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1.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261833, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637628

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, US public land managers faced the challenge of catering to large increases in camping demand, while maintaining social distancing guidelines. In this paper, we use multivariate linear regression to analyze weekly changes in reservations to US Forest Service (USFS) campgrounds between 2019 and 2020. The regression models estimate the impact of local COVID infection rates, public health restrictions, and spatial spillovers from proximity to National Parks (NPs), metropolitan areas and wildfire on camping demand. Our sample includes 1,688 individual USFS campgrounds from across the contiguous US. The results illustrate the dramatic increases in camping on USFS land that occurred in the summer of 2020 and demonstrate that increases in local infection rates led to significant increases in camping nights reserved in the summer. The results also illustrate that the increase in camping nights reserved at USFS campgrounds was particularly dramatic for campgrounds located near large metropolitan areas and near NPs that saw increases in overall recreational visits. These results point to the important role that public lands played during the pandemic and can help guide public land resource allocations for campground maintenance and operation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Camping/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/virology , Camping/trends , Humans , Parks, Recreational , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seasons , United States/epidemiology
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572473

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, over half of the global population is living in urban areas. The metropolitan areas are highly populated and environmentally non-green regions on the planet. In green space regions, plants, grass, and green vegetation prevent soil erosion, absorb air pollutants, provide fresh and clean air, and minimize the burden of diseases. Presently, the entire world is facing a turmoil situation due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigates the effect of the green space environment on air pollutants particulate matter PM2.5, PM10, carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), incidence and mortality of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in environmentally highly green and less-green countries. We randomly selected 17 countries based on the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) data. The 60% of the EPI score is based on seven categories: "biodiversity and habitat, ecosystem, fisheries, climate change, pollution emissions, agriculture, and water resources". However, 40% of the score is based on four categories: "air quality, sanitation and drinking water, heavy metals, and waste management". The air pollutants and SARS-CoV-2 cases and deaths were recorded from 25 January 2020, to 11 July 2021. The air pollutants "PM2.5, PM10, CO, and O3" were recorded from the metrological websites, Air Quality Index-AQI, 2021. The COVID-19 daily cases and deaths were obtained from the World Health Organization. The result reveals that air pollutants mean values for PM2.5 110.73 ± 1.09 vs. 31.35 ± 0.29; PM10 80.43 ± 1.11 vs. 17.78 ± 0.15; CO 7.92 ± 0.14 vs. 2.35 ± 0.03 were significantly decreased (p < 0.0001) in environmentally highly green space countries compared to less-green countries. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 cases 15,713.61 ± 702.42 vs. 3445.59 ± 108.09; and deaths 297.56 ± 11.27 vs. 72.54 ± 2.61 were also significantly decreased in highly green countries compared to less-green countries. The green environment positively impacts human wellbeing. The policymakers must implement policies to keep the living areas, surroundings, towns, and cities clean and green to minimize air pollution and combat the present pandemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Cities , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Parks, Recreational , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554980

ABSTRACT

Despite the danger of the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, visits to natural tourism destinations such as national parks are continuing, though people are using less congested trails or minimizing personal contact. Given the danger from COVID-19, the purpose of our study was to use an expanded theory of planned behavior to analyze whether tourists intend to continue to visit national parks. Another purpose for our study was to compare an extant research model based on the theory of planned behavior with the extended model we developed. Frequency analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and other statistical techniques, such as correlation analysis, parsimonious fit index, and squared multiple correlations were employed according to the appropriate objectives. Additionally, the number of 351 participants joined the survey. Our study found that perception of risk of COVID-19 negatively affected attitude and perceived behavioral control in both models. Moreover, the perceived behavioral control had a positive effect on coping behavior. Given the analytical results, our study presents not only theoretical implications for understanding the behavior of those who visit national parks, but also practical implications for operation and management of national parks during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , Humans , Intention , Pandemics , Parks, Recreational , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 759444, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518579

