitamin D supplementation (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.30-0.83, I2 : 0%), hospitalization (OR: 11.78, 95% CI: 6.27-22.12, I2 : 0%), and death (OR: 11.23, 95% CI: 3.92-32.18, I2 : 0%). The authors did not find any significant association between COVID-19 and hypertension, diabetes, cardiopathy, cancer, any cognitive problem, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal or hepatic disease, smoking, and tremor. CONCLUSIONS: Meta-analyses were limited by the number of events and some methodological limitations. Despite this, the authors assessed the available evidence, and the results may be useful for future health policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Parkinson Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Parkinson Disease/complications , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3254-3262, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: During the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, a lockdown was imposed in Italy. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions, feelings and unmet needs of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who experienced the 2-month lockdown in a "red zone" in the northern part of Italy during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: The study had a descriptive design that used a cross-sectional online survey which included open-ended questions to elicit responses on the participant's feelings concerning their risk of contracting coronavirus, how their physical activity had changed, and their personal needs, dictated by their condition, which were not met in this pandemic period as compared to previous periods. Demographic data were analysed using descriptive frequencies, while the open-ended questions were analysed using thematic framework analysis. RESULTS: The study included 103 participants (63 men/40 women [61.17 vs. 38.83%]). Framework analysis led to the identification of four main themes: (i) fearing the risk of contracting coronavirus; (ii) reduction of physical activity; (iii) perception of the risk of not being able to access outpatient clinics or support services; and (iv) negative experiences of the important reduction in socialization. The perceptions of unmet needs appeared to be greater than the actual experience, particularly for the reduction in physical activity and the interruption of contacts with the neurologist and other specialists. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights how perceptions and actual experience shape the meaning of living with PD during the pandemic. Worth noting is the divergence between perceptions and real impact in some aspects of the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parkinson Disease , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260889, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Approximately 40-70% of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) fall each year, causing decreased activity levels and quality of life. Current fall-prevention strategies include the use of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies. To increase the accessibility of this vulnerable population, we developed a multidisciplinary telemedicine program using an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) platform. We hypothesized that the risk for falling in PD would decrease among participants receiving a multidisciplinary telemedicine intervention program added to standard office-based neurological care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of a multidisciplinary telemedicine intervention to decrease the incidence of falls in patients with PD. METHODS: Ongoing, longitudinal, randomized, single-blinded, case-control, clinical trial. We will include 76 non-demented patients with idiopathic PD with a high risk of falling and limited access to multidisciplinary care. The intervention group (n = 38) will receive multidisciplinary remote care in addition to standard medical care, and the control group (n = 38) standard medical care only. Nutrition, sarcopenia and frailty status, motor, non-motor symptoms, health-related quality of life, caregiver burden, falls, balance and gait disturbances, direct and non-medical costs will be assessed using validated rating scales. RESULTS: This study will provide a cost-effectiveness assessment of multidisciplinary telemedicine intervention for fall reduction in PD, in addition to standard neurological medical care. CONCLUSION: In this challenging initiative, we will determine whether a multidisciplinary telemedicine intervention program can reduce falls, as an alternative intervention option for PD patients with restricted access to multidisciplinary care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04694443.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Exercise Therapy/methods , Gait , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Patient Care Team/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Young Adult
4.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 145(1): 119-122, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells are expected to have a therapeutic effect on progressive neurodegenerative diseases for which there is currently no fundamental treatment. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The aim is to confirm that repeated infusion of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can be safely administered to patients with Parkinson's disease, and to investigate the effects of this as a pilot study. METHODS: Three patients with Parkinson's disease received five or six repeated infusions of ADSCs at intervals of approximately one month. Observations were based on medical examinations by a neurologist and interviews with the patient and caregivers. The severity of Parkinson's disease was assessed using the Hoehn & Yahr staging scale and Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS). RESULTS: No adverse events were observed during the observation period from the start of treatment to six months after the end of the last dose. MDS-UPDRS improved in all three patients. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated administration of Autologous ADSCs for Parkinson's disease was safe and feasible. The results of this pilot study provide insight into the value of further research.


