Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 560
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
J Environ Public Health ; 2021: 7112548, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622110

ABSTRACT

Background: Most of the households in developing countries burn biomass fuel in traditional stoves with incomplete combustion that leads to high indoor air pollution and acute respiratory infections. Acute respiratory infection is the most common cause of under-five morbidity and mortality accounting for 2 million deaths worldwide and responsible for 18% of deaths among under-five children in Ethiopia. Although studies were done on acute respiratory infections, the majority of studies neither clinically diagnose respiratory infections nor use instant measurement of particulate matter. Methods: The community-based cross-sectional study design was employed among under-five children in Jimma town from May 21 to June 7, 2020. A total of 265 children through systematic random sampling were included in the study. The data were collected using a pretested semistructured questionnaire and laser pm 2.5 meter for indoor particulate matter concentration. Associations among factors were assessed through correlation analysis, and binary logistic regression was done to predict childhood acute respiratory infections. Variables with p-value less than 0.25 in bivariate regression were the candidate for the final multivariate logistic regression. Two independent sample t-tests were done to compare significant mean difference between concentrations of particulate matter. Results: Among 265 under-five children who were involved in the study, 179 (67.5%) were living in households that predominantly use biomass fuel. Prevalence of acute respiratory infections in the study area was 16%. Children living in households that use biomass fuel were four times more likely to develop acute respiratory infections than their counterparts (AOR: 4.348; 95% CI: 1.632, 11.580). The size of household was significantly associated with the prevalence of acute respiratory infections. Under-five children living in households that have a family size of six and greater had odds of 1.7 increased risk of developing acute respiratory infections than their counterparts (AOR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.299, 2.212). The other factor associated with acute respiratory infection was separate kitchen; children living in households in which there were no separate kitchen were four times at increased risk of developing acute respiratory infection than children living in households which have separate kitchen (AOR: 4.591; 95% CI: 1.849, 11.402). The concentration of indoor particulate matter was higher in households using biomass fuel than clean fuel. There was statistically higher particulate matter concentration in the kitchen than living rooms (t = 4.509, p ≤ 0.001). Particulate matter 2.5 concentrations (µg/m3) of the households that had parental smoking were significantly higher than their counterparts (AOR: 20.224; 95% CI: 1.72, 12.58). Conclusion: There is an association between acute respiratory infections and biomass fuel usage among under-five children. Focusing on improved energy sources is essential to reduce the burden and assure the safety of children.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , Respiratory Tract Infections , Air Pollution, Indoor/statistics & numerical data , Biomass , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2022 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613774

ABSTRACT

In 2019, a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, was first reported in Wuhan, China. The virus causes the disease commonly known as COVID-19, and, since its emergence, it has infected over 252 million individuals globally and taken the lives of over 5 million in the same time span. Primary research on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 focused on understanding the biomolecular composition of the virus. This research has led to the development of multiple vaccines with great efficacy and antiviral treatments for the disease. The development of biomedical interventions has been crucial to combating this pandemic; additionally, environmental confounding variables that could have exacerbated the pandemic need further assessment. In this research study, we conducted a spatial analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentration and its association with COVID-19 mortality in the United States. Results of this study demonstrate a significant positive correlation between PM concentration levels and COVID-19 mortality; however, this does not necessarily imply a causal relationship. These results are consistent with similar studies in Italy and China, where significant COVID-19 cases and corresponding deaths were exhibited. Furthermore, maps of the data demonstrate clustering of COVID-19 mortality which suggest further investigation into the social determinants of health impacting the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Spatial Analysis
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613770

