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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(11): 117003, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence links ambient air pollution with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease, an association that is methodologically challenging to investigate. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between long-term exposure to air pollution with SARS-CoV-2 infection measured through antibody response, level of antibody response among those infected, and COVID-19 disease. METHODS: We contacted 9,605 adult participants from a population-based cohort study in Catalonia between June and November 2020; most participants were between 40 and 65 years of age. We drew blood samples from 4,103 participants and measured immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG antibodies against five viral target antigens to establish infection to the virus and levels of antibody response among those infected. We defined COVID-19 disease using self-reported hospital admission, prior positive diagnostic test, or more than three self-reported COVID-19 symptoms after contact with a COVID-19 case. We estimated prepandemic (2018-2019) exposure to fine particulate matter [PM with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5µm (PM2.5)], nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), and ozone (O3) at the residential address using hybrid land-use regression models. We calculated log-binomial risk ratios (RRs), adjusting for individual- and area-level covariates. RESULTS: Among those tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, 743 (18.1%) were seropositive. Air pollution levels were not statistically significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection: Adjusted RRs per interquartile range were 1.07 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.18) for NO2, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.14) for PM2.5, 1.00 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.09) for BC, and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.06) for O3. Among infected participants, exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 were positively associated with IgG levels for all viral target antigens. Among all participants, 481 (5.0%) had COVID-19 disease. Air pollution levels were associated with COVID-19 disease: adjusted RRs=1.14 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.29) for NO2 and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.32) for PM2.5. Exposure to O3 was associated with a slightly decreased risk (RR=0.92; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.03). Associations of air pollution with COVID-19 disease were more pronounced for severe COVID-19, with RRs=1.26 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.79) for NO2 and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.16) for PM2.5. DISCUSSION: Exposure to air pollution was associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 disease and level of antibody response among infected but not with SARS-CoV-2 infection. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP9726.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Antibody Formation , Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Middle Aged , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 149986, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was linked to depression incidence, although the results were limited and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of long-term air pollution exposure on depression risk prospectively in China. METHODS: The present study used data from Yinzhou Cohort on adults without depression at baseline, and followed up until April 2020. Two-year moving average concentrations of particulate matter with a diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured using land-use regression (LUR) models for each participant. Depression cases were ascertained using the Health Information System (HIS) of the local health administration by linking the unique identifiers. We conducted Cox regression models with time-varying exposures to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of depression with each pollutant, after adjusting for a sequence of individual covariates as demographic characteristics, lifestyles, and comorbidity. Besides, physical activity, baseline potential depressive symptoms, cancer status, COVID-19 pandemic, different outcome definitions and air pollution exposure windows were considered in sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Among the 30,712 adults with a mean age of 62.22 ± 11.25, 1024 incident depression cases were identified over totaling 98,619 person-years of observation. Interquartile range increments of the air pollutants were associated with increased risks of depression, and the corresponding HRs were 1.59 (95%CI: 1.46, 1.72) for PM2.5, 1.49 (95%CI: 1.35, 1.64) for PM10 and 1.58 (95%CI: 1.42, 1.77) for NO2. Subgroup analyses suggested that participants without taking any protective measures towards air pollution were more susceptible. The results remained robust in all sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was identified as a risk factor for depression onset. Strategies to reduce air pollution are necessary to decrease the disease burden of depression.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Adult , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Incidence , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(2): 448-458, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important environmental risk factor for cardiopulmonary diseases. However, the association between PM2.5 and risk of CKD remains under-recognized, especially in regions with high levels of PM2.5, such as China. METHODS: To explore the association between long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 and CKD prevalence in China, we used data from the China National Survey of CKD, which included a representative sample of 47,204 adults. We estimated annual exposure to PM2.5 before the survey date at each participant's address, using a validated, satellite-based, spatiotemporal model with a 10 km×10 km resolution. Participants with eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or albuminuria were defined as having CKD. We used a logistic regression model to estimate the association and analyzed the influence of potential modifiers. RESULTS: The 2-year mean PM2.5 concentration was 57.4 µg/m3, with a range from 31.3 to 87.5 µg/m3. An increase of 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was positively associated with CKD prevalence (odds ratio [OR], 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22 to 1.35) and albuminuria (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.32 to 1.47). Effect modification indicated these associations were significantly stronger in urban areas compared with rural areas, in males compared with females, in participants aged <65 years compared with participants aged ≥65 years, and in participants without comorbid diseases compared with those with comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: These findings regarding the relationship between long-term exposure to high ambient PM2.5 levels and CKD in the general Chinese population provide important evidence for policy makers and public health practices to reduce the CKD risk posed by this pollutant.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/adverse effects , Albuminuria/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Albuminuria/diagnosis , China , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors