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease , Adipose Tissue , Humans , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Pilot Projects , Stem Cells , Transplantation, Autologous
5.
Trials ; 22(1): 910, 2021 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571920

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic poses challenges for timely outcome assessment in randomized clinical trials (RCT). Our aim was to describe our remote neurocognitive testing (NCT) protocol administered by telephone in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: We studied PD patients with OSA and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score ≤ 27 participating in a RCT assessing OSA treatment impact on cognition. Trial outcomes included change in MoCA and specific cognitive domains from baseline to 3 and 6 months. With COVID19 pandemic-related restrictions, 3-month visits were converted from in-person to telephone administration with materials mailed to participants for compatible tests and retrieved by courier the same day. In exploratory analyses, we compared baseline vs. 3-month results in the control arm, which were not expected to change significantly (test-re-test), using a paired t-test and assessed agreement with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). RESULTS: Seven participants were approached and agreed to remote NCT at 3-month follow-up. Compared to the in-person NCT control arm group, they were younger (60.6 versus 70.6 years) and had a shorter disease course (3.9 versus 9.2 years). Remote NCT data were complete. The mean test-retest difference in MoCA was similar for in-person and remote NCT control-arm groups (between group difference - 0.69; 95%CI - 3.67, 2.29). Agreement was good for MOCA and varied for specific neurocognitive tests. CONCLUSION: Telephone administration of the MoCA and a modified neurocognitive battery is feasible in patients with PD and OSA. Further validation will require a larger sample size.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parkinson Disease , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Cognition , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/diagnosis , Parkinson Disease/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy
6.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(2): 598-608, 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545664

ABSTRACT

Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically increased the use of telehealth. Prior studies of telehealth clinical swallowing evaluations provide positive evidence for telemanagement of swallowing. However, the reliability of these measures in clinical practice, as opposed to well-controlled research conditions, remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the reliability of outcome measures derived from clinical swallowing tele-evaluations in real-world clinical practice (e.g., variability in devices and Internet connectivity, lack of in-person clinician assistance, or remote patient/caregiver training). Method Seven raters asynchronously judged clinical swallowing tele-evaluations of 12 movement disorders patients. Outcomes included the Timed Water Swallow Test (TWST), Test of Masticating and Swallowing Solids (TOMASS), and common observations of oral intake. Statistical analyses were performed to examine inter- and intrarater reliability, as well as qualitative analyses exploring patient and clinician-specific factors impacting reliability. Results Forty-four trials were included for reliability analyses. All rater dyads demonstrated "good" to "excellent" interrater reliability for measures of the TWST (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs] ≥ .93) and observations of oral intake (≥ 77% agreement). The majority of TOMASS outcomes demonstrated "good" to "excellent" interrater reliability (ICCs ≥ .84), with the exception of the number of bites (ICCs = .43-.99) and swallows (ICCs = .21-.85). Immediate and delayed intrarater reliability were "excellent" for most raters across all tasks, ranging between ICCs of .63 and 1.00. Exploratory factors potentially impacting reliability included infrequent instances of suboptimal video quality, reduced camera stability, camera distance, and obstruction of the patient's mouth during tasks. Conclusions Subjective observations of oral intake and objective measures taken from the TWST and the TOMASS can be reliably measured via telehealth in clinical practice. Our results provide support for the feasibility and reliability of telehealth for outpatient clinical swallowing evaluations during COVID-19 and beyond. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.13661378.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Deglutition/physiology , Speech-Language Pathology/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Female , Humans , Lewy Body Disease/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple System Atrophy/complications , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/complications , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/standards
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(11): e29554, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Masked face is a characteristic clinical manifestation of Parkinson disease (PD), but subjective evaluations from different clinicians often show low consistency owing to a lack of accurate detection technology. Hence, it is of great significance to develop methods to make monitoring easier and more accessible. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to develop a markerless 2D video, facial feature recognition-based, artificial intelligence (AI) model to assess facial features of PD patients and investigate how AI could help neurologists improve the performance of early PD diagnosis. METHODS: We collected 140 videos of facial expressions from 70 PD patients and 70 matched controls from 3 hospitals using a single 2D video camera. We developed and tested an AI model that performs masked face recognition of PD patients based on the acquisition and evaluation of facial features including geometric and texture features. Random forest, support vector machines, and k-nearest neighbor were used to train the model. The diagnostic performance of the AI model was compared with that of 5 neurologists. RESULTS: The experimental results showed that our AI models can achieve feasible and effective facial feature recognition ability to assist with PD diagnosis. The accuracy of PD diagnosis can reach 83% using geometric features. And with the model trained by random forest, the accuracy of texture features is up to 86%. When these 2 features are combined, an F1 value of 88% can be reached, where the random forest algorithm is used. Further, the facial features of patients with PD were not associated with the motor and nonmotor symptoms of PD. CONCLUSIONS: PD patients commonly exhibit masked facial features. Videos of a facial feature recognition-based AI model can provide a valuable tool to assist with PD diagnosis and the potential of realizing remote monitoring of the patient's condition, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Facial Recognition , Parkinson Disease , Artificial Intelligence , Humans , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 121(9): 152-156, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485583