ABSTRACT

High NO2 concentrations (long term average of 383 µg/m3 in 2016/2017) recorded at Birmingham New Street railway station have resulted in the upgrade of the bi-directional fan system to aid wind dispersion within the enclosed platform environment. This paper attempts to examine how successful this intervention has been in improving air quality for both passengers and workers within the station. New air pollution data in 2020 has enabled comparisons to the 2016/2017 monitoring campaign revealing a 23-42% decrease in measured NO2 concentrations. The new levels of NO2 are below the Occupational Health standards but still well above the EU Public Health Standards. This reduction, together with a substantial decrease (up to 81%) in measured Particulate Matter (PM) concentrations, can most likely be attributed to the new fan system effectiveness. Carbon Monoxide levels were well below Occupational and Public Health Standards at all times. The COVID-19 pandemic "initial lockdown" period has also allowed an insight into the resultant air quality at lower rail-traffic intensities, which produced a further reduction in air pollutants, to roughly half the pre-lockdown concentrations. This study shows the scope of improvement that can be achieved through an engineering solution implemented to improve the ventilation system of an enclosed railway station. Further reduction in air pollution would require additional approaches, such as the removal of diesel engine exhaust emissions via the adoption of electric or diesel-electric hybrid powered services.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613765

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused a global pandemic with considerable impact. Studies have examined the influence of socioeconomic status and air pollution on COVID-19 risk but in low detail. This study seeks to further elucidate the nuances of socioeconomic status, as defined by the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), air pollution, and their relationship. We examined the effect of IMD and air pollution on the likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 among 66,732 UKB participants tested for SARS-CoV-2 from 16 March 2020 through 16 March 2021. Logistic regression was performed controlling for age, sex, ancestry and IMD or air pollution in the respective models. IMD and its sub-scores were significantly associated with increased risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. All particulate matter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels were associated with increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Measures of green space and natural environment around participants' homes were associated with reduced likelihood of SARS-CoV-2. Socioeconomic status and air pollution have independent effects on the risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Green space and natural environment space in the proximity of people's homes may mediate the effect of air pollution on the risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Biological Specimen Banks , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613763

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a severe public health and social problem worldwide. A limitation of the existing literature is that multiple environmental variables have not been frequently elaborated, which is why the overall effect of the environment on COVID-19 has not been conclusive. In this study, we used generalized additive model (GAM) to detect the relationship between meteorological and air pollution variables and COVID-19 in four urban agglomerations in China and made comparisons among the urban agglomerations. The four urban agglomerations are Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), middle reaches of the Yangtze River (MYR), Yangtze River Delta (YRD), and the Pearl River Delta (PRD). The daily rates of average precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, sunshine duration, and atmospheric pressure were selected as meteorological variables. The PM2.5, PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO) contents were selected as air pollution variables. The results indicated that meteorological and air pollution variables tended to be significantly correlated. Moreover, the nature of the relationship between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and meteorological and air pollution variables (i.e., linear or nonlinear) varied with urban agglomerations. Among the variance explained by GAMs, BTH had the highest value (75.4%), while MYR had the lowest value (35.2%). The values of the YRD and PRD were between the above two, namely 45.6% and 62.2%, respectively. The findings showed that the association between SARS-CoV-2 and meteorological and air pollution variables varied in regions, making it difficult to obtain a relationship that is applicable to every region. Moreover, this study enriches our understanding of SARS-CoV-2. It is required to create awareness within the government that anti-COVID-19 measures should be adapted to the local meteorological and air pollution conditions.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China/epidemiology , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 115: 443-452, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599196

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has raised awareness about various environmental issues, including PM2.5 pollution. Here, PM2.5 pollution during the COVID-19 lockdown was traced and analyzed to clarify the sources and factors influencing PM2.5 in Guangzhou, with an emphasis on heavy pollution. The lockdown led to large reductions in industrial and traffic emissions, which significantly reduced PM2.5 concentrations in Guangzhou. Interestingly, the trend of PM2.5 concentrations was not consistent with traffic and industrial emissions, as minimum concentrations were observed in the fourth period (3/01-3/31, 22.45 µg/m3) of the lockdown. However, the concentrations of other gaseous pollutants, e.g., SO2, NO2 and CO, were correlated with industrial and traffic emissions, and the lowest values were noticed in the second period (1/24-2/03) of the lockdown. Meteorological correlation analysis revealed that the decreased PM2.5 concentrations during COVID-19 can be mainly attributed to decreased industrial and traffic emissions rather than meteorological conditions. When meteorological factors were included in the PM2.5 composition and backward trajectory analyses, we found that long-distance transportation and secondary pollution offset the reduction of primary emissions in the second and third stages of the pandemic. Notably, industrial PM2.5 emissions from western, southern and southeastern Guangzhou play an important role in the formation of heavy pollution events. Our results not only verify the importance of controlling traffic and industrial emissions, but also provide targets for further improvements in PM2.5 pollution.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 49, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595788