6.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 65, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias currently represent the fifth most common cause of death in the world, according to the World Health Organization, with a projected future increase as the proportion of the elderly in the population is growing. Air pollution has emerged as a plausible risk factor for AD, but studies estimating dementia cases attributable to exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and resulting monetary estimates are lacking. METHODS: We used data on average population-weighted exposure to ambient PM2.5 for the entire population of Sweden above 30 years of age. To estimate the annual number of dementia cases attributable to air pollution in the Swedish population above 60 years of age, we used the latest concentration response functions (CRF) between PM2.5 exposure and dementia incidence, based on ten longitudinal cohort studies, for the population above 60 years of age. To estimate the monetary burden of attributable cases, we calculated total costs related to dementia, including direct and indirect lifetime costs and intangible costs by including quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost. Two different monetary valuations of QALYs in Sweden were used to estimate the monetary value of reduced quality-of-life from two different payer perspectives. RESULTS: The annual number of dementia cases attributable to PM2.5 exposure was estimated to be 820, which represents 5% of the annual dementia cases in Sweden. Direct and indirect lifetime average cost per dementia case was estimated to correspond € 213,000. A reduction of PM2.5 by 1 µg/m3 was estimated to yield 101 fewer cases of dementia incidences annually, resulting in an estimated monetary benefit ranging up to 0.01% of the Swedish GDP in 2019. CONCLUSION: This study estimated that 5% of annual dementia cases could be attributed to PM2.5 exposure, and that the resulting monetary burden is substantial. These findings suggest the need to consider airborne toxic pollutants associated with dementia incidence in public health policy decisions.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Pollutants , Particulate Matter , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cost of Illness , Dementia/economics , Dementia/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/economics , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Environmental Pollutants/economics , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/economics , Quality of Life , Sweden/epidemiology
7.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 101, 2021 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) began in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and was declared a global pandemic on 11 March 2020. This study aimed to assess the effects of temperature and long-term exposure to air pollution on the COVID-19 mortality rate at the sub-national level in France. METHODS: This cross-sectional study considered different periods of the COVID-19 pandemic from May to December 2020. It included 96 departments (or NUTS 3) in mainland France. Data on long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5), annual mean temperature, health services, health risk, and socio-spatial factors were used as covariates in negative binomial regression analysis to assess their influence on the COVID-19 mortality rate. All data were obtained from open-access sources. RESULTS: The cumulative COVID-19 mortality rate by department increased during the study period in metropolitan France-from 19.8/100,000 inhabitants (standard deviation (SD): 20.1) on 1 May 2020, to 65.4/100,000 inhabitants (SD: 39.4) on 31 December 2020. The rate was the highest in the departments where the annual average of long-term exposure to PM2.5 was high. The negative binomial regression models showed that a 1 µg/m3 increase in the annual average PM2.5 concentration was associated with a statistically significant increase in the COVID-19 mortality rate, corresponding to 24.4%, 25.8%, 26.4%, 26.7%, 27.1%, 25.8%, and 15.1% in May, June, July, August, September, October, and November, respectively. This association was no longer significant on 1 and 31 December 2020. The association between temperature and the COVID-19 mortality rate was only significant on 1 November, 1 December, and 31 December 2020. An increase of 1 °C in the average temperature was associated with a decrease in the COVID-19-mortality rate, corresponding to 9.7%, 13.3%, and 14.5% on 1 November, 1 December, and 31 December 2020, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study found significant associations between the COVID-19 mortality rate and long-term exposure to air pollution and temperature. However, these associations tended to decrease with the persistence of the pandemic and massive spread of the disease across the entire country.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , France/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature
8.
Environ Int ; 156: 106725, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, limited data on trends in the global burden of T2D attributed to PM2.5, particularly in different regions by social-economic levels. We evaluated the spatio-temporal changes in the disease burden of T2D attributed to PM2.5 from 1990 to 2019 in 204 countries and regions with different socio-demographic indexes (SDI). METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis with data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 (GBD2019) database. The burden of T2D attributed to PM2.5, age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) and age-standardized disability-adjusted life year rate (ASDR) were estimated according to sex, age, nationality and SDI. The annual percentage change (APCs) and the average annual percentage change (AAPCs) were calculated by using the Joinpoint model to evaluate the changing trend of ASMR and ASDR attributed to PM2.5 from 1990 to 2019. The Gaussian process regression model was used to estimate the relationship of SDI with ASMR and ASDR. RESULTS: Overall, the global burden of T2D attributable to PM2.5 increased significantly since 1990, particularly in the elderly, men, Africa, Asia and low-middle SDI regions. The ASMR and ASDR of T2D attributable to PM2.5 in 2019 were 2.47 (95% CI: 1.71, 3.24) per 100,000 population and 108.98 (95% CI: 74.06, 147.23) per 100,000 population, respectively. From 1990 to 2019, the global ASMR and ASDR of T2D attributed to T2D increased by 57.32% and 86.75%, respectively. The global AAPCs of ASMR and ASDR were 1.57 (95% CI: 1.46, 1.68) and 2.17 (95% CI: 2.02, 2.32), respectively. Declining trends were observed in North America, South America, Europe, Australia, and other regions with high SDI. CONCLUSIONS: Over this 30-years study, the global T2D burden attributable to PM2.5 has increased particularly in regions with low-middle SDI. PM2.5 remains a great concern on the global burden of diabetes.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Global Burden of Disease , Global Health , Humans , Male , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Retrospective Studies
9.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388519

