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1.
Pharm Res ; 39(3): 541-551, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777764

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Intranasally administered unfractionated heparin (UFH) and other sulfated polysaccharides are potential prophylactics for COVID-19. The purpose of this research was to measure the safety and pharmacokinetics of clearance of intranasally administered UFH solution from the nasal cavity. METHODS: Double-blinded daily intranasal dosing in C57Bl6 mice with four doses (60 ng to 60 µg) of UFH was carried out for fourteen consecutive days, with both blood coagulation measurements and subject adverse event monitoring. The pharmacokinetics of fluorescent-labeled UFH clearance from the nasal cavity were measured in mice by in vivo imaging. Intranasal UFH at 2000 U/day solution with nasal spray device was tested for safety in a small number of healthy human subjects. RESULTS: UFH showed no evidence of toxicity in mice at any dose measured. No significant changes were observed in activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), platelet count, or frequency of minor irritant events over vehicle-only control. Human subjects showed no significant changes in aPTT time, international normalized ratio (INR), or platelet count over baseline measurements. No serious adverse events were observed. In vivo imaging in a mouse model showed a single phase clearance of UFH from the nasal cavity. After 12 h, 3.2% of the administered UFH remained in the nasal cavity, decaying to background levels by 48 h. CONCLUSIONS: UFH showed no toxic effects for extended daily intranasal dosing in mice as well as humans. The clearance kinetics of intranasal heparin solution from the nasal cavity indicates potentially protective levels for up to 12 h after dosing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heparin , Animals , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Partial Thromboplastin Time
2.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 25, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690867

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with a high prevalence rate, has rapidly infected millions of people around the world. Since viral infections can disrupt the coagulation and homeostasis cascades, various inflammatory and coagulation problems occur due to COVID-19 infection, similar to coronavirus epidemics in 2003 and 2004. According to multiple previous studies, in the present research, we reviewed the most commonly reported problems of COVID-19 patients, such as venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, disseminated intravascular coagulation, etc. and investigated the causes in these patients. Coagulation and inflammatory markers, such as platelets and fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, d-dimer, prothrombin time, etc., were also discussed, and the treatment options were briefly reviewed. In addition to coagulation treatments, regular examination of coagulation parameters and thrombotic complications can be helpful in the timely treatment of patients. Therefore, it is helpful to review the coagulation problems in COVID-19 patients. Although all mentioned problems and markers are important in COVID-19, some of them are more valuable in terms of diagnosis and prognosis.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686810

ABSTRACT

Aortic aneurysms are sometimes associated with enhanced-fibrinolytic-type disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). In enhanced-fibrinolytic-type DIC, both coagulation and fibrinolysis are markedly activated. Typical cases show decreased platelet counts and fibrinogen levels, increased concentrations of fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) and D-dimer, and increased FDP/D-dimer ratios. Thrombin-antithrombin complex or prothrombin fragment 1 + 2, as markers of coagulation activation, and plasmin-α2 plasmin inhibitor complex, a marker of fibrinolytic activation, are all markedly increased. Prolongation of prothrombin time (PT) is not so obvious, and the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is rather shortened in some cases. As a result, DIC can be neither diagnosed nor excluded based on PT and APTT alone. Many of the factors involved in coagulation and fibrinolysis activation are serine proteases. Treatment of enhanced-fibrinolytic-type DIC requires consideration of how to control the function of these serine proteases. The cornerstone of DIC treatment is treatment of the underlying pathology. However, in some cases surgery is either not possible or exacerbates the DIC associated with aortic aneurysm. In such cases, pharmacotherapy becomes even more important. Unfractionated heparin, other heparins, synthetic protease inhibitors, recombinant thrombomodulin, and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are agents that inhibit serine proteases, and all are effective against DIC. Inhibition of activated coagulation factors by anticoagulants is key to the treatment of DIC. Among them, DOACs can be taken orally and is useful for outpatient treatment. Combination therapy of heparin and nafamostat allows fine-adjustment of anticoagulant and antifibrinolytic effects. While warfarin is an anticoagulant, this agent is ineffective in the treatment of DIC because it inhibits the production of coagulation factors as substrates without inhibiting activated coagulation factors. In addition, monotherapy using tranexamic acid in cases of enhanced-fibrinolytic-type DIC may induce fatal thrombosis. If tranexamic acid is needed for DIC, combination with anticoagulant therapy is of critical importance.