ABSTRACT

The article provides an overview of the data on the impact of Parkinson's disease on the risk of infection and the course of COVID-19, and also assesses the possible pathogenetic relationship between the SARS-CoV-2 virus, COVID-19 and PD. By penetrating the central nervous system, SARS-CoV-2 can cause not only neurological symptoms, but also exacerbate the course of an existing neurological disease. The impact of Parkinson's disease on the risk of infection and the course of COVID-19 is controversial. However, a number of authors support the opinion that PD is an anti-risk factor for the development of COVID-19, which is associated both with the pathogenesis of the disease and with the used antiparkinsonian drugs, in particular amantadines. There are no clear data indicating higher risk of infection and higher severity of COVID-19 in patients with PD. On the contrary, experimental and clinical data suggest a possible modifying role of α-synuclein and antiparkinsonian drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parkinson Disease , Antiparkinson Agents/adverse effects , Humans , Parkinson Disease/complications , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , alpha-Synuclein
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(9): e29210, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Apathy is a frequent and underrecognized neurological disorder symptom. Reduced goal-directed behavior caused by apathy is associated with poor outcomes for older adults in residential aged care. Recommended nonpharmacological treatments include person-centered therapy using information and communication technology. Virtual reality (VR) in the form of head-mounted displays (HMDs) is a fully immersive technology that provides access to a wide range of freely available content. The use of VR as a therapy tool has demonstrated promise in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety. In addition, VR has been used to improve conditions including depression, anxiety, cognitive function, and balance in older adults with memory deficits, Alzheimer disease, and Parkinson disease. Research using VR for the symptoms of apathy in older adults living in residential aged care facilities is limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine whether using HMDs as a tool for reminiscence therapy improves the symptoms of apathy compared with using a laptop computer and physical items with older adults living in residential aged care. METHODS: In this multisite trial, 43 participants were allocated to one of three groups: reminiscence therapy intervention using VR in the form of HMDs, reminiscence therapy using a laptop computer supplemented by physical items if required (active control), and a usual care (passive control) group. The primary outcome was apathy, and the secondary outcomes included cognition and depression. The side effects of using HMDs were also measured in the VR group. RESULTS: Mixed model analyses revealed no significant group interaction over time in outcomes between the VR and laptop groups (estimate=-2.24, SE 1.89; t40=-1.18; P=.24). Pooled apathy scores in the two intervention groups compared with the passive control group also revealed no significant group interaction over time (estimate=-0.26, SE 1.66; t40=-0.16; P=.88). There were no significant secondary outcomes. Most participants in the VR group stated that they would prefer to watch content in VR than on a flat screen (Χ22=11.2; P=.004), side effects from HMD use were negligible to minimal according to the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire cutoff scores. CONCLUSIONS: Although there were no significant results in outcome measures, this study found that participants engaged in the research and enjoyed the process of reminiscing using both forms of technology. It was found that VR can be implemented in an aged care setting with correct protocols in place. Providing residents in aged care with a choice of technology may assist in increasing participation in activities. We cannot dismiss the importance of immediate effects while the therapy was in progress, and this is an avenue for future research. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12619001510134; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=378564. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-046030.


