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1.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 94, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100231

ABSTRACT

Background: Since 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in >554M cases and >6.3M deaths worldwide. The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, has resulted in a broad range of clinical symptoms differing in severity. Initially, the elderly were identified as particularly susceptible to severe COVID-19, with children experiencing less severe disease. However, as new variants arise, the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection is changing, and the disease severity in children is increasing. While environmental impacts on COVID-19 have been described, the underlying mechanisms are poorly described. Objective: The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health (PBC) held meeting on September 16, 2021, to explore environmental impacts on infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Methods: The PBC is an international group of environmental scientists and those interested in health outcomes. The PBC met to present preliminary data and discuss the role of exposures to airborne pollutants in enhancing susceptibility to and severity of respiratory tract viral infections, including COVID-19. Findings: Analysis of the literature and data presented identified age as an important factor in vulnerability to air pollution and enhanced COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. Mechanisms involved in increasing severity of COVID-19 were discussed, and gaps in knowledge were identified. Conclusions: Exposure to particulate matter (PM) pollution enhanced morbidity and mortality to COVID-19 in a pediatric population associated with induction of oxidative stress. In addition, free radicals present on PM can induce rapid changes in the viral genome that can lead to vaccine escape, altered host susceptibility, and viral pathogenicity. Nutritional antioxidant supplements have been shown to reduce the severity of viral infections, inhibit the inflammatory cytokine storm, and boost host immunity and may be of benefit in combating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Child , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Environment
2.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(39): e290, 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065447

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In some patients, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is accompanied by loss of smell and taste, and this has been reportedly associated with exposure to air pollutants. This study investigated the relationship between the occurrence of chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients and air pollutant concentrations in Korea. METHODS: Information on the clinical symptom of chemosensory dysfunction, the date of diagnosis, residential area, age, and sex of 60,194 confirmed COVID-19 cases reported to the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency from January 20 to December 31, 2020 was collected. In addition, the daily average concentration of air pollutants for a week in the patients' residential area was collected from the Ministry of Environment based on the date of diagnosis of COVID-19. A binomial logistic regression model, using age and gender, standardized smoking rate, number of outpatient visits, 24-hour mean temperature and relative humidity at the regional level as covariates, was used to determine the effect of air pollution on chemosensory dysfunction. RESULTS: Symptoms of chemosensory dysfunction were most frequent among patients in their 20s and 30s, and occurred more frequently in large cities. The logistic analysis showed that the concentration of particulate matter 10 (PM10) and 2.5 (PM2.5) up to 2 days before the diagnosis of COVID-19 and the concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) at least 7 days before the diagnosis of COVID-19 affected the development of chemosensory dysfunction. In the logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, standardized smoking rate, number of outpatient visits, and daily average temperature and relative humidity, it was found that an increase in the interquartile range of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO on the day of diagnosis increased the incidence of chemosensory dysfunction 1.10, 1.10, 1.17, 1.31, and 1.19-fold, respectively. In contrast, the O3 concentration had a negative association with chemosensory dysfunction. CONCLUSION: High concentrations of air pollutants such as PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO on the day of diagnosis increased the risk of developing chemosensory dysfunction from COVID-19 infection. This result underscores the need to actively prevent exposure to air pollution and prevent COVID-19 infection. In addition, policies that regulate activities and products that create high amounts of harmful environmental wastes may help in promoting better health for all during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Ozone , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Monoxide/analysis , China/epidemiology , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/adverse effects , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Ozone/adverse effects , Ozone/analysis , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Sulfur Dioxide/adverse effects , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis
5.
EBioMedicine ; 85: 104291, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While air pollution is a major issue due to its harmful effects on human health, few studies focus on its impact on the immune system and vulnerability to viral infections. The lockdown declared following the COVID-19 pandemic represents a unique opportunity to study the large-scale impact of variations in air pollutants in real life. We hypothesized that variations in air pollutants modify Th1 response represented by interferon (IFN) γ production. METHODS: We conducted a single center paired pilot cohort study of 58 participants, and a confirmation cohort of 320 participants in Nice (France), with for each cohort two samplings at six months intervals. We correlated the variations in the production of IFNγ after non-specific stimulation of participants' immune cells with variations in key regulated pollutants: NO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10 and climate variables. Using linear regression, we studied the effects of variations of each pollutant on the immune response. FINDINGS: In the pilot cohort, IFNγ production significantly decreased by 25.7% post-lockdown compared to during lockdown, while NO2 increased significantly by 46.0%. After the adjustment for climate variations during the study period (sunshine and temperature), we observed a significant effect of NO2 variation on IFNγ production (P=0.03). In the confirmation cohort IFNγ decreased significantly by 47.8% and after adjustment for environmental factors and intrinsic characteristics we observed a significant effect of environmental factors: NO2, PM10, O3, climatic conditions (sunshine exposure, relative humidity) on variation in IFNγ production (P=0.005, P<0.001, P=0.001, P=0.002 and P<0.001 respectively) but not independently from the BMI at inclusion and the workplace P=0.007 and P<0.001 respectively). INTERPRETATION: We show a weakening of the antiviral cellular response in correlation with an increase of pollutants exposition. FUNDING: Agence Nationale de la Recherche, Conseil Départemental des Alpes-Maritimes and Region Sud.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Interferon-gamma , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Cohort Studies , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects
6.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 24(10): 1337-1349, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982329