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Almost half of all school-age children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) have asthma-like symptoms and more suffer from lung function deficits. While air pollution and indoor respiratory irritants are known to affect high-risk populations of children, few studies have objectively evaluated environmental contributions to long-term respiratory morbidity in this population. This study aimed to examine the role of indoor environmental exposures on respiratory morbidity in children with BPD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Air quality, Environment and Respiratory Ouctomes in BPD (AERO-BPD) study is a prospective, single-centre observational study that will enrol a unique cohort of 240 children with BPD and carefully characterise participants and their indoor home environmental exposures. Measures of indoor air quality constituents will assess the relationship of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM2.5), nitric oxide (NO), temperature and humidity, as well as dust concentrations of allergens, with concurrently measured respiratory symptoms and lung function.Adaptations to the research protocol due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic included remote home environment and participant assessments. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Study protocol was approved by the Boston Children's Hospital Committee on Clinical Investigation. Dissemination will be in the form of peer-reviewed publications and participant information products. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04107701.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/adverse effects , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Allergens , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/physiopathology , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/diagnosis , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Humidity , Male , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Temperature
10.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110396, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386308

ABSTRACT

We have reviewed a considerable amount of recent scientific papers relating inflammation caused by air pollution with chronic and severe medical conditions. Furthermore, there are evidences relating organ inflammation caused by not only outdoor long-term but also short-term inhaled radioisotopes contained in high polluted air or in household natural radioactive background aerosols, in addition to SARS-COV-2 attached to bioaerosols, which are related with a worst evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome patients. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by the interaction with environmental ionizing radiation contained in pollution is pointed out as a critical mechanism that predispose mainly to elder population, but not excluding young subjects, presenting previous chronic conditions of lung inflammation or neuroinflammation, which can lead to the most serious consequences.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Radioactive/adverse effects , COVID-19/etiology , Climate Change , Inflammation/etiology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aerosols , Air Microbiology , COVID-19/mortality , Causality , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammasomes/radiation effects , Models, Biological , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Pneumonia/etiology
11.
Respirology ; 26(12): 1181-1187, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378057

