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1.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403544

ABSTRACT

The risk of Parkinson's disease increases with age. However, the etiology of the illness remains obscure. It appears highly likely that the neurodegenerative processes involve an array of elements that influence each other. In addition, genetic, endogenous, or exogenous toxins need to be considered as viable partners to the cellular degeneration. There is compelling evidence that indicate the key involvement of modified α-synuclein (Lewy bodies) at the very core of the pathogenesis of the disease. The accumulation of misfolded α-synuclein may be a consequence of some genetic defect or/and a failure of the protein clearance system. Importantly, α-synuclein pathology appears to be a common denominator for many cellular deleterious events such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, dopamine synaptic dysregulation, iron dyshomeostasis, and neuroinflammation. These factors probably employ a common apoptotic/or autophagic route in the final stages to execute cell death. The misfolded α-synuclein inclusions skillfully trigger or navigate these processes and thus amplify the dopamine neuron fatalities. Although the process of neuroinflammation may represent a secondary event, nevertheless, it executes a fundamental role in neurodegeneration. Some viral infections produce parkinsonism and exhibit similar characteristic neuropathological changes such as a modest brain dopamine deficit and α-synuclein pathology. Thus, viral infections may heighten the risk of developing PD. Alternatively, α-synuclein pathology may induce a dysfunctional immune system. Thus, sporadic Parkinson's disease is caused by multifactorial trigger factors and metabolic disturbances, which need to be considered for the development of potential drugs in the disorder.


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Substantia Nigra/metabolism , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism , Animals , Dopaminergic Neurons/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Parkinson Disease/genetics , Parkinson Disease/pathology , Risk Factors
2.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(10): 5356-5368, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326854

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of novel coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has made global chaos for normal human living. Despite common COVID-19 symptoms, variability in clinical phenotypes was reported worldwide. Reports on SARS-CoV-2 suggest causing neurological manifestation. In addition, the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 in patients with neurodegenerative diseases and its complexity are largely unclear. Here, we aimed to demonstrate the possible transport of exosome from SARS-CoV-2-infected lungs to the brain regions associated with neurodegenerative diseases using multiple transcriptome datasets of SARS-CoV-2-infected lungs, RNA profiles from lung exosome, and gene expression profiles of the human brain. Upon transport, the transcription factors localized in the exosome regulate genes at lateral substantia nigra, medial substantia nigra, and superior frontal gyrus regions of Parkinson's disease (PD) and frontal cortex, hippocampus, and temporal cortex of Alzheimer's disease (AD). On SARS-CoV-2 infection, BCL3, JUND, MXD1, IRF2, IRF9, and STAT1 transcription factors in the exosomes influence the neuronal gene regulatory network and accelerate neurodegeneration. STAT1 transcription factor regulates 64 PD genes at lateral substantia nigra, 65 at superior frontal gyrus, and 19 at medial substantia nigra. Similarly, in AD, STAT1 regulates 74 AD genes at the temporal cortex, 40 genes at the hippocampus, and 16 genes at the frontal cortex. We further demonstrate that dysregulated neuronal genes showed involvement in immune response, signal transduction, apoptosis, and stress response process. In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 may dysregulate neuronal gene regulatory network through exosomes that attenuate disease severity of neurodegeneration.


Subject(s)
Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Databases, Factual , Exosomes/genetics , Humans , Parkinson Disease/genetics , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Transcriptome
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295859

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative motor disorder characterized by selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of the midbrain, depletion of dopamine (DA), and impaired nigrostriatal pathway. The pathological hallmark of PD includes the aggregation and accumulation α-synuclein (α-SYN). Although the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of PD are still unknown, the activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs), mainly TLR4 and subsequent neuroinflammatory immune response, seem to play a significant role. Mounting evidence suggests that viral infection can concur with the precipitation of PD or parkinsonism. The recently identified coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of ongoing pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), responsible for 160 million cases that led to the death of more than three million individuals worldwide. Studies have reported that many patients with COVID-19 display several neurological manifestations, including acute cerebrovascular diseases, conscious disturbance, and typical motor and non-motor symptoms accompanying PD. In this review, the neurotropic potential of SARS-CoV-2 and its possible involvement in the pathogenesis of PD are discussed. Specifically, the involvement of the TLR4 signaling pathway in mediating the virus entry, as well as the massive immune and inflammatory response in COVID-19 patients is explored. The binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein to TLR4 and the possible interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and α-SYN as contributing factors to neuronal death are also considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Parkinson Disease/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/physiology
4.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 96: 251-310, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240122