Subject(s)
Aortic Aneurysm/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Fibrinolysis/drug effects , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Antifibrinolytic Agents/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Fibrinolysin , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Heparin/pharmacology , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prothrombin Time , alpha-2-Antiplasmin
4.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(3): e24216, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19, has reached all the corners of the world and was declared by the WHO as a global pandemic and public health emergency of international concern on the January 31, 2020. Allocating quick and specific biomarkers to predict the disease severity upon admission to hospital became a crucial need. This study, therefore, aimed at exploring the relationship between laboratory results in COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital and the final outcome in these patients. METHODS: Retrospective analysis was performed on the medical records of 310 COVID-19-positive patients admitted to Uhod Hospital, the referral hospital in the area of Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between the April 13 and the July 29, 2020. The association of laboratory results with the survival/mortality outcomes was studied. RESULTS: It was demonstrated that lymphopenia, prolonged aPTT, high INR, high D. dimer and high CK are valuable prognostic predictors of the severity of the disease at early stages that can determine the outcome. Based on the results of the multiple logistic regression, the variables that are associated with death outcome are aPTT, HR, RR, ALT and CK level CONCLUSION: It is proposed to perform these tests on admission to hospital for moderate to severe COVID-19 patients to improve the management of those cases and reduce mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 762782, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593084

ABSTRACT

Coagulopathy is a frequently reported finding in the pathology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, the molecular mechanism, the involved coagulation factors, and the role of regulatory proteins in homeostasis are not fully investigated. We explored the dynamic changes of nine coagulation tests in patients and controls to propose a molecular mechanism for COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. Coagulation tests including prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), fibrinogen (FIB), lupus anticoagulant (LAC), proteins C and S, antithrombin III (ATIII), D-dimer, and fibrin degradation products (FDPs) were performed on plasma collected from 105 individuals (35 critical patients, 35 severe patients, and 35 healthy controls). There was a statically significant difference when the results of the critical (CRT) and/or severe (SVR) group for the following tests were compared to the control (CRL) group: PTCRT (15.014) and PTSVR (13.846) (PTCRL = 13.383, p < 0.001), PTTCRT (42.923) and PTTSVR (37.8) (PTTCRL = 36.494, p < 0.001), LACCRT (49.414) and LACSVR (47.046) (LACCRL = 40.763, p < 0.001), FIBCRT (537.66) and FIBSVR (480.29) (FIBCRL = 283.57, p < 0.001), ProCCRT (85.57%) and ProCSVR (99.34%) (ProCCRL = 94.31%, p = 0.04), ProSCRT (62.91%) and ProSSVR (65.06%) (ProSCRL = 75.03%, p < 0.001), D-dimer (p < 0.0001, χ 2 = 34.812), and FDP (p < 0.002, χ 2 = 15.205). No significant association was found in the ATIII results in groups (ATIIICRT = 95.71% and ATIIISVR = 99.63%; ATIIICRL = 98.74%, p = 0.321). D-dimer, FIB, PT, PTT, LAC, protein S, FDP, and protein C (ordered according to p-values) have significance in the prognosis of patients. Disruptions in homeostasis in protein C (and S), VIII/VIIIa and V/Va axes, probably play a role in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Tests/methods , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , Adult , Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Factors/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Female , Fibrin/metabolism , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Homeostasis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prognosis , Protein C/metabolism , Prothrombin Time , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
6.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211066945, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574469

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Argatroban is licensed for patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and is conventionally monitored by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) ratio. The target range is 1.5 to 3.0 times the patients' baseline APTT and not exceeding 100 s, however this baseline is not always known. APTT is known to plateau at higher levels of argatroban, and is influenced by coagulopathies, lupus anticoagulant and raised FVIII levels. It has been used as a treatment for COVID-19 and Vaccine-induced Immune Thrombocytopenia and Thrombosis (VITT). Some recent publications have favored the use of anti-IIa methods to determine the plasma drug concentration of argatroban. METHODS: Plasma of 60 samples from 3 COVID-19 patients and 54 samples from 5 VITT patients were tested by APTT ratio and anti-IIa method (dilute thrombin time dTT). Actin FS APTT ratios were derived from the baseline APTT of the patient and the mean normal APTT. RESULTS: Mean APTT ratio derived from baseline was 1.71 (COVID-19), 1.33 (VITT) compared to APTT ratio by mean normal 1.65 (COVID-19), 1.48 (VITT). dTT mean concentration was 0.64 µg/ml (COVID-19) 0.53 µg/ml (VITT) with poor correlations to COVID-19 baseline APTT ratio r2 = 0.1526 p <0.0001, mean normal r2 = 0.2188 p < 0.0001; VITT baseline APTT ratio r2 = 0.04 p < 0.001, VITT mean normal r2 = 0.0064 p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that dTT is a superior method to monitor the concentration of argatroban, we have demonstrated significant differences between APTT ratios and dTT levels, which could have clinical impact. This is especially so in COVID-19 and VITT.