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Ecological studies have suggested an association between exposure to particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5 ) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity. However, these findings are yet to be validated in individual-level studies. We aimed to determine the association of long-term PM2.5 exposure with hospitalization among individual patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: We estimated the 10-year (2009-2018) PM2.5 exposure at the residential zip code of COVID-19 patients diagnosed at the University of Cincinnati healthcare system between 13 March 2020 and 30 September 2020. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI for COVID-19 hospitalizations associated with PM2.5 , adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics and comorbidities. RESULTS: Among the 14,783 COVID-19 patients included in our study, 13.6% were hospitalized; the geometric mean (SD) PM2.5 was 10.48 (1.12) µg/m3 . In adjusted analysis, 1 µg/m3 increase in 10-year annual average PM2.5 was associated with 18% higher hospitalization (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.11-1.26). Likewise, 1 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 estimated for the year 2018 was associated with 14% higher hospitalization (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.08-1.21). CONCLUSION: Long-term PM2.5 exposure is associated with increased hospitalization in COVID-19. Therefore, more stringent COVID-19 prevention measures may be needed in areas with higher PM2.5 exposure to reduce the disease morbidity and healthcare burden.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 69(5): 247-254, 2021 Oct.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336882

ABSTRACT

POSITION DU PROBLèME: Le confinement mis en place au deuxième trimestre 2020 a entrainé une amélioration de la qualité de l'air de Santiago, capitale et plus grande ville du Chili, caractérisée par de fortes concentrations en particules fines PM2,5 liées, en grande partie, au trafic routier. L'objectif était de mettre en évidence une potentielle réduction des visites aux urgences pour infarctus du myocarde aigu (IDM) et des décès dus à une cardiopathie ischémique (CPI) attribuable à l'émission de PM2,5, en comparant les périodes équivalentes de 2019 et de 2020. MéTHODES: À Santiago, la surveillance de la qualité de l'air se fait grâce à neuf moniteurs situés dans neuf communes différentes : Cerro Navia, Cerrillos, El Bosque, Pudahuel, Independencia, La Florida, Quilicura, Santiago centre-ville et Las Condes (classées de la plus haute à la plus basse en matière de pauvreté multidimensionnelle). La concentration moyenne quotidienne de PM2,5 a été décrite avec des séries temporelles, et les visites aux urgences pour IDM et les décès dus à une CPI ont été analysés de façon trimestrielle pour chaque année. Pour estimer l'impact de l'excès de PM2,5, les fractions de risque attribuables (FRA) pour les visites aux urgences pour IDM et les décès pour CPI ont été calculées. RéSULTATS: La moyenne quotidienne des PM2,5 a diminué dans huit des neuf communes de Santiago. Cependant, la réduction n'a été significative que dans trois communes. Les visites aux urgences pour IDM et les décès par CPI attribuables aux PM2,5 ont diminué légèrement mais significativement dans ces trois communes. Les FRA dans les autres communes sont restées similaires à 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Une réduction significative de la FRA des PM2,5 pour les décès par CPI et les visites aux urgences d'IDM n'a été observée que dans les communes avec une réduction significative de la concentration quotidienne moyenne de PM2,5 pendant la pandémie de COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Ischemia/mortality , Chile , Cities , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/adverse effects
14.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 31(5): 797-803, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309430