ABSTRACT

Since the discovery of manifest Zn deficiency in 1961, the increasing number of studies demonstrated the association between altered Zn status and multiple diseases. In this chapter, we provide a review of the most recent advances on the role of Zn in health and disease (2010-20), with a special focus on the role of Zn in neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, diabetes and obesity, male and female reproduction, as well as COVID-19. In parallel with the revealed tight association between ASD risk and severity and Zn status, the particular mechanisms linking Zn2+ and ASD pathogenesis like modulation of synaptic plasticity through ProSAP/Shank scaffold, neurotransmitter metabolism, and gut microbiota, have been elucidated. The increasing body of data indicate the potential involvement of Zn2+ metabolism in neurodegeneration. Systemic Zn levels in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease were found to be reduced, whereas its sequestration in brain may result in modulation of amyloid ß and α-synuclein processing with subsequent toxic effects. Zn2+ was shown to possess adipotropic effects through the role of zinc transporters, zinc finger proteins, and Zn-α2-glycoprotein in adipose tissue physiology, underlying its particular role in pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. Recent findings also contribute to further understanding of the role of Zn2+ in spermatogenesis and sperm functioning, as well as oocyte development and fertilization. Finally, Zn2+ was shown to be the potential adjuvant therapy in management of novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19), underlining the perspectives of zinc in management of old and new threats.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Reproduction , Zinc/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/metabolism , Nutritional Status , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Zinc/deficiency , Zinc/therapeutic use
5.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227070

ABSTRACT

Extensive extrapulmonary damages in a dozen of organs/systems, including the central nervous system (CNS), are reported in patients of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Three cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been reported as a direct consequence of COVID-19. In spite of the scarce data for establishing a definitive link between COVID-19 and PD, some hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cases reported. They, however, do not fit well with the clinical findings reported for COVID-19 patients, in general, and for the PD cases reported, in particular. Given the importance of this potential connection, we present here a molecular-level mechanistic hypothesis that explains well these findings and will serve to explore the potential CNS damage in COVID-19 patients. The model explaining the cascade effects from COVID-19 to CNS is developed by using bioinformatic tools. It includes the post-translational modification of host proteins in the lungs by viral proteins, the transport of modified host proteins via exosomes out the lungs, and the disruption of protein-protein interaction in the CNS by these modified host proteins. Our hypothesis is supported by finding 44 proteins significantly expressed in the CNS which are associated with PD and whose interactions can be perturbed by 24 host proteins significantly expressed in the lungs. These 24 perturbators are found to interact with viral proteins and to form part of the cargoes of exosomes in human tissues. The joint set of perturbators and PD-vulnerable proteins form a tightly connected network with significantly more connections than expected by selecting a random cluster of proteins of similar size from the human proteome. The molecular-level mechanistic hypothesis presented here provides several routes for the cascading of effects from the lungs of COVID-19 patients to PD. In particular, the disruption of autophagy/ubiquitination processes appears as an important mechanism that triggers the generation of large amounts of exosomes containing perturbators in their cargo, which would insult several PD-vulnerable proteins, potentially triggering Parkinsonism in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Parkinson Disease, Secondary/etiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Central Nervous System/virology , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Models, Theoretical , Parkinson Disease/etiology , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/virology , Parkinson Disease, Secondary/metabolism , Parkinson Disease, Secondary/virology , Protein Interaction Maps , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Proteins/metabolism
6.
Cells ; 10(4)2021 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154291

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, intraneuronal deposition of misfolded proteins known as Lewy bodies, and chronic neuroinflammation. PD can arise from monogenic mutations, but in most cases, the etiology is unclear. Viral infection is gaining increasing attentions as a trigger of PD. In this study, we investigated whether the PD-causative 620 aspartate (D) to asparagine (N) mutation in the vacuolar protein sorting 35 ortholog (Vps35) precipitated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. We observed that ectopic expression of Vps35 significantly reduced the proliferation and release of HSV-1 virions; the D620N mutation rendered Vps35 a partial loss of such inhibitory effects. Tetherin is a host cell protein capable of restricting the spread of encapsulated viruses including HSV-1 and SARS-Cov-2, both of which are implicated in the development of parkinsonism. Compared with cells overexpressing wildtype Vps35, cells expressing mutant Vps35 with D620N had less Tetherin on cell surfaces. Real-time and static cell imaging revealed that Tetherin recycled through Vps35-positive endosomes. Expression of Vps35 with D620N reduced endosomal dynamics and frequency of motile Tetherin-containing vesicles, a sign of defective production of recycling carriers. Our study suggests that the D620N mutation in Vps35 hinders Tetherin trafficking to cell surfaces and facilitates virus spread.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow Stromal Antigen 2/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/virology , Simplexvirus/metabolism , Vesicular Transport Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Endosomes/metabolism , Humans , Mutation , Parkinson Disease/genetics , Protein Transport/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Simplexvirus/pathogenicity , Transfection , Vesicular Transport Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics
7.
Cells ; 10(2)2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106076