Subject(s)
Arginine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Partial Thromboplastin Time/methods , Pipecolic Acids/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Aged , Arginine/pharmacology , Arginine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pipecolic Acids/pharmacology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombosis/chemically induced
7.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 44(2): 399-406, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511317

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Summary of Product Characteristics for the direct thrombin inhibitor argatroban states monitoring should be by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), with a target range of 1.5-3.0 times the patients' baseline APTT. APTT may be influenced by coagulopathies, lupus anticoagulant and raised FVIII levels. Previous studies have shown sensitivity differences of APTT reagents to argatroban. Some recent publications have favoured the use of anti-IIa methods to determine the plasma drug concentration of argatroban. This study aims to compare the anti-IIa assays: Hemoclot thrombin inhibitor assay (HTI) and Ecarin chromogenic assay (ECA) alongside the APTT. METHODS: Residual plasma of 25 samples from 8 patients (3 with COVID-19 and HIT: n = 18, 5 with HIT: n = 7) was tested at two sites: site A: Sysmex CS5100 by HTI and APTT (Actin FS and SynthASil), and also on Stago STA Compact Max: ECA and APTT (CK Prest); and site B: Stago STA R Max 2 by ECA and APTT (Cephascreen). RESULTS: Mean APTT ratio was 1.96 (Actin FS), 1.84 (SynthASil), 1.59 (CK Prest) and 2.48 (Cephascreen). Mean argatroban concentration by HTI was 0.60 µg/mL and by ECA was 0.65 µg/mL (site A) and 0.70 µg/mL (site B). There was a poor correlation to HTI in APTT ratios (range r2  = .0235-0.4181) with stronger correlations between ECA methods to HTI (r2  = .8998 site A, r2  = .8734 site B). CONCLUSION: This study confirms previous publications on the unsuitability of APTT and expands this by being multisited and included APTT reagents that use mechanical clot detection. Both anti-IIa methods are more suitable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Arginine/analogs & derivatives , Drug Monitoring/methods , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Pipecolic Acids/pharmacology , Sulfonamides , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced
8.
Chest ; 161(3): 710-727, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vascular microthrombi are a proposed mechanism of COVID-19 respiratory failure. We hypothesized that early administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) followed by therapeutic heparin would improve pulmonary function in these patients. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does tPA improve pulmonary function in severe COVID-19 respiratory failure, and is it safe? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Adults with COVID-19-induced respiratory failure were randomized from May14, 2020 through March 3, 2021, in two phases. Phase 1 (n = 36) comprised a control group (standard-of-care treatment) vs a tPA bolus (50-mg tPA IV bolus followed by 7 days of heparin; goal activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], 60-80 s) group. Phase 2 (n = 14) comprised a control group vs a tPA drip (50-mg tPA IV bolus, followed by tPA drip 2 mg/h plus heparin 500 units/h over 24 h, then heparin to maintain aPTT of 60-80 s for 7 days) group. Patients were excluded from enrollment if they had not undergone a neurologic examination or cross-sectional brain imaging within the previous 4.5 h to rule out stroke and potential for hemorrhagic conversion. The primary outcome was Pao2 to Fio2 ratio improvement from baseline at 48 h after randomization. Secondary outcomes included Pao2 to Fio2 ratio improvement of > 50% or Pao2 to Fio2 ratio of ≥ 200 at 48 h (composite outcome), ventilator-free days (VFD), and mortality. RESULTS: Fifty patients were randomized: 17 in the control group and 19 in the tPA bolus group in phase 1 and eight in the control group and six in the tPA drip group in phase 2. No severe bleeding events occurred. In the tPA bolus group, the Pao2 to Fio2 ratio values were significantly (P < .017) higher than baseline at 6 through 168 h after randomization; the control group showed no significant improvements. Among patients receiving a tPA bolus, the percent change of Pao2 to Fio2 ratio at 48 h (16.9% control [interquartile range (IQR), -8.3% to 36.8%] vs 29.8% tPA bolus [IQR, 4.5%-88.7%]; P = .11), the composite outcome (11.8% vs 47.4%; P = .03), VFD (0.0 [IQR, 0.0-9.0] vs 12.0 [IQR, 0.0-19.0]; P = .11), and in-hospital mortality (41.2% vs 21.1%; P = .19) did not reach statistically significant differences when compared with those of control participants. The patients who received a tPA drip did not experience benefit. INTERPRETATION: The combination of tPA bolus plus heparin is safe in severe COVID-19 respiratory failure. A phase 3 study is warranted given the improvements in oxygenation and promising observations in VFD and mortality. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT04357730; URL: www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/complications , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480798