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been linked to increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. Thus, it has been suggested that wildfire smoke events may exacerbate the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to examine whether wildfire smoke from the 2020 wildfires in the western United States was associated with an increased rate of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Reno, Nevada. METHODS: We conducted a time-series analysis using generalized additive models to examine the relationship between the SARS-CoV-2 test positivity rate at a large regional hospital in Reno and ambient PM2.5 from 15 May to 20 Oct 2020. RESULTS: We found that a 10 µg/m3 increase in the 7-day average PM2.5 concentration was associated with a 6.3% relative increase in the SARS-CoV-2 test positivity rate, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 2.5 to 10.3%. This corresponded to an estimated 17.7% (CI: 14.4-20.1%) increase in the number of cases during the time period most affected by wildfire smoke, from 16 Aug to 10 Oct. SIGNIFICANCE: Wildfire smoke may have greatly increased the number of COVID-19 cases in Reno. Thus, our results substantiate the role of air pollution in exacerbating the pandemic and can help guide the development of public preparedness policies in areas affected by wildfire smoke, as wildfires are likely to coincide with the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Wildfires , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Humans , Nevada , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoke/adverse effects , United States/epidemiology
15.
Environ Res ; 202: 111673, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies conducted in several OECD countries have shown that chronic exposure to elevated levels of air pollutants (especially PM2.5, PM10 and NOx), might negatively impact COVID-19 morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to examine the association between chronic exposure to air pollution in Israeli cities and towns, their demographic and socioeconomic status, and COVID-19 morbidity, during the three local morbidity waves. METHODS: We examined the associations between: (a) annual average concentrations of NOx, CO, PM10, PM2.5 and SO2 in 2016-2019, and demographic and socioeconomic parameters, and (b) COVID-19 positive cases in 279 Israeli cities and towns, in the four state-wide morbidity peaks: 1st wave peak: March 31st, 2020; 2nd wave peaks: July 24th and September 27th, 2020, and the 3rd wave peak: January 17th, 2021, which occurred after the beginning of the nationwide vaccination campaign. These associations were calculated using both Spearman correlations and multivariate linear regressions. RESULTS: We found statistically significant positive correlations between the concentrations of most pollutants in 2016-19 and COVID-19 morbidity rate at the first three timepoints but not the 4th (January 17th, 2021). Population density and city/town total population were also positively associated with the COVID-19 morbidity rates at these three timepoints, but not the 4th, in which socioeconomic parameters were more dominant - we found a statistically significant negative correlation between socioeconomic cluster and COVID-19 morbidity. In addition, all multivariate models including PM2.5 concentrations were statistically significant, and PM2.5 concentrations were positively associated with the COVID-19 morbidity rates in all models. CONCLUSIONS: We found a nationwide association between population chronic exposure to five main air pollutants in Israeli cities and towns, and COVID-19 morbidity rates during two of the three morbidity waves experienced in Israel. The widespread morbidity that was related to socioeconomic factors during the 3rd wave, emphasizes the need for special attention to morbidity prevention in socioeconomically vulnerable populations and especially in large household communities. Nevertheless, this ecological study has several limitations, such as the inability to draw conclusions about causality or mechanisms of action. The growing body of evidence, regarding association between exacerbated COVID-19 morbidity and mortality rates and long-term chronic exposure to elevated concentrations of air pollutants should serve as a wake-up call to policy makers regarding the urgent need to reduce air pollution and its harmful effects.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Morbidity , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Socioeconomic Factors
16.
Physiol Rep ; 9(13): e14802, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305905

ABSTRACT

In severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-prolonging treatment, especially among COVID-19 patients. Evaluation of lung injury progression is challenging with current techniques. Diagnostic imaging or invasive diagnostics are risky given the difficulties of intra-hospital transportation, contraindication of biopsies, and the potential for the spread of infections, such as in COVID-19 patients. We have recently shown that particle flow rate (PFR) from exhaled breath could be a noninvasive, early detection method for ARDS during mechanical ventilation. We hypothesized that PFR could also measure the progress of lung injury during ECMO treatment. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was thus used to induce ARDS in pigs under mechanical ventilation. Eight were connected to ECMO, whereas seven animals were not. In addition, six animals received sham treatment with saline. Four human patients with ECMO and ARDS were also monitored. In the pigs, as lung injury ensued, the PFR dramatically increased and a particular spike followed the establishment of ECMO in the LPS-treated animals. PFR remained elevated in all animals with no signs of lung recovery. In the human patients, in the two that recovered, PFR decreased. In the two whose lung function deteriorated while on ECMO, there was increased PFR with no sign of recovery in lung function. The present results indicate that real-time monitoring of PFR may be a new, complementary approach in the clinic for measurement of the extent of lung injury and recovery over time in ECMO patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Lung Injury/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Particulate Matter/analysis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Animals , Blood Gas Analysis/methods , COVID-19/chemically induced , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Lung/drug effects , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/chemically induced , Swine
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 795: 148764, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294225