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has alienated people from urban green spaces (UGSs) that have various health outcomes for humans. However, little is known about the influential factors of perceived health benefits and use behaviors in UGSs during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to explore the key factors that influence perceived health benefits and use behaviors in UGSs and to assess the mediating role of place attachment in relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chinese megacities. Methods: We conducted an online questionnaire survey from December 2020 to March 2021 in Guangzhou and Shenzhen, China. Six multiple regression models were constructed to investigate the main factors by which UGSs influence citizens' perceived health benefits and use behaviors. Four mediation models were established using the structural equation modeling (SEM) method to explore the mediating effect of place attachment. Results: A total of 628 questionnaires were included in the analysis. The results revealed that some UGS components (green space access, maintenance, and soundscape) significantly affected perceived health benefits for citizens (physical, mental, and social health) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conversely, use behaviors (frequency of visits, duration of visits, and activity intensity) were mainly affected by the sociodemographic context but less affected by UGS components. In addition, UGS components were found to significantly predict place attachment, which in turn influenced the perceived health benefits, frequency, and duration of visits. Conclusions: This study distinguished the key factors that affect perceived health benefits and use behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic: green space access, maintenance, soundscape, and sociodemographic characteristics. Place attachment still needs to be considered when discussing how to encourage citizens to visit UGSs during the pandemic. These findings provide implications for policymakers and landscape planners regarding design and management measures for UGSs that are conducive to coping with pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Cities , Health Status , Humans , Parks, Recreational , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt D): 112367, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509774

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected many people's psychological health. Impacts may be particularly severe among socially vulnerable populations such as college students, a group predisposed to mental health problems. Outdoor recreation and visits to greenspaces such as parks offer promising pathways for addressing the mental health challenges associated with COVID-19. During the early stages of the pandemic (March-May 2020), we surveyed 1280 college students at four large public universities across the United States (U.S.) to assess how, and why, outdoor recreation and park use changed since the emergence of COVID-19. We also measured students' self-reported levels of emotional distress (a proxy for psychological health) and assessed potential demographic and contextual correlates of distress, including county-level per capita park area and greenness, using generalized linear models. We found that 67% of students reported limiting outdoor activities and 54% reported reducing park use during the pandemic. Students who reduced their use of outdoor spaces cited structural reasons (e.g., lockdowns), concerns about viral transmission, and negative emotions that obstructed active lifestyles. Students who maintained pre-pandemic park use levels expressed a desire to be outdoors in nature, often with the explicit goal of improving mental and physical health. Emotional distress among students was widespread. Models showed higher levels of emotional distress were associated with reducing park use during the pandemic and residing in counties with a smaller area of parks per capita. This study of U.S. college students supports the value of park-based recreation as a health promotion strategy for diverse populations of young adults during a time of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Parks, Recreational , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , United States/epidemiology
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470857

ABSTRACT

In the context of increasing urbanization and associated economic, social and environmental challenges, cities have increasingly acknowledged the importance of urban parks in delivering social, economic and environmental benefits to the population. The importance has been demonstrated also during the COVID-19 pandemic that generated lockdowns and reduced the capacity of urban inhabitants in accessing such benefits. The present study aims to determine how the presence in urban parks was reflected on social media during the pandemic period of 2020. We examined Instagram posts associated with a sample of eight urban parks in Bucharest, Romania and also the entire history of Google reviews between January and August 2020. The selection of parks was made according to their size, location in Bucharest, previous reported number of visitors and profile of attractiveness. Results revealed that the peak period of the COVID-19 pandemic and the first initiation of the lockdowns strongly affected the recreation and leisure activities that people performed almost daily in the parks of Bucharest. Reviews and comments of the population were not that focused on the pandemic even after the restrictions were lifted, but they evidenced the positive and negative aspects of each park. Our results can represent a useful instrument for local administrations in determining both the flow of visitors but also their perceptions towards the endowments, landscape and most important management of urban parks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Parks, Recreational , Recreation , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463641