ABSTRACT

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a severe condition characterized by the systemic formation of microthrombi complicated with bleeding tendency and organ dysfunction. In the last years, it represents one of the most frequent consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The pathogenesis of DIC is complex, with cross-talk between the coagulant and inflammatory pathways. The objective of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory action of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (um-PEA) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced DIC model in rats. Experimental DIC was induced by continual infusion of LPS (30 mg/kg) for 4 h through the tail vein. Um-PEA (30 mg/kg) was given orally 30 min before and 1 h after the start of intravenous infusion of LPS. Results showed that um-PEA reduced alteration of coagulation markers, as well as proinflammatory cytokine release in plasma and lung samples, induced by LPS infusion. Furthermore, um-PEA also has the effect of preventing the formation of fibrin deposition and lung damage. Moreover, um-PEA was able to reduce the number of mast cells (MCs) and the release of its serine proteases, which are also necessary for SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results suggest that um-PEA could be considered as a potential therapeutic approach in the management of DIC and in clinical implications associated to coagulopathy and lung dysfunction, such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Amides/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Ethanolamines/therapeutic use , Palmitic Acids/therapeutic use , Sepsis/complications , Amides/chemistry , Amides/pharmacology , Animals , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Ethanolamines/chemistry , Ethanolamines/pharmacology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Mast Cells/cytology , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/metabolism , Palmitic Acids/chemistry , Palmitic Acids/pharmacology , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prothrombin Time , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sepsis/pathology , Serine Proteases/metabolism
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(10)2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447986

ABSTRACT

An 80-year-old man with no personal or family history of bleeding, presented to hospital with extensive haematomas and skin bruising after using doxycycline. His basic lab workup was concerning for a coagulopathy with an elevated activated partial thromboplastin time and significant anaemia. Mixing studies and other factor levels were tested that led to the diagnosis of acquired haemophilia A with low factor VIII levels and high factor VIII antibodies. He was started on steroids, but his haemoglobin level continued to drop. Later, during his treatment, he was given multiple therapeutic agents, including cyclophosphamide, rituximab and recombinant factor VII (NovoSeven-R). Gradually factor VIII levels increased and haemoglobin stabilised. The hospital course was complicated by COVID-19 pneumonia leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome; the patient eventually expired due to respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemophilia A , Aged, 80 and over , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Hemophilia A/chemically induced , Hemophilia A/diagnosis , Hemophilia A/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Partial Thromboplastin Time , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14186, 2020 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434143