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Several studies have found that air pollution and climate change can have an impact on acute coronary syndromes (ACS), the leading cause of death worldwide. We synthesized the latest information about the impact of air pollution and climate change on ACS, the latest data about the pathophysiological mechanisms of meteorological factors and atmospheric pollutants on atherosclerotic disease, and an overall image of air pollution and coronary heart disease in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: The variation of meteorological factors in different seasons increased the risk of ACS. Both the increase and the decrease in apparent temperature were found to be risk factors for ACS admissions. It was also demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of air pollutants, especially particulate matter, increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Climate change as well as increased emissions of air pollutants have a major impact on ACS. The industrialization era and the growing population cause a constant increase in air pollution worldwide. Thus, the number of ACS favored by air pollution and the variations in meteorological factors is expected to increase dramatically in the next few years.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/etiology , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13317, 2022 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972659

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates the air quality in 107 Italian provinces in the period 2014-2019 and the association between exposure to nine outdoor air pollutants and the COVID-19 spread and related mortality in the same areas. The methods used were negative binomial (NB) regression, ordinary least squares (OLS) model, and spatial autoregressive (SAR) model. The results showed that (i) common air pollutants-nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10)-were highly and positively correlated with large firms, energy and gas consumption, public transports, and livestock sector; (ii) long-term exposure to NO2, PM2.5, PM10, benzene, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and cadmium (Cd) was positively and significantly correlated with the spread of COVID-19; and (iii) long-term exposure to NO2, O3, PM2.5, PM10, and arsenic (As) was positively and significantly correlated with COVID-19 related mortality. Specifically, particulate matter and Cd showed the most adverse effect on COVID-19 prevalence; while particulate matter and As showed the largest dangerous impact on excess mortality rate. The results were confirmed even after controlling for eighteen covariates and spatial effects. This outcome seems of interest because benzene, BaP, and heavy metals (As and Cd) have not been considered at all in recent literature. It also suggests the need for a national strategy to drive down air pollutant concentrations to cope better with potential future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Benzene , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cadmium , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/adverse effects , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis
8.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol ; 42: 100523, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882529

ABSTRACT

Better understanding the risk factors that exacerbate Covid-19 symptoms and lead to worse health outcomes is vitally important in the public health fight against the virus. One such risk factor that is currently under investigation is air pollution concentrations, with some studies finding statistically significant effects while other studies have found no consistent associations. The aim of this paper is to add to this global evidence base on the potential association between air pollution concentrations and Covid-19 hospitalisations and deaths, by presenting the first study on this topic at the small-area scale in Scotland, United Kingdom. Our study is one of the most comprehensive to date in terms of its temporal coverage, as it includes all hospitalisations and deaths in Scotland between 1st March 2020 and 31st July 2021. We quantify the effects of air pollution on Covid-19 outcomes using a small-area spatial ecological study design, with inference using Bayesian hierarchical models that allow for the residual spatial correlation present in the data. A key advantage of our study is its extensive sensitivity analyses, which examines the robustness of the results to our modelling assumptions. We find clear evidence that PM2.5 concentrations are associated with hospital admissions, with a 1 µgm-3 increase in concentrations being associated with between a 7.4% and a 9.3% increase in hospitalisations. In addition, we find some evidence that PM2.5 concentrations are associated with deaths, with a 1 µgm-3 increase in concentrations being associated with between a 2.9% and a 10.3% increase in deaths.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis
9.
J Travel Med ; 28(4)2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883023