ABSTRACT

A growing number of policies and programmes in cities aim to increase the time people spend in nature for the health and wellbeing benefits delivered by such interactions. Yet, there is little research investigating the extent to which, and for whom, nature experiences deliver such benefits outside Europe, North America, and Australia. Here, we assessed the relationships between nature dose (frequency, duration, and intensity) and three mental wellbeing (depression, stress, and anxiety) and two physical health (high blood pressure, diabetes) outcomes in Singapore, an intensely urbanised tropical city. Our analyses accounted for individual factors, including socio-economic status, nature connection (nature relatedness), and whether people with poor health are prevented by their condition from visiting green spaces. Our results show that the association between nature dose (specifically duration) and mental wellbeing is moderated by a nature connection. Specifically, people with a stronger nature connection were less likely to be depressed, stressed, and anxious, regardless of the duration of their nature dose. For those with a weaker connection to nature, spending longer in nature was associated with being more depressed, stressed, and anxious. We did not find a relationship between nature dose and high blood pressure or diabetes. Our results highlight that the relationship between nature dose and wellbeing might vary substantially among cities.


Subject(s)
Family , Parks, Recreational , Australia , Cities , Europe , Humans
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463634

ABSTRACT

Outdoor adventure parks are highly important for contemporary society, having positive social, economic, and environmental impacts. Nevertheless, to fulfill their positive role in society, and to be economically sustainable, such parks need to nurture visitor loyalty. Drawing on previous fundamental research results that ascertain that customer satisfaction has a positive influence on customer loyalty, the objective of the current research is to explore the specific elements of outdoor adventure park visitors' satisfaction, within an applied research framework, in order to emphasize those attributes that have a significant impact on visitors' loyalty. For that, an online survey was conducted among the visitors of Arsenal Park, Romania, one of the largest adventure parks in south-eastern Europe. Data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Our results show that visitors' satisfaction with respect to the safety and equipment involved in amusement services, the ambience of the park's food and beverage facilities, and the quality of the food are the most important satisfaction constituents for enhancing visitor loyalty in the context of outdoor adventure parks. By formatively specifying the exogeneous variables of our model (in contrast with the omnipresent reflective measurements used in previous studies), and by employing the importance-performance map analysis (IPMA), we clearly emphasize those particular aspects that are under the control of outdoor adventure parks' managers, which significantly impact their visitors' loyalty, as well as the way in which managers can clearly identify those attributes that need improvements.


Subject(s)
Environment , Recreation , Parks, Recreational , Personal Satisfaction , Romania , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(10): e676-e683, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community mobility data have been used to assess adherence to non-pharmaceutical interventions and its impact on SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We assessed the association between location-specific community mobility and the reproduction number (R) of SARS-CoV-2 across UK local authorities. METHODS: In this modelling study, we linked data on community mobility from Google with data on R from 330 UK local authorities, for the period June 1, 2020, to Feb 13, 2021. Six mobility metrics are available in the Google community mobility dataset: visits to retail and recreation places, visits to grocery and pharmacy stores, visits to transit stations, visits to parks, visits to workplaces, and length of stay in residential places. For each local authority, we modelled the weekly change in R (the R ratio) per a rescaled weekly percentage change in each location-specific mobility metric relative to a pre-pandemic baseline period (Jan 3-Feb 6, 2020), with results synthesised across local authorities using a random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: On a weekly basis, increased visits to retail and recreation places were associated with a substantial increase in R (R ratio 1·053 [99·2% CI 1·041-1·065] per 15% weekly increase compared with baseline visits) as were increased visits to workplaces (R ratio 1·060 [1·046-1·074] per 10% increase compared with baseline visits). By comparison, increased visits to grocery and pharmacy stores were associated with a small but still statistically significant increase in R (R ratio 1·011 [1·005-1·017] per 5% weekly increase compared with baseline visits). Increased visits to parks were associated with a decreased R (R ratio 0·972 [0·965-0·980]), as were longer stays at residential areas (R ratio 0·952 [0·928-0·976]). Increased visits to transit stations were not associated with R nationally, but were associated with a substantial increase in R in cities. An increasing trend was observed for the first 6 weeks of 2021 in the effect of visits to retail and recreation places and workplaces on R. INTERPRETATION: Increased visits to retail and recreation places, workplaces, and transit stations in cities are important drivers of increased SARS-CoV-2 transmission; the increasing trend in the effects of these drivers in the first 6 weeks of 2021 was possibly associated with the emerging alpha (B.1.1.7) variant. These findings provide important evidence for the management of current and future mobility restrictions. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust and Data-Driven Innovation initiative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Commerce , Pandemics , Parks, Recreational , Transportation , Travel , Workplace , Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Models, Biological , Recreation , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
10.
Environ Int ; 157: 106850, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415386