ABSTRACT

Infections cause varying degrees of haemostatic dysfunction which can be detected by clot waveform analysis (CWA), a global haemostatic marker. CWA has been shown to predict poor outcomes in severe infections with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. The effect of less severe bacterial and viral infections on CWA has not been established. We hypothesized that different infections influence CWA distinctively. Patients admitted with bacterial infections, dengue and upper respiratory tract viral infections were recruited if they had an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) measured on admission. APTT-based CWA was performed on Sysmex CS2100i automated analyser using Dade Actin FSL reagent. CWA parameters [(maximum velocity (min1), maximum acceleration (min2) and maximum deceleration (max2)] were compared against control patients. Infected patients (n = 101) had longer aPTT than controls (n = 112) (34.37 ± 7.72 s vs 27.80 ± 1.59 s, p < 0.001), with the mean (± SD) aPTT longest in dengue infection (n = 36) (37.99 ± 7.93 s), followed by bacterial infection (n = 52) (33.96 ± 7.33 s) and respiratory viral infection (n = 13) (29.98 ± 3.92 s). Compared to controls (min1; min2; max2) (5.53 ± 1.16%/s; 0.89 ± 0.19%/s2; 0.74 ± 0.16%/s2), bacterial infection has higher CWA results (6.92 ± 1.60%/s; 1.04 ± 0.28%/s2; 0.82 ± 0.24%/s2, all p < 0.05); dengue infection has significantly lower CWA values (3.93 ± 1.32%/s; 0.57 ± 0.17%/s2; 0.43 ± 0.14%/s2, all p < 0.001) whilst respiratory virus infection has similar results (6.19 ± 1.32%/s; 0.95 ± 0.21%/s2; 0.73 ± 0.18%/s2, all p > 0.05). CWA parameters demonstrated positive correlation with C-reactive protein levels (min1: r = 0.54, min2: r = 0.44, max2: r = 0.34; all p < 0.01). Different infections affect CWA distinctively. CWA could provide information on the haemostatic milieu triggered by infection and further studies are needed to better define its application in this area.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/blood , Hemostasis , Partial Thromboplastin Time/methods , Virus Diseases/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Dengue/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Elective Surgical Procedures , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood
12.
J Biol Chem ; 297(4): 101207, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415531

ABSTRACT

Certain sulfated glycans, including those from marine sources, can show potential effects against SARS-CoV-2. Here, a new fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS) from the sea cucumber Pentacta pygmaea (PpFucCS) (MW ∼10-60 kDa) was isolated and structurally characterized by NMR. PpFucCS is composed of {→3)-ß-GalNAcX-(1→4)-ß-GlcA-[(3→1)Y]-(1→}, where X = 4S (80%), 6S (10%) or nonsulfated (10%), Y = α-Fuc2,4S (40%), α-Fuc2,4S-(1→4)-α-Fuc (30%), or α-Fuc4S (30%), and S = SO3-. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of PpFucCS and those of the FucCS and sulfated fucan isolated from Isostichopus badionotus (IbFucCS and IbSF) were compared with that of heparin. IC50 values demonstrated the activity of the three holothurian sulfated glycans to be ∼12 times more efficient than heparin, with no cytotoxic effects. The dissociation constant (KD) values obtained by surface plasmon resonance of the wildtype SARS-CoV-2 spike (S)-protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and N501Y mutant RBD in interactions with the heparin-immobilized sensor chip were 94 and 1.8 × 103 nM, respectively. Competitive surface plasmon resonance inhibition analysis of PpFucCS, IbFucCS, and IbSF against heparin binding to wildtype S-protein showed IC50 values (in the nanomolar range) 6, 25, and 6 times more efficient than heparin, respectively. Data from computational simulations suggest an influence of the sulfation patterns of the Fuc units on hydrogen bonding with GlcA and that conformational change of some of the oligosaccharide structures occurs upon S-protein RBD binding. Compared with heparin, negligible anticoagulant action was observed for IbSF. Our results suggest that IbSF may represent a promising molecule for future investigations against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Polysaccharides/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Sulfates/chemistry , Animals , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chondroitin Sulfates/chemistry , Chondroitin Sulfates/metabolism , Kinetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sea Cucumbers/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Surface Plasmon Resonance
13.
Hematology ; 26(1): 656-662, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398020

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coagulation dysfunction is an evident factor in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), appearing even in COVID-19 patients with normal inflammation indices. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the characteristics of coagulation function indices in COVID-19 patients to investigate possible mechanisms through the comparison of non-severe and severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We included 143 patients whose clinical characteristics, coagulation function, and other indices such as inflammatory factors were collected and compared based on disease severity. RESULTS: Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), D-dimer, and fibrinogen levels were evidently higher in the severe group than in the non-severe group. Among non-severe COVID-19 patients, the aforementioned indicators depicted increasing trends, but the fibrinogen level alone was higher than normal. However, in severe COVID-19 patients, values of all three indices were higher than normal. In severe COVID-19 patients, fibrinogen and D-dimer were correlated with several inflammation indices during the early stage of the disease. However, no correlation between fibrinogen and inflammatory factors was observed in non-severe COVID-19 patients at any time point. DISCUSSION: Results revealed that the hypercoagulability tendency of severe COVID-19 patients was more evident. The relationship between coagulation function and inflammatory factors showed that changes in coagulation function in severe COVID-19 patients may be related to abnormal increase in inflammatory factors at an early stage; however, in non-severe COVID-19 patients, there might be other factors leading to abnormal coagulation. CONCLUSION: Inflammatory factors were not the only cause of abnormal coagulation function in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Thrombophilia/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/etiology
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388480