Subject(s)
Apathy , Parkinson Disease , Virtual Reality , Aged , Australia , Cognition , Humans
10.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 12(20): 3785-3794, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461963

ABSTRACT

Neural precursor cells (NPCs), derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), with their unique ability to generate multiple neuronal and glial cell types are extremely useful for understanding biological mechanisms in normal and diseased states. However, generation of specific neuronal subtypes (mature) from NPCs in large numbers adequate for cell therapy is challenging due to lack of a thorough understanding of the cues that govern their differentiation. Interestingly, neural stem cells (NSCs) themselves are in consideration for therapy given their potency to form different neural cell types, release of trophic factors, and immunomodulatory effects that confer neuroprotection. With the recent COVID-19 outbreak and its accompanying neurological indications, the immunomodulatory role of NSCs may gain additional significance in the prevention of disease progression in vulnerable populations. In this regard, small-molecule mediated NPC generation from PSCs via NSC formation has become an important strategy that ensures consistency and robustness of the process. The development of the mammalian brain occurs along the rostro-caudal axis, and the establishment of anterior identity is an early event. Wnt signaling, along with fibroblast growth factor and retinoic acid, acts as a caudalization signal. Further, the increasing amount of epigenetic data available from human fetal brain development has enhanced both our understanding of and ability to experimentally manipulate these developmental regulatory programs in vitro. However, the impact on homing and engraftment after transplantation and subsequently on therapeutic efficacy of NPCs based on their derivation strategy is not yet clear. Another formidable challenge in cell replacement therapy for neurodegenerative disorders is the mode of delivery. In this Perspective, we discuss these core ideas with insights from our preliminary studies exploring the role of PSC-derived NPCs in rat models of MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease following intranasal injections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neural Stem Cells , Parkinson Disease , Animals , Humans , Neurons , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Rats , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403544

ABSTRACT

The risk of Parkinson's disease increases with age. However, the etiology of the illness remains obscure. It appears highly likely that the neurodegenerative processes involve an array of elements that influence each other. In addition, genetic, endogenous, or exogenous toxins need to be considered as viable partners to the cellular degeneration. There is compelling evidence that indicate the key involvement of modified α-synuclein (Lewy bodies) at the very core of the pathogenesis of the disease. The accumulation of misfolded α-synuclein may be a consequence of some genetic defect or/and a failure of the protein clearance system. Importantly, α-synuclein pathology appears to be a common denominator for many cellular deleterious events such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, dopamine synaptic dysregulation, iron dyshomeostasis, and neuroinflammation. These factors probably employ a common apoptotic/or autophagic route in the final stages to execute cell death. The misfolded α-synuclein inclusions skillfully trigger or navigate these processes and thus amplify the dopamine neuron fatalities. Although the process of neuroinflammation may represent a secondary event, nevertheless, it executes a fundamental role in neurodegeneration. Some viral infections produce parkinsonism and exhibit similar characteristic neuropathological changes such as a modest brain dopamine deficit and α-synuclein pathology. Thus, viral infections may heighten the risk of developing PD. Alternatively, α-synuclein pathology may induce a dysfunctional immune system. Thus, sporadic Parkinson's disease is caused by multifactorial trigger factors and metabolic disturbances, which need to be considered for the development of potential drugs in the disorder.


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Substantia Nigra/metabolism , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism , Animals , Dopaminergic Neurons/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Parkinson Disease/genetics , Parkinson Disease/pathology , Risk Factors
12.
Infect Genet Evol ; 89: 104733, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386288