ABSTRACT

Cities are centres of innovation and wealth creation, but also hotspots of air pollution and noise, heat island effects and lack of green space, which are all detrimental to human health. They are also hotspots of COVID19. COVID19 has led to a rethink of urban public space. Therefore, is it time to re-think our urban models and reduce the health burden? We provide a narrative meta-review around a number of cutting edge and visionary urban models that that may affect health and that have been reported over the past few years. New urban concepts such as the Superblocks, the low traffic neighbourhood, 15 Minute city, Car free city or a mixture of these that may go some way in reducing the health burden related to current urban and transport practices. They will reduce air pollution and noise, heat island effects and increase green space and physical activity levels. What is still lacking though is a thorough evaluation of the effectiveness and acceptability of the schemes and the impacts on not only health, but also liveability and sustainability, although they are expected to be positive. Finally, the COVID19 pandemic may accelerate these developments and stimulus funding like the EU Next Generation funding should be used to make these changes.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Cities , City Planning , Exercise , Hot Temperature , Humans , Noise , Parks, Recreational , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390624

ABSTRACT

Parks are settings for physical activity that can support the physical and mental health of children during the COVID-19 pandemic. We determined the impact of the pandemic on the use of joint-use parks outside of school hours by children in Austin, TX, United States. In autumn of 2019 and autumn of 2020 (i.e., before and during the COVID-19 pandemic), we used an adapted version of the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities to observe whether children aged 1-12 participated in physical activity (i.e., sedentary, light and moderate, vigorous) at three parks located at schools serving mostly economically disadvantaged Latinx families. In 2020, we also observed whether children maintained social distance and wore face coverings. Results of negative binomial regression modeling revealed the pandemic was associated with a 46% [95% CI: 20-63%] and 62% [95% CI: 39-76%] decrease in the number of girls and boys at parks, respectively, and a 42% [95% CI: 16-59%] and 60% [95% CI: 36-75%] decrease in the number of girls and boys engaging in physical activity, respectively (p < 0.01). In total, 60.6% of girls and 73.6% of boys were not social distancing, and 91.8% of the time no children wore masks. Interventions should be considered to safely reintroduce children to parks for health benefits during pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Parks, Recreational , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376813

ABSTRACT

Although creating a high-quality urban green space (UGS) is of considerable importance in public health, few studies have used individuals' emotions to evaluate the UGS quality. This study aims to conduct a multidimensional emotional assessment method of UGS from the perspective of spatial quality. Panoramic videos of 15 scenes in the West Lake Scenic Area were displayed to 34 participants. For each scene, 12 attributes regarding spatial quality were quantified, including perceived plant attributes, spatial structure attributes, and experiences of UGS. Then, the Self-Assessment-Manikin (SAM) scale and face recognition model were used to measure people's valence-arousal emotion values. Among all the predictors, the percentages of water and plants were the most predictive indicators of emotional responses measured by SAM scale, while the interpretation rate of the model measured by face recognition was insufficiently high. Concerning gender differences, women experienced a significantly higher valence than men. Higher percentages of water and plants, larger sizes, approximate shape index, and lower canopy densities were often related to positive emotions. Hence, designers must consider all structural attributes of green spaces, as well as enrich visual perception and provide various activities while creating a UGS. In addition, we suggest combining both physiological and psychological methods to assess emotional responses in future studies. Because the face recognition model can provide objective measurement of emotional responses, and the self-report questionnaire is much easier to administer and can be used as a supplement.