ABSTRACT

Originating from China, COVID-19 became the first-ever coronavirus pandemic, wreaking havoc in 218 nations. The lack of a potential treatment exacerbated by the inability of the healthcare infrastructure to contain the viral trajectory led to a worldwide lockdown. The anthropogenic halt presented an unprecedented background to quantify the effect of the anthroposphere on environmental pollution. Consequently, we analyzed the variations in the air (PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2) and water pollutants (BOD, COD, DO, coliform) using real-time monitoring data in the majorly hit Indian metropolitan states during the lockdown in contrast to 2019 levels. The overall AQI (air quality index) de-escalated by -31.35%, -34.35%, -32.63%, -29.25% in Delhi, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, and Karnataka, respectively, from the 2019 levels. The daily concentrations of NO2, PM2.5, and PM10 plunged tremendously. The exact pre-disposing factors responsible for higher COVID-19 transmission in some geographical centers remain elusive. Investigations have corroborated putative links between air pollutants and COVID-19 mortalities. Therefore, we further mapped PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and SO2 to co-relate with COVID-19 infectivity and mortality across the study states. Significant (P < 0.001) positive correlation between COVID-19 transmission was established for all pollutants with maximum co-relation with AQI followed by NO2. River Ganga water in Uttarakhand was deemed "fit for drinking" for the first time in two decades. An aggregate of -71.94, -61.32, and -77.94 decrease in BOD, COD, total coliform levels, and an 11.75 rise in the average DO levels from 2019 data. This study will better assist the future framework of health and environment restoration policies.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Environmental Pollution , Humans , India , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580723

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic that began in late December 2019 led to unprecedented lockdowns worldwide, providing a unique opportunity to investigate in detail the impacts of restricted anthropogenic emissions on air quality. A wide range of strategies and approaches exist to achieve this. In this paper, we use the "deweather" R package, based on Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) models, first to remove the influences of meteorology and emission trend patterns from NO, NO2, PM10 and O3 data series, and then to calculate the relative changes in air pollutant levels in 2020 with respect to the previous seven years (2013-2019). Data from a northern Spanish region, Cantabria, with all types of monitoring stations (traffic, urban background, industrial and rural) were used, dividing the calendar year into eight periods according to the intensity of government restrictions. The results showed mean reductions in the lockdown period above -50% for NOx, around -10% for PM10 and below -5% for O3. Small differences were found between the relative changes obtained from normalised data with respect to those from observations. These results highlight the importance of developing an integrated policy to reduce anthropogenic emissions and the need to move towards sustainable mobility to ensure safer air quality levels, as pre-existing concentrations in some cases exceed the safe threshold.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Meteorology , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118417, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587843