ABSTRACT

A 65-year-old man presented with symptoms of severe subcutaneous bleeding in his arm, which led to compartment syndrome requiring fasciotomy and massive blood transfusion protocol. Medical history was significant for history of autoimmune thyroid disease. Workup revealed elevated partial thromboplastin time, decreased factor VIII levels and elevated factor VIII inhibitor levels. He was worked up for causes of acquired haemophilia A and was found to have an elevated SARS-CoV-2 antibody level. Given his negative workup for other secondary aetiologies, we suspect that the cause of his haemophilia A was from his SARS-CoV-2 infection, which has been observed previously in various case reports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemophilia A , Aged , Hemophilia A/complications , Hemophilia A/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Partial Thromboplastin Time , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Stroke ; 52(11): e706-e709, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371922
16.
N Engl J Med ; 385(7): 609-617, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354155

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of factor XI in the pathogenesis of postoperative venous thromboembolism is uncertain. Abelacimab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to factor XI and locks it in the zymogen (inactive precursor) conformation. METHODS: In this open-label, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned 412 patients who were undergoing total knee arthroplasty to receive one of three regimens of abelacimab (30 mg, 75 mg, or 150 mg) administered postoperatively in a single intravenous dose or to receive 40 mg of enoxaparin administered subcutaneously once daily. The primary efficacy outcome was venous thromboembolism, detected by mandatory venography of the leg involved in the operation or objective confirmation of symptomatic events. The principal safety outcome was a composite of major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding up to 30 days after surgery. RESULTS: Venous thromboembolism occurred in 13 of 102 patients (13%) in the 30-mg abelacimab group, 5 of 99 patients (5%) in the 75-mg abelacimab group, and 4 of 98 patients (4%) in the 150-mg abelacimab group, as compared with 22 of 101 patients (22%) in the enoxaparin group. The 30-mg abelacimab regimen was noninferior to enoxaparin, and the 75-mg and 150-mg abelacimab regimens were superior to enoxaparin (P<0.001). Bleeding occurred in 2%, 2%, and none of the patients in the 30-mg, 75-mg, and 150-mg abelacimab groups, respectively, and in none of the patients in the enoxaparin group. CONCLUSIONS: This trial showed that factor XI is important for the development of postoperative venous thromboembolism. Factor XI inhibition with a single intravenous dose of abelacimab after total knee arthroplasty was effective for the prevention of venous thromboembolism and was associated with a low risk of bleeding. (Funded by Anthos Therapeutics; ANT-005 TKA EudraCT number, 2019-003756-37.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Factor XI/antagonists & inhibitors , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Factor XI/metabolism , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Middle Aged , Partial Thromboplastin Time
17.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43 Suppl 1: 36-42, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319316

ABSTRACT

The alterations in the hemostatic balance in COVID-19 patients are strongly disturbed and contribute to a high prothrombotic status. The high rate of venous thromboembolism in COVID-19 patients goes along with derangements in coagulation laboratory parameters. Hemostasis testing has an important role in diagnosed COVID-19 patients. Elevated D-dimer levels were found to be a crucial laboratory marker in the risk assessment of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients. The diagnostic approach also includes prothrombin time and platelet count. Fibrinogen might give an indication for worsening coagulopathy. Other markers (activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinolysis parameters, coagulation factors, natural anticoagulants, antiphospholipid antibodies and parameters obtained by thromboelastography or thrombin generation assays) have been described as being deranged. These may help to understand the pathophysiology of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients but have currently no place in diagnosis or management in COVID-19 patients. For monitoring the heparin anticoagulant therapy, the anti-Xa assay is suggested, because the severe acute-phase reaction (high fibrinogen and high factor VIII) shortens the aPTT.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Tests , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/etiology , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation Factors/analysis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Factor Xa/analysis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Fibrinolysis , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Platelet Count , Prothrombin Time , Thrombelastography , Thrombin/biosynthesis , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/drug therapy
18.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 178: 108955, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309207