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A recent study on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the host's transcriptome indicated the perturbation of several pathways associated with neurodegeneration, including but not limited to Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine overlapping pathways between iPD vs. Controls and those associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) were performed on gene expression data from tissues donated by idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients (iPD). These included dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV), substantia nigra (SN), whole blood (WB) and peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples (PBMC). Enriched pathways detected by GSEA results were subsequently compared to (a) those retrieved by two independently constructed SARS-CoV-2 - host interactomes, as well as (b) previously published pathway data. For all analyses, a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Analysis of iPD data revealed multiple immune response and viral parasitism -related pathways (FDR < 0.05). Head-to-head comparisons as well as confirmatory analyses revealed several pathways and gene ontology (GO) terms overlapping between iPD tissues and SARS-CoV-2 induced transcriptomic changes: "Parkinson's Disease" and "Huntington's Disease" (overlapping in DMNV, ION, SN, and WB; FDR < 0.05), "NAFLD" (overlapping in DMNV, SN, PBMC and WB; FDR < 0.05), mRNA surveillance and proteostasis pathways (All datasets; FDR < 0.5), among others. CONCLUSION: The overlap noted in this comparative transcriptomic study outlines the potential contribution of human coronaviruses in the pathogenesis of iPD. Furthermore, given SARS-CoV-2's neuroinvasive potential, closer scrutiny is warranted towards its contribution in the long-term development of neurodegenerative disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Parkinson Disease/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transcriptome , Case-Control Studies , Gene Expression , Gene Ontology , Humans , Parkinson Disease/genetics
14.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 332, 2021 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The consequences of strict COVID-19 mobility restrictions on motor/non-motor features in Parkinson's disease (PD) have not been systematically studied but worse mobility and quality of life have been reported. To elucidate this question, 12 mild to moderate PD patients were assessed in March 2020 before and after two months of isolation as part of a clinical study that had to be interrupted due to the pandemic and the implementation of COVID19 mobility restrictions. METHODS: Twelve patients were systematically evaluated before and after the lockdown period as part of a larger cohort that previously underwent thermal water rehabilitation. Clinical outcomes were the Body Mass index, the Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test, the MDS-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III, the 6 Minute Walking Test and the New Freezing of Gait Questionnaire. Global cognition was evaluated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale. The impact of COVID-19 restrictions on quality of life and functional independence was evaluated with The Parkinson's disease Quality of life (PDQ-39), the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living questionnaires (IADL) and the Parkinson's disease cognitive functional rating scales (PD-CFRS). RESULTS: After two months of isolation the Mini-BESTest score worsened (p=0.005), and four patients reported one or more falls during the lockdown. BMI increased (p=0.031) while the remaining clinical variables including quality of life did not change. CONCLUSION: We observed moderate worsening at Mini-BESTest, greater risk of falls and increased body weight as consequence of prolonged immobility. We believe negative effects were partially softened since patients were in contact with our multidisciplinary team during the lockdown and had previously received training to respond to the needs of this emergency isolation. These findings highligh the importnace of patient-centered interventions in PD management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gait Disorders, Neurologic , Mobility Limitation , Parkinson Disease , Accidental Falls , Activities of Daily Living , Communicable Disease Control , Gait Disorders, Neurologic/etiology , Humans , Male , Parkinson Disease/complications , Quality of Life , Risk , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Public Health ; 199: 77-86, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377816

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic caused countries across the globe to impose restrictions to slow the spread of the virus, with people instructed to stay at home and reduce contact with others. This reduction in social contact has the potential to negatively impact mental health and well-being. The restrictions are particularly concerning for people with existing chronic illnesses such as Parkinson's disease, who may be especially affected by concerns about the pandemic and associated reduction of social contact. The aim of this review was to synthesise published literature on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the social and psychological well-being of people with Parkinson's disease. STUDY DESIGN: The design of this study is a scoping review. METHODS: We searched five electronic databases for English language articles containing primary data on this topic. RESULTS: Thirty-one relevant studies were found and included in the review. Six main themes were identified: impact of the pandemic on physical and mental health; COVID-19 concerns; access to health care; impact on daily and social activities; impact on physical activity and impact on caregivers. Levels of perceived risk of COVID-19 differed across studies, but most participants had adopted preventive measures such as staying at home and reducing social contacts. Participants in many studies reported a discontinuation of regular healthcare appointments and physiotherapy, as well as concerns about being able to obtain medication. Loss of daily activities and social support was noted by many participants. There was mixed evidence on the impact of the pandemic on physical exercise, with some studies finding no change in physical activity and others reporting a reduction; generally, participants with reduced physical activity had poorer mental health and greater worsening of symptoms. Caregivers of people with Parkinson's disease were more likely to be negatively affected by the pandemic if they cared for people with complex needs such as additional mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had negative effects on the physical and mental health of people with Parkinson's disease, perhaps due to disruption of healthcare services, loss of usual activities and supports and reduction in physical activity. We make recommendations for policy, practice and future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parkinson Disease , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 91: 66-76, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated the social isolation of the population and the rapid implementation of remote care for patients with neurodegenerative diseases. The objective of this study was to explore the perceived impact of confinement in patients with Parkinson's disease and document the effects of gender and living environment. METHODS: We recruited two cohorts from the Canadian provinces of Québec and Alberta, which differed in the dynamics of COVID-19 spreading at the time of the study, and administered a questionnaire on the perceived effects of confinement on daily living and disease management. RESULTS: The data reveals that approximately half of the patients experienced a change in one or more clinical symptoms, with differences observed between gender (e.g. day-to-day changes in slowness in men, aggravated headaches in women) and geographic location (e.g. increased depression in Alberta but reduced sleep quality in Québec). Furthermore, participants identifying as women or living in Alberta implemented more frequently home or online exercise. Lastly, high levels of satisfaction with phone or video consultations did not translate into a sustained interest to pursue this mode of healthcare. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that COVID-19-related confinement affected Parkinson's disease manifestation and management. Patients also reported varying levels of interest to continue remote care. A number of differences reported in our study were seemingly related to gender and living environment.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19 , Exercise , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Social Isolation , Telemedicine , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Alberta , Canada , Cohort Studies , Disease Management , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Parkinson Disease/psychology , Quebec , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
17.
Curr Neurovasc Res ; 18(1): 162-168, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Robust evidence has described that Parkinson´s disease (PD) is associated with an increased risk for developing epileptic seizures. In fact, an interplay between PD and epilepsy has been of interest for many years. An emerging hypothesis is that inflammation could link both diseases. OBJECTIVE: Bearing in mind the experience of our group in the field of Ca2+/cAMP signalling pathways, this article discussed, beyond inflammation, the role of these signalling pathways in this link between PD and epilepsy. METHODS: Publications involving Ca2+/cAMP signalling pathways, PD, and epilepsy (alone or combined) were collected by searching PubMed and EMBASE. RESULTS: The comprehension of the interplay between PD and epilepsy could improve the drug therapy. In addition, a Ca2+ signalling dyshomeostasis due to Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an emerging and rapidly evolving situation, has been reported. CONCLUSION: Thus, this article also debated recent findings about therapeutics involving Ca2+ channel blockers for preventing Ca2+ signalling dyshomeostasis due to COVID-19, including the correlation among COVID-19, epilepsy, and PD.