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, afflicting ~10 million people worldwide. Although several genes linked to PD are currently identified, PD remains primarily an idiopathic disorder. Neuronal protein α-synuclein is a major player in disease progression of both genetic and idiopathic forms of PD. However, it cannot alone explain underlying pathological processes. Recent studies demonstrate that many other risk factors can accelerate or further worsen brain dysfunction in PD patients. Several PD models, including non-mammalian eukaryotic organisms, have been developed to identify and characterize these factors. This review discusses recent findings in three PD model organisms, i.e., yeast, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans, that opened new mechanisms and identified novel contributors to this disorder. These non-mammalian models share many conserved molecular pathways and cellular processes with humans. New players affecting PD pathogenesis include previously unknown genes/proteins, novel signaling pathways, and low molecular weight substances. These findings might respond to the urgent need to discover novel drug targets for PD treatment and new biomarkers for early diagnostics of this disease. Since the study of neurodegeneration using simple eukaryotic organisms brought a huge amount of information, we include only the most recent or the most important relevant data.


Subject(s)
Animals, Genetically Modified/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Animals , Animals, Genetically Modified/genetics , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Humans
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030147

ABSTRACT

Cannabis sativa L. turned out to be a valuable source of chemical compounds of various structures, showing pharmacological activity. The most important groups of compounds include phytocannabinoids and terpenes. The pharmacological activity of Cannabis (in epilepsy, sclerosis multiplex (SM), vomiting and nausea, pain, appetite loss, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), Parkinson's disease, Tourette's syndrome, schizophrenia, glaucoma, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)), which has been proven so far, results from the affinity of these compounds predominantly for the receptors of the endocannabinoid system (the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), type two (CB2), and the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55)) but, also, for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), glycine receptors, serotonin receptors (5-HT), transient receptor potential channels (TRP), and GPR, opioid receptors. The synergism of action of phytochemicals present in Cannabis sp. raw material is also expressed in their increased bioavailability and penetration through the blood-brain barrier. This review provides an overview of phytochemistry and pharmacology of compounds present in Cannabis extracts in the context of the current knowledge about their synergistic actions and the implications of clinical use in the treatment of selected diseases.


Subject(s)
Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Cannabis/chemistry , Drug Discovery , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Terpenes/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cannabinoids/chemistry , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Drug Synergism , Endocannabinoids/metabolism , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsy/metabolism , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Receptors, Cannabinoid/metabolism , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Schizophrenia/metabolism , Terpenes/chemistry , Terpenes/therapeutic use , Tourette Syndrome/drug therapy , Tourette Syndrome/metabolism
11.
Biomolecules ; 10(8)2020 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-823584

ABSTRACT

Neurodegenerative diseases are the second most common cause of death and characterized by progressive impairments in movement or mental functioning in the central or peripheral nervous system. The prevention of neurodegenerative disorders has become an emerging public health challenge for our society. Melatonin, a pineal hormone, has various physiological functions in the brain, including regulating circadian rhythms, clearing free radicals, inhibiting biomolecular oxidation, and suppressing neuroinflammation. Cumulative evidence indicates that melatonin has a wide range of neuroprotective roles by regulating pathophysiological mechanisms and signaling pathways. Moreover, melatonin levels are decreased in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the regulation, molecular mechanisms and biological functions of melatonin in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, vascular dementia and multiple sclerosis. We also discuss the clinical application of melatonin in neurodegenerative disorders. This information will lead to a better understanding of the regulation of melatonin in the brain and provide therapeutic options for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Circadian Rhythm , Melatonin/physiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/metabolism , Animals , Circadian Rhythm/drug effects , Dementia, Vascular/metabolism , Humans , Huntington Disease/metabolism , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Parkinson Disease/metabolism
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