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To create and compare survival models from admission laboratory indices in people hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with and without diabetes. METHODS: Retrospective observational study of patients with COVID-19 with or without diabetes admitted to Sheffield Teaching Hospitals from 29 February to 01 May 2020. Predictive variables for in-hospital mortality from COVID-19 were explored using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Out of 505 patients, 156 (30.8%) had diabetes mellitus (DM) of which 143 (91.7%) had type 2 diabetes. There were significantly higher in-hospital COVID-19 deaths in those with DM [DM COVID-19 deaths 54 (34.6%) vs. non-DM COVID-19 deaths 88 (25.2%): P < 0.05]. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APPT) > 24 s without anticoagulants (HR 6.38, 95% CI: 1.07-37.87: P = 0.04), APTT > 24 s with anticoagulants (HR 24.01, 95% CI: 3.63-159.01: P < 0.001), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio > 8 (HR 6.18, 95% CI: 2.36-16.16: P < 0.001), and sodium > 136 mmol/L (HR 3.27, 95% CI: 1.12-9.56: P = 0.03) at admission, were only associated with in-hospital COVID-19 mortality for those with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: At admission, elevated APTT with or without anticoagulants, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and serum sodium are unique factors that predict in-hospital COVID-19 mortality in patients with diabetes compared to those without. This novel finding may lead to research into haematological and biochemical mechanisms to understand why those with diabetes are more susceptible to poor outcomes when infected with Covid-19, and contribute to identification of those most at risk when admitted to hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hospital Mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals, University , Humans , Lymphocytes/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sodium/blood , United Kingdom , Young Adult
19.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252939, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coagulopathy and thromboembolic events are among the complications of Corona Virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Abnormal coagulation parameters in COVID-19 patients are important prognostic factors of disease severity. The aim of this study was to analyze coagulation profiles of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among 455 Covid-19 patients admitted at Millennium COVID-19 care and treatment center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from July 1- October 23, 2020. Prothrombin Time (PT), Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) and International normalized ratio (INR) were determined on HUMACLOT DUE PLUS® coagulation analyzer (Wiesbaden, Germany). In all statistical analysis of results, p<0.05 was defined as statistically significant. RESULT: A prolonged prothrombin time was found in 46.8% of study participants with COVID-19 and a prolonged prothrombin time and elevated INR in 53.3% of study subjects with severe and 51% of critically COVID patients. Thrombocytopenia was detected in 22.1% of COVID-19 patients. 50.5% and 51.3% of COVID-19 patients older than 55 years had thrombocytopenia and prolonged APTT respectively. CONCLUSION: In this study, prolonged prothrombin time and elevated INR were detected in more than 50% of severe and critical COVID-19 patients. Thrombocytopenia and prolonged APTT were dominant in COVID-19 patients older than 55 years. Thus, we recommend emphasis to be given for monitoring of platelet count, PT, APTT and INR in hospitalized and admitted COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Middle Aged , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Platelet Count , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Prothrombin Time , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Young Adult
20.
Brain Behav ; 11(6): e02185, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: COVID-19 is spreading throughout the whole world as a public health issue. There is a link between the new coronavirus and changes in biochemical indicators, such as coagulation functions. Hypercoagulable state of blood caused by infections may lead to cerebrovascular diseases. More attention should be paid to patients with COVID-19, especially critically ill individuals with history of cerebrovascular disease who may have high risk of stroke. METHODS: 193 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in the study. These patients were categorized into nonsevere (143 patients) and severe (50 patients) groups. This study evaluated laboratory tests, including routine blood tests, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, electrolytes, and coagulation functions. Furthermore, neurological function and stroke risks were evaluated in this study. RESULTS: Compared to the nonsevere group, there were increases in white blood cells, neutrophil count, interleukin-6, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein in the severe group (p < .05). For coagulation functions, parameters like prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, D-dimer, and fibrin degradation products were increased significantly in the severe group (p < .01). Severe patients also demonstrated higher scores on the Framingham stroke risk profile and lower Glasgow scores (p < .05). Furthermore, significant associations were noticed between stroke risk and age, blood cell count, neutrophil count, D-dimmer, and fibrin degradation productions (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Data suggested that coagulation functions were affected in patients with COVID-19. Hypercoagulable state in patients may lead to potential high risk of stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Partial Thromboplastin Time , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology
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