ABSTRACT

The lockdown measures caused by the COVID-19 pandemic substantially affected air quality in many cities through reduced emissions from a variety of sources, including traffic. The change in PM2.5 and its chemical composition in downtown Toronto, Canada, including organic/inorganic composition and trace metals, were examined by comparing with a pre-lockdown period and respective periods in the three previous years. During the COVID-19 lockdown, the average traffic volume reduced by 58%, whereas PM2.5 only decreased by 4% relative to the baselines. Major chemical components of PM2.5, such as organic aerosol and ammonium nitrate, showed significant seasonal changes between pre- and lockdown periods. The changes in local and regional PM2.5 sources were assessed using hourly chemical composition measurements of PM2.5. Major regional and secondary PM2.5 sources exhibited no clear reductions during the lockdown period compared to pre-lockdown and the previous years. However, cooking emissions substantially dropped by approximately 61% due to the restrictions imposed on local businesses (i.e., restaurants) during the lockdown, and then gradually increased throughout the recovery periods. The reduction in non-tailpipe emissions, characterized by road dust and brake/tire dust, ranged from 37% to 61%, consistent with the changes in traffic volume and meteorology across seasons in 2020. Tailpipe emissions dropped by approximately 54% and exhibited even larger reductions during morning rush hours. The reduction of tailpipe emissions was statistically associated with the reduced number of trucks, highlighting that a small fraction of trucks contributes disproportionally to tailpipe emissions. This study provides insight into the potential for local benefits to arise from traffic intervention in traffic-dominated urban areas and supports the development of targeted strategies and regulations to effectively reduce local air pollution.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Environ Pollut ; 296: 118716, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587842

ABSTRACT

The significant reduction in PM2.5 mass concentration after the outbreak of COVID-19 provided a unique opportunity further to study the formation mechanism of secondary inorganic aerosols. Hourly data of chemical components in PM2.5, gaseous pollutants, and meteorological data were obtained from January 1 to 23, 2020 (pre-lockdown) and January 24 to February 17, 2020 (COVID-lockdown) in Zhengzhou, China. Sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium were the main components of PM2.5 during both the pre-lockdown and COVID-lockdown periods. Compared with the pre-lockdown period, even though the concentration and proportion of nitrate decreased, nitrate was the dominant component in PM2.5 during the COVID-lockdown period. Moreover, nitrate production was enhanced by the elevated O3 concentration, which was favorable for the homogeneous and hydrolysis nitrate formation despite the drastic decrease of NO2. The proportion of sulfate during the COVID-lockdown period was higher than that before. Aqueous-phase reactions of H2O2 and transition metal (TMI) catalyzed oxidations were the major pathways for sulfate formation. During the COVID-lockdown period, TMI-catalyzed oxidation became the dominant pathway for aqueous-phase sulfate formation because the elevated acidity favored the dissolution of TMI. Therefore, the enhanced TMI-catalyzed oxidation affected by the elevated particle acidity dominated the sulfate formation, resulting in the slight increase of sulfate concentration during the COVID-lockdown period in Zhengzhou.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , China , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfates
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23378, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585808

ABSTRACT

Emissions of black carbon (BC) particles from anthropogenic and natural sources contribute to climate change and human health impacts. Therefore, they need to be accurately quantified to develop an effective mitigation strategy. Although the spread of the emission flux estimates for China have recently narrowed under the constraints of atmospheric observations, consensus has not been reached regarding the dominant emission sector. Here, we quantified the contribution of the residential sector, as 64% (44-82%) in 2019, using the response of the observed atmospheric concentration in the outflowing air during Feb-Mar 2020, with the prevalence of the COVID-19 pandemic and restricted human activities over China. In detail, the BC emission fluxes, estimated after removing effects from meteorological variability, dropped only slightly (- 18%) during Feb-Mar 2020 from the levels in the previous year for selected air masses of Chinese origin, suggesting the contributions from the transport and industry sectors (36%) were smaller than the rest from the residential sector (64%). Carbon monoxide (CO) behaved differently, with larger emission reductions (- 35%) in the period Feb-Mar 2020, suggesting dominance of non-residential (i.e., transport and industry) sectors, which contributed 70% (48-100%) emission during 2019. The estimated BC/CO emission ratio for these sectors will help to further constrain bottom-up emission inventories. We comprehensively provide a clear scientific evidence supporting mitigation policies targeting reduction in residential BC emissions from China by demonstrating the economic feasibility using marginal abatement cost curves.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Soot/analysis , Algorithms , Atmosphere/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , China , Climate Change , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Environmental Monitoring/statistics & numerical data , Geography , Human Activities , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Seasons , Wind
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(1): 155-164, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576042