Subject(s)
Facial Recognition , Parks, Recreational , Arousal , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , Self Report
13.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256855, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376629

ABSTRACT

Although emerging studies have discussed the potential benefits of soundscape in mental restoration, few have investigated how soundscape renews and re-energizes people, especially in facing the current public challenge of the COVID-19 crisis. We established a moderated mediation model to examine the relationship of the four restorative components of soundscape: being away, compatibility, extent and fascination. The data were collected in Xixi Wetland National Park, China, before the outbreak of COVID-19 (n = 562) in October 2019 and post COVID-19 in October 2020 (n = 341). The results revealed that natural soundscapes have great restorative benefits for visitors. The inter relationships of the restorative components are moderated by the perceived stress level which show significant different before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The post-COVID-19 visitors reported a higher level of stress while natural soundscapes had greater effects on their mental restoration. The direct effects of extent and fascination as well as the mediating effects of fascination were stronger among the post-COVID-19 group. However, the path coefficient from being away to compatibility were higher in the pre-COVID-19 group. This study improves the current understanding of the interactive mechanism among the restorative components of soundscape. Knowledge about natural soundscape encourages practitioners to consider it as a guideline for the creation of sustainable environments, especially under the COVID-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Fatigue/rehabilitation , Humans , Mental Health/trends , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Parks, Recreational , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sound
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354976

ABSTRACT

This study addresses students' perceptions of using urban green spaces (UGSs) after the easing of COVID-19 lockdown in China. We questioned whether they are still mindful of the risks from the outdoor gathering, or conversely, starting to learn the restoration benefits from the green spaces. Online self-reported surveys were distributed to the Chinese students aging from 14 to 30 who study in Hunan and Jiangsu Provinces, China. We finally obtained 608 complete and valid questionnaire forms from all participants. Their intentions of visiting UGSs were investigated based on the extended theory of planned behavior model. Structural equation modeling was employed to test the hypothesized psychological model. The results have shown good estimation performance on risk perception and perceived knowledge to explain the variances in their attitudes, social norms, and perceived behavior control. Among these three endogenous variables, the perceived behavior control owns the greatest and positive influence on the behavioral intention, inferring that controllability is crucial for students to make decisions of visiting green spaces in a post-pandemic context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , China , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Parks, Recreational , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354953

ABSTRACT

The intersecting negative effects of structural racism, COVID-19, climate change, and chronic diseases disproportionately affect racial and ethnic minorities in the US and around the world. Urban populations of color are concentrated in historically redlined, segregated, disinvested, and marginalized neighborhoods with inadequate quality housing and limited access to resources, including quality greenspaces designed to support natural ecosystems and healthy outdoor activities while mitigating urban environmental challenges such as air pollution, heat island effects, combined sewer overflows and poor water quality. Disinvested urban environments thus contribute to health inequity via physical and social environmental exposures, resulting in disparities across numerous health outcomes, including COVID-19 and chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this paper, we build off an existing conceptual framework and propose another conceptual framework for the role of greenspace in contributing to resilience and health equity in the US and beyond. We argue that strategic investments in public greenspaces in urban neighborhoods impacted by long term economic disinvestment are critically needed to adapt and build resilience in communities of color, with urgency due to immediate health threats of climate change, COVID-19, and endemic disparities in chronic diseases. We suggest that equity-focused investments in public urban greenspaces are needed to reduce social inequalities, expand economic opportunities with diversity in workforce initiatives, build resilient urban ecosystems, and improve health equity. We recommend key strategies and considerations to guide this investment, drawing upon a robust compilation of scientific literature along with decades of community-based work, using strategic partnerships from multiple efforts in Milwaukee Wisconsin as examples of success.