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE FOR REVIEW: In 2019, approximately, 1.4 billion people travelled internationally. Many individuals travel to megacities where air pollution concentrations can vary significantly. Short-term exposure to air pollutants can cause morbidity and mortality related to cardiovascular and respiratory disease, with the literature clearly reporting a strong association between short-term exposure to particulate matter ≤2.5 µm and ozone with adverse health outcomes in resident populations. However, limited research has been conducted on the health impacts of short-term exposure to air pollution in individuals who travel internationally. The objective of this systematic review was to review the evidence for the respiratory and cardiovascular health impacts from exposure to air pollution during international travel to polluted cities in adults aged ≥18 years old. KEY FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE for studies related to air pollution and the health impacts on international travellers. Of the initially identified 115 articles that fit the search criteria, 6 articles were selected for the final review. All six studies found indications of adverse health impacts of air pollution exposure on international travellers, with most of the changes being reversible upon return to their home country/city. However, none of these studies contained large populations nor investigated vulnerable populations, such as children, elderly or those with pre-existing conditions. CONCLUSIONS: More research is warranted to clearly understand the impacts of air pollution related changes on travellers' health, especially on vulnerable groups who may be at higher risk of adverse impacts during travel to polluted cities.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Child , Cities , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Humans , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis
10.
CMAJ ; 194(20): E693-E700, 2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The tremendous global health burden related to COVID-19 means that identifying determinants of COVID-19 severity is important for prevention and intervention. We aimed to explore long-term exposure to ambient air pollution as a potential contributor to COVID-19 severity, given its known impact on the respiratory system. METHODS: We used a cohort of all people with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, aged 20 years and older and not residing in a long-term care facility in Ontario, Canada, during 2020. We evaluated the association between long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ground-level ozone (O3), and risk of COVID-19-related hospital admission, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death. We ascertained individuals' long-term exposures to each air pollutant based on their residence from 2015 to 2019. We used logistic regression and adjusted for confounders and selection bias using various individual and contextual covariates obtained through data linkage. RESULTS: Among the 151 105 people with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Ontario in 2020, we observed 8630 hospital admissions, 1912 ICU admissions and 2137 deaths related to COVID-19. For each interquartile range increase in exposure to PM2.5 (1.70 µg/m3), we estimated odds ratios of 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.12), 1.09 (95% CI 0.98-1.21) and 1.00 (95% CI 0.90-1.11) for hospital admission, ICU admission and death, respectively. Estimates were smaller for NO2. We also estimated odds ratios of 1.15 (95% CI 1.06-1.23), 1.30 (95% CI 1.12-1.50) and 1.18 (95% CI 1.02-1.36) per interquartile range increase of 5.14 ppb in O3 for hospital admission, ICU admission and death, respectively. INTERPRETATION: Chronic exposure to air pollution may contribute to severe outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly exposure to O3.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/adverse effects , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Ontario/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 239: 113651, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850969

ABSTRACT

Air pollution, to which children are more susceptible than adults, can promote airway inflammation, potentially exaggerating the effects of respiratory viral infection. This study examined the association between the clinical manifestation of COVID-19 in unvaccinated pediatric patients hospitalized in Poland (n = 766) and levels of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) within a week before hospitalization. Children aged ≤ 12 years exposed to mean and max 24 h B(a)P levels > 1 ng/m3 revealed higher odds of cough, dyspnea, fever, and increased concentrations of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, procalcitonin, white blood cell count). In older patients (13-17 years), elevated mean 24 h B(a)P levels increased odds of dyspnea, fever, and diarrhea, and higher concentrations of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin. Exposure to max 24 h PM2.5 levels > 20 µg/m3 was associated with higher odds of cough, increased concentrations of C-reactive protein (group ≤12 years), and increased procalcitonin concentration (groups ≤12 years and 13-17 years). In both age groups, length of stay was extended in patients exposed to elevated levels of max 24 h PM2.5, mean and max 24 h B(a)P. This study suggests that worse air quality, particularly reflected in increased B(a)P levels, might affect the clinical course of COVID-19 in pediatric patients and adds to the disease burden during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Particulate Matter , Adolescent , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Procalcitonin
12.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 206(4): 440-448, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832816