ABSTRACT

During the SARS period in 2003 and COVID-19 pandemic period in 2020, unexpected severe particulate matter pollution occurred in northern China, although the anthropogenic activities and associated emissions have assumed to be reduced dramatically. This anomalistic increase in PM2.5 pollution raises a question about how source emissions impact the air quality during these pandemic periods. In this study, we investigated the stable Cu and Si isotopic compositions and typical source-specific fingerprints of PM2.5 and its sources. We show that the primary PM2.5 emissions (PM2.5 emitted directly from sources) actually had no reduction but redistribution during these pandemic periods, rather than the previous thought of being greatly reduced. This finding provided critical evidence to interpret the anomalistic PM2.5 increase during the pandemic periods in north China. Our results also suggested that both the energy structure adjustment and stringent regulations on primary emissions should be synergistically implemented in a regional scale for clean air actions in China.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Beijing , China , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 425: 128037, 2022 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575585

ABSTRACT

High contents of heavy metals and Cl are major challenges for incineration residue disposal. Classification by the Chinese government and the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic have changed the characteristics of incineration residues, thereby increasing the difficulty of disposal. In this study, medical waste incineration fly ash (MWI FA) was proposed as an additive to promote chlorination volatilization of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWI FA) and medical waste incineration slag (MWI S). When the mixing ratio of MWI FA to MSWI FA was 1:3, the chlorination volatilization efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd at 1000 °C for 60 min were 50.2%, 99.4%, 99.7%, and 97.9%, respectively. When MWI FA was mixed with MWI S at a ratio of 1:1, the chlorination volatilization efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd at 1200 °C for 40 min were 88.9%, 99.7%, 97.3%, and 100%, respectively. Adding MWI FA can replenish Cl in MSWI FA and MWI S while increasing the surface area and forming pore structures by sublimation of NaCl and decomposition of CaSO4, or can reduce the melting point and viscosity by Na2O destroying the glass matrix. Therefore, MWI FA can be co-disposed with MSWI FA and MWI S respectively to enhance the chlorination volatilization of heavy metals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medical Waste , Metals, Heavy , Refuse Disposal , Carbon , Coal Ash , Halogenation , Humans , Incineration , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Particulate Matter , SARS-CoV-2 , Solid Waste , Volatilization
14.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt D): 112369, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574591

ABSTRACT

Brazil, the country most impacted by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the southern hemisphere, use intensive care admissions per day, mobility and other indices to monitor quarantines and prevent the transmissions of SARS-CoV-2. In this study we quantified the associations between residential mobility index (RMI), air pollution, meteorology, and daily cases and deaths of COVID-19 in São Paulo, Brazil. We applied a semiparametric generalized additive model (GAM) to estimate: 1) the association between RMI and COVID-19, accounting for ambient particulate matter (PM2.5), ozone (O3), relative humidity, temperature and delayed exposure between 4 and 21 days, and 2) the association between COVID-19 and exposure to for ambient particulate matter (PM2.5), ozone (O3), accounting for relative humidity, temperature and mobility. We found that an RMI of 45.28% results in 1212 cases (95% CI: 1189 to 1235) and 44 deaths (95% CI: 40 to 47). Increasing the isolation from 45.28% to 50% would avoid 438 cases and 21 deaths. Also, we found that an increment of 10 µg⋅m-³ of PM2.5 results in a risk of 1.140 (95% CI: 1.021 to 1.274) for cases and 1.086 (95% CI: 1.008 to 1.170) for deaths, while O3 produces a relative risk of 1.075 (95% CI: 1.006 to 1.150) for cases and 1.063 (95% CI: 1.006 to 1.124) for deaths, respectively. We compared our results with observations and literature review, finding well agreement. Policymakers can use such mobility indices as tools to control social distance activities. Spatial distancing is an important factor to control COVID-19, however, measuring face-mask usage would enhance the understanding the pandemic dynamic. Small increments of air pollution result in an increased number of COVID-19 cases and deaths.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572473