Subject(s)
Parks, Recreational , COVID-19 , Cities , Ecosystem , Hot Temperature , Humans
16.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(5): 368-369, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298398
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 148605, 2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284514

ABSTRACT

Air pollution causes the largest death toll among environmental risks globally, but interventions to purify ambient air remain inadequate. Vegetation and green spaces have shown reductive effects on air-borne pollutants concentrations, especially of particulate matter (PM). Guidance on green space utilisation for air quality control remains scarce, however, as does its application in practise. To strengthen the foundation for research and interventions, we undertook a critical review of the state of science from a public health perspective. We used inter-disciplinary search strategies for published reviews on green spaces and air pollution in key scientific databases. Using the PRISMA checklist, we systematically identified reviews with quantitative analyses. For each of the presented PM mitigation mechanisms, we conducted additional searches focused on the most recent articles published between 2016 and early 2021. The included reviews differentiate three mitigation mechanisms of green spaces for PM: deposition, dispersion and modification. The most studied mechanism is deposition, particularly measures of mass and settling velocity of PM on plant leaves. We consolidate how green space setups differ by scale and context in their potentials to reduce peak exposures, stationary (point) or mobile (line) pollution sources, and the potentially most harmful PM components. The assessed findings suggest diverse optimisation options for green space interventions, particularly concerning plant selection, spatial setup, ventilation and maintenance - all alongside the consideration of supplementary vegetation effects like on temperature or water. Green spaces' reductive effects on air-borne PM concentrations are considerable, multi-mechanistic and varied by scale, context and vegetation characteristics. Such effect-modifying factors must be considered when rethinking public space design, as accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Weak linkages amid involved disciplines motivate the development of a research framework to strengthen health-oriented guidance. We conclude on an urgent need for an integrated and risk-based approach to PM mitigation through green space interventions.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/prevention & control , City Planning , Humans , Pandemics , Parks, Recreational , Particulate Matter/analysis , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(13)2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282505

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly influenced society in the past few years. Park accessibility and social distancing are considered important under the threat of a long-term epidemic. However, measures that can maintain park accessibility and diminish virus spreading synchronously have been seldom studied before, which may threaten public health in all major urban parks globally. This paper proposed a methodology based on an agent-based model to analyze capacities for parks by simulating park visitor behaviors when they all are social distancing. The model was derived from historical visitor data and realistic visitor behaviors in three park settings. Then, park capacities of varied contact conditions, different park policies, and layout adjustments were analyzed. First, congestions caused by social distancing without proper visitor control are found inside all parks. Second, 85 to 3972 square meters per person is predicted as a safe space in different parks. Third, the current results can be easily adjusted according to various concerns regarding infection distance and rate. Finally, it can be inferred that information provisions are more effective than space design adjustments and mandatory measures. The results can guide park managers and those who plan and design park settings. They are also helpful in improving knowledge of the mechanisms behind visitor behaviors. Moreover, these findings can be tested and verified in a variety of public spaces with many other contact-based illnesses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parks, Recreational , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Recreation , SARS-CoV-2 , Systems Analysis
20.
Health Place ; 70: 102606, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272426

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the association between the frequency of use of urban green spaces (UGS) and the subjective well-being (SWB) of Mexico City's residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted an online survey (N = 1954) regarding individuals' perceptions and use of UGS and their SWB, evaluated through the short version of the Warwick-Edinburgh mental well-being scale. Multilevel mixed-effects regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between the frequency of UGS use and SWB, including individual and municipal level characteristics as covariates. Our results suggest that respondents who used UGS once or more per week during the pandemic reported higher SWB scores (8.7%) than those with zero visits. These findings have public policy implications that could enhance the role of UGS in urban environments during times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Parks, Recreational , Adult , Aged , Cities , Humans , Internet , Mexico , Middle Aged , Parks, Recreational/supply & distribution , Safety , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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