Subject(s)
Calcium Signaling , Cyclic AMP , Epilepsy/complications , Inflammation/complications , Parkinson Disease/complications , Signal Transduction , COVID-19/complications , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology
18.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 326, 2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a highly prevalent neurodegenerative disease whose incidence is increasing with an aging population. One of the most serious manifestations of PD is gait instability, leading to falls and subsequent complications that can be debilitating, even fatal. Boxing therapy (BT) uses gait and balance exercises to improve ambulation in people with PD, though its efficacy has not yet been fully proven. METHODS: In the current longitudinal observational study, 98 participants with idiopathic PD underwent twice-weekly BT sessions. Primary outcome was self-reported falls per month; secondary outcomes were quantitative and semi-quantitative gait and balance performance evaluations. Statistical methods included segmented generalized estimating equation with an independent correlation structure, binomial distribution, and log link. RESULTS: The average number of self-reported falls per month per participant decreased by 87%, from 0.86 ± 3.58 prior to BT, to 0.11 ± 0.26 during BT. During the lockdown imposed by COVID-19, this increased to 0.26 ± 0.48 falls per month. Females and those > 65 years old reported the greatest increase in falls during the lockdown period. Post-lockdown resumption of BT resulted in another decline in falls, to 0.14 ± 0.33. Quantitative performance metrics, including standing from a seated position and standing on one leg, largely mirrored the pattern of falls pre-and post-lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: BT may be an effective option for many PD patients.


Subject(s)
Boxing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise Therapy , Parkinson Disease/psychology , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Gait , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Postural Balance
20.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(9): 837-839, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367091

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 2019 might have an impact on patients with Parkinson disease because of the neuroinvasive potential. Herein, we report the case of a patient with Parkinson disease who developed severe and prolonged oropharyngeal dysphagia after a coronavirus disease 2019 infection. A 73-yr-old male patient with Parkinson disease was diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 and admitted to a tertiary care hospital. Before hospitalization, he was assessed at Hoehn and Yahr stage 4 and showed no symptoms of dysphagia. After admission, the patient gradually recovered; however, he was fed through a nasogastric tube. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study revealed a severe oropharyngeal dysphagia with a severely delayed oral phase. Therefore, he underwent percutaneous gastrostomy tube insertion. After discharge, although he received swallowing therapy for 4 mos, he still had severe dysphagia, which made him dependent on enteral feeding. We speculate that the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on dopaminergic and nondopaminergic mechanisms could lead to the development of dysphagia in this patient. The present case suggests that clinicians must have a high index of suspicion without dismissing the possibility of dysphagia and subsequent aspiration pneumonia in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with Parkinson disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Deglutition Disorders/virology , Parkinson Disease/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Parkinson Disease/virology
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