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, over half of the global population is living in urban areas. The metropolitan areas are highly populated and environmentally non-green regions on the planet. In green space regions, plants, grass, and green vegetation prevent soil erosion, absorb air pollutants, provide fresh and clean air, and minimize the burden of diseases. Presently, the entire world is facing a turmoil situation due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigates the effect of the green space environment on air pollutants particulate matter PM2.5, PM10, carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), incidence and mortality of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in environmentally highly green and less-green countries. We randomly selected 17 countries based on the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) data. The 60% of the EPI score is based on seven categories: "biodiversity and habitat, ecosystem, fisheries, climate change, pollution emissions, agriculture, and water resources". However, 40% of the score is based on four categories: "air quality, sanitation and drinking water, heavy metals, and waste management". The air pollutants and SARS-CoV-2 cases and deaths were recorded from 25 January 2020, to 11 July 2021. The air pollutants "PM2.5, PM10, CO, and O3" were recorded from the metrological websites, Air Quality Index-AQI, 2021. The COVID-19 daily cases and deaths were obtained from the World Health Organization. The result reveals that air pollutants mean values for PM2.5 110.73 ± 1.09 vs. 31.35 ± 0.29; PM10 80.43 ± 1.11 vs. 17.78 ± 0.15; CO 7.92 ± 0.14 vs. 2.35 ± 0.03 were significantly decreased (p < 0.0001) in environmentally highly green space countries compared to less-green countries. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 cases 15,713.61 ± 702.42 vs. 3445.59 ± 108.09; and deaths 297.56 ± 11.27 vs. 72.54 ± 2.61 were also significantly decreased in highly green countries compared to less-green countries. The green environment positively impacts human wellbeing. The policymakers must implement policies to keep the living areas, surroundings, towns, and cities clean and green to minimize air pollution and combat the present pandemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Cities , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Parks, Recreational , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 112023, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545000

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Understanding the latest global spatio-temporal pattern of lung cancer burden attributable to ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) is crucial to prioritize global lung cancer prevention, as well as environment improvement. METHODS: Data on lung cancer attributable to ambient PM2.5 were downloaded from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2019. The numbers and age-standardized rates on lung cancer mortality (ASMR) and disability-adjusted life years (ASDR) were estimated by age, sex, region, and country. We used estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) to quantify the temporal trends of ASMR and ASDR from 1990 to 2019. RESULTS: In 2019, the number of global lung cancer deaths and DALYs attributable to ambient PM2.5 was approximately 0.31 million and 7.02 million respectively, among which more deaths and DALYs occurred in males. At GBD region level, the heaviest burden occurred in East Asia, accounting for over 50% worldwide, with China ranked first worldwide. The number of ambient PM2.5 attributable lung cancer deaths and DALYs has over doubled from 1990 to 2019, but high sociodemographic index (SDI) region had a rapid decrease, with EAPC -2.21 in ASMR (95% CI: -2.32, -2.09). The age-specific mortality rate or DALY rate has increased in all age groups in low to middle SDI regions from 1990 to 2019. The ASMR or ASDR showed an inverted V-shaped association with SDI. The EAPC in ASMR or ASDR was highly negatively correlated with ASMR or ASDR in 1990 and SDI in 2019, with coefficients around 0.70. CONCLUSIONS: The number of ambient PM2.5-related lung cancer deaths and DALYs has largely increased because of the increase of exposure to PM2.5, population growth, and aging. Local governments should do economic activities under the consideration of public health, especially in high-burden areas.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Particulate Matter , Disability-Adjusted Life Years , Global Burden of Disease , Global Health , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Male , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
18.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 120, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a serious public health concern worldwide. Certain regions of the globe were severely affected in terms of prevalence and mortality than other. Although the cause for this pattern is not clearly understood, lessons learned from previous epidemics and emerging evidences suggest the major role of ecological factors like ambient air pollutants (AAP) and meteorological parameters in increased COVID-19 incidence. The present study aimed to understand the impact of these factors on SARS-CoV-2 transmission and their associated mortality in major cities of India. METHODS: This study used secondary AAP, meteorological and COVID-19 data from official websites for the period January-November 2020, which were divided into Pre-lockdown (January-March 2020), Phase I (April to June 2020) and Phase II (July to November 2020) in India. After comprehensive screening, five major cities that includes 48 CPCB monitoring stations collecting daily data of ambient temperature, particulate matter PM2.5 and 10 were analysed. Spearman and Kendall's rank correlation test was performed to understand the association between SARS-CoV-2 transmission and AAP and, meteorological variables. Similarly, case fatality rate (CFR) was determined to compute the correlation between AAP and COVID-19 related morality. RESULTS: The level of air pollutants in major cities were significantly reduced during Phase I compared to Pre-lock down and increased upon Phase II in all the cities. During the Phase II in Delhi, the strong significant positive correlation was observed between the AAP and SARS-CoV-2 transmission. However, in Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Mumbai AAP levels were moderate and no correlation was noticed. The relation between AT and SARS-CoV-2 transmission was inconclusive as both positive and negative correlation observed. In addition, Delhi and Kolkata showed a positive association between long-term exposure to the AAP and COVID-19 CFR. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the hypothesis that the particulate matter upon exceeding the satisfactory level serves as an important cofactor in increasing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and related mortality. These findings would help public health experts to understand the SARS-CoV-2 transmission against ecological variables in India and provides supporting evidence to healthcare policymakers and government agencies for formulating strategies to combat the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Meteorological Concepts , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Cities , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , India/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/analysis
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 834, 2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525554