ABSTRACT

Sandstorms are a natural metrological phenomenon, frequently occurring in many arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The sandstorm dust contains environmental pollutants, microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. These events are the primary sources of air pollution and its long-distance transport. Thus, sandstorms are becoming a greater concern during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this novel study aimed to investigate the effect of a sandstorm on "environmental pollutants particulate matter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and day-to-day new cases and deaths due to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection" in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. On March 12, 2021, a sandstorm occurred in the Riyadh region, the capital city of Saudi Arabia. The data on PM 2.5, CO, NO2, and O3 were recorded three weeks before and three weeks after the onset of the sandstorm, from February 20, 2021, to March 12, 2021, and from March 13 to April 2, 2021. The daily PM2.5, CO, NO2, and O3 levels were documented from the metrological websites, and Air Quality Index-AQI, COVID-19 daily cases, and deaths were obtained from Saudi Arabia's official coronavirus website. After sandstorm, the air pollutants, CO level increased by 84.25%; PM2.5: 76.71%; O3: 40.41%; NO2: 12.03%; and SARS-CoV-2 cases increased by 33.87%. However, the number of deaths decreased by 22.39%. The sandstorm event significantly increased the air pollutants, PM2.5, CO, and O3, which were temporally associated with increased SARS-COV-2 cases. However, no significant difference was noticed in NO2 and the number of deaths after the sandstorm. The findings have an important message to health authorities to timely provide information to the public about the sandstorm and its associated health problems, including SARS-CoV-2 cases and deaths.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Environmental Pollutants , Ozone , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Carbon Monoxide , Humans , Nitric Oxide , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Ozone/adverse effects , Ozone/analysis , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1161, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) originated in the People's Republic of China in December 2019. Thereafter, a global logarithmic expansion of cases occurred. Some countries have a higher rate of infections despite the early implementation of quarantine. Air pollution might be related to high susceptibility to the virus and associated case fatality rates (deaths/cases*100). Lima, Peru, has the second highest incidence of COVID-19 in Latin America and also has one the highest levels of air pollution in the region. METHODS: This study investigated the association of levels of PM2.5 exposure in previous years (2010-2016) in 24 districts of Lima with cases, deaths and case fatality rates for COVID-19. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate this association controlled by age, sex, population density and number of food markets per district. The study period was from March 6 to June 12, 2020. RESULTS: There were 128,700 cases in Lima and 2382 deaths due to COVID-19. The case fatality rate was 1.93%. Previous exposure to PM2.5 (2010-2016) was associated with the number of COVID-19- cases (ß = 0.07; 95% CI: 0.034-0.107) and deaths (ß = 0.0014; 95% CI: 0.0006-0.0.0023) but not with the case fatality rate. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for age, sex and number of food markets, the higher rates of COVID-19 in Metropolitan Lima are attributable to the increased PM2.5 exposure in the previous years, among other reasons. Reduction in air pollution from a long-term perspective and social distancing are needed to prevent the spread of virus outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Peru/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1486(1): 15-38, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263857

ABSTRACT

Exposure to air pollutants has been previously associated with respiratory viral infections, including influenza, measles, mumps, rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus. Epidemiological studies have also suggested that air pollution exposure is associated with increased cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-associated mortality, although the molecular mechanisms by which pollutant exposure affects viral infection and pathogenesis of COVID-19 remain unknown. In this review, we suggest potential molecular mechanisms that could account for this association. We have focused on the potential effect of exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), ozone (O3 ), and particulate matter (PM) since there are studies investigating how exposure to these pollutants affects the life cycle of other viruses. We have concluded that pollutant exposure may affect different stages of the viral life cycle, including inhibition of mucociliary clearance, alteration of viral receptors and proteases required for entry, changes to antiviral interferon production and viral replication, changes in viral assembly mediated by autophagy, prevention of uptake by macrophages, and promotion of viral spread by increasing epithelial permeability. We believe that exposure to pollutants skews adaptive immune responses toward bacterial/allergic immune responses, as opposed to antiviral responses. Exposure to air pollutants could also predispose exposed populations toward developing COIVD-19-associated immunopathology, enhancing virus-induced tissue inflammation and damage.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/adverse effects , COVID-19/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Models, Biological , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Respiratory System/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Toll-Like Receptors/physiology , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication
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