ABSTRACT

Atmospheric contaminants severely impact air quality in large global urban centers. The emergence of COVID-19 in China in December 2019 and its expansion around the world reduced human activities on account of the implementation of a social isolation policy. In Brazil, COVID-19 arrived in February 2020, and a policy of social isolation was adopted in March by state governments; this work aimed to evaluate pollutant gas emissions in Brazil in the face of the pandemic. In the city of São Paulo, the concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were analyzed at three automatic monitoring stations of the Environmental Company of the State of São Paulo (CETESB). In this way, reductions in concentrations of these gases were observed after the decree of social isolation on March 24, due to a noticeable drop in vehicle traffic in the city. A reduction in concentrations of NO2, between 53.6 and 73%, and a decrease in concentrations of CO, from 50 to 66.7%, were obtained at the monitoring stations. Another impact caused by COVID-19 was the increase in deforestation and fires was identified in the Brazilian Legal Amazon after social isolation, due to the decrease in the inspection of environmental agencies. The fires produce thermal degradation of the biomass, generating polluting gases and material particulate. These atmospheric contaminants are extremely harmful to the health of Amazonian populations. Summed to the expansion of COVID-19 in this region, all these factors combined cause the public health system to collapse. CO2eq emissions increase estimates, according to the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimation System technical report, ranged from 10 to 20% in 2020, compared to those from 2018. If Brazil maintains deforestation at this pace, it will be difficult to meet the emission reduction targets agreed at COP21.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Gases/analysis , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(21): 6745-6766, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524863

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has created the current pandemic, has caused a worldwide worry. Different countries have since enforced varying levels of lockdowns and guidelines for their populations to follow in a serious effort to mitigate the spread. Up until recently, the majority of these regulations and policies were established on the assumption that the dominant routes of transmission of this virus are through droplets and fomite contact. However, there is now a substantial amount of research pointing towards the strong possibility that SARS-CoV-2 can spread through airborne means. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have recently recognized this, which poses the question of whether our collective methods of lessening transmission risk and keeping people safe have been sufficient. This paper is a comprehensive review of the evidence on SARS-CoV-2 being an airborne disease, through different epidemiological, experimental, and animal-model based published research. Studies opposing this evidence have also been discussed. The majority of these studies are favoring the high plausibility of SARS-CoV-2 aerosol transmission, and therefore the many implications of aerosol transmission have been discussed in this paper to suggest effective mitigation and control strategies.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital/virology , Feces/virology , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , Particulate Matter , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ventilation/standards , Virus Inactivation
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...