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Ecological studies have shown air pollution associations with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outcomes. However, few cohort studies have been conducted. Objectives: To conduct a cohort study investigating the association between air pollution and COVID-19 severity using individual-level data from the electronic medical record. Methods: This cohort included all individuals who received diagnoses of COVID-19 from Kaiser Permanente Southern California between March 1 and August 31, 2020. One-year and 1-month averaged ambient air pollutant (particulate matter ⩽2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter [PM2.5], NO2, and O3) exposures before COVID-19 diagnosis were estimated on the basis of residential address history. Outcomes included COVID-19-related hospitalizations, intensive respiratory support (IRS), and ICU admissions within 30 days and mortality within 60 days after COVID-19 diagnosis. Covariates included socioeconomic characteristics and comorbidities. Measurements and Main Results: Among 74,915 individuals (mean age, 42.5 years; 54% women; 66% Hispanic), rates of hospitalization, IRS, ICU admission, and mortality were 6.3%, 2.4%, 1.5%, and 1.5%, respectively. Using multipollutant models adjusted for covariates, 1-year PM2.5 and 1-month NO2 average exposures were associated with COVID-19 severity. The odds ratios associated with a 1-SD increase in 1-year PM2.5 (SD, 1.5 µg/m3) were 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.32) for COVID-19-related hospitalization, 1.33 (95% CI, 1.20-1.47) for IRS, and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.16-1.51) for ICU admission; the corresponding odds ratios associated with 1-month NO2 (SD, 3.3 ppb) were 1.12 (95% CI, 1.06-1.17) for hospitalization, 1.18 (95% CI, 1.10-1.27) for IRS, and 1.21 (95% CI, 1.11-1.33) for ICU admission. The hazard ratios for mortality were 1.14 (95% CI, 1.02-1.27) for 1-year PM2.5 and 1.07 (95% CI, 0.98-1.16) for 1-month NO2. No significant interactions with age, sex or ethnicity were observed. Conclusions: Ambient PM2.5 and NO2 exposures may affect COVID-19 severity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Environmental Pollutants , Adult , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19 Testing , California/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Nitrogen Dioxide , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution is associated with acute pediatric asthma exacerbations, including reduced lung function, rescue medication usage, and increased symptoms; however, most studies are limited in investigating longitudinal changes in these acute effects. This study aims to investigate the effects of daily air pollution exposure on acute pediatric asthma exacerbation risk using a repeated-measures design. METHODS: We conducted a panel study of 40 children aged 8-16 years with moderate-to-severe asthma. We deployed the Biomedical REAI-Time Health Evaluation (BREATHE) Kit developed in the Los Angeles PRISMS Center to continuously monitor personal exposure to particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5), relative humidity and temperature, geolocation (GPS), and asthma outcomes including lung function, medication use, and symptoms for 14 days. Hourly ambient (PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3)) and traffic-related (nitrogen oxides (NOx) and PM2.5) air pollution exposures were modeled based on location. We used mixed-effects models to examine the association of same day and lagged (up to 2 days) exposures with daily changes in % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and % predicted peak expiratory flow (PEF), count of rescue inhaler puffs, and symptoms. RESULTS: Participants were on average 12.0 years old (range: 8.4-16.8) with mean (SD) morning %predicted FEV1 of 67.9% (17.3%) and PEF of 69.1% (18.4%) and 1.4 (3.5) puffs per day of rescue inhaler use. Participants reported chest tightness, wheeze, trouble breathing, and cough symptoms on 36.4%, 17.5%, 32.3%, and 42.9%, respectively (n = 217 person-days). One SD increase in previous day O3 exposure was associated with reduced morning (beta [95% CI]: -4.11 [-6.86, -1.36]), evening (-2.65 [-5.19, -0.10]) and daily average %predicted FEV1 (-3.45 [-6.42, -0.47]). Daily (lag 0) exposure to traffic-related PM2.5 exposure was associated with reduced morning %predicted PEF (-3.97 [-7.69, -0.26]) and greater odds of "feeling scared of trouble breathing" symptom (odds ratio [95% CI]: 1.83 [1.03, 3.24]). Exposure to ambient O3, NOx, and NO was significantly associated with increased rescue inhaler use (rate ratio [95% CI]: O3 1.52 [1.02, 2.27], NOx 1.61 [1.23, 2.11], NO 1.80 [1.37, 2.35]). CONCLUSIONS: We found significant associations of air pollution exposure with lung function, rescue inhaler use, and "feeling scared of trouble breathing." Our study demonstrates the potential of informatics and wearable sensor technologies at collecting highly resolved, contextual, and personal exposure data for understanding acute pediatric asthma triggers.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Asthma , Ozone , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Asthma/epidemiology , Child , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide , Ozone/analysis , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e228109, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801986

ABSTRACT

Importance: Mounting ecological evidence shows an association between short-term air pollution exposure and COVID-19, yet no study has examined this association on an individual level. Objective: To estimate the association between short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and SARS-CoV-2 infection among Swedish young adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This time-stratified case-crossover study linked the prospective BAMSE (Children, Allergy Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology [in Swedish]) birth cohort to the Swedish national infectious disease registry to identify cases with positive results for SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing from May 5, 2020, to March 31, 2021. Case day was defined as the date of the PCR test, whereas the dates with the same day of the week within the same calendar month and year were selected as control days. Data analysis was conducted from September 1 to December 31, 2021. Exposures: Daily air pollutant levels (particulate matter with diameter ≤2.5 µm [PM2.5], particulate matter with diameter ≤10 µm [PM10], black carbon [BC], and nitrogen oxides [NOx]) at residential addresses were estimated using dispersion models with high spatiotemporal resolution. Main Outcomes and Measures: Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection among participants within the BAMSE cohort. Distributed-lag models combined with conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the association. Results: A total of 425 cases were identified, of whom 229 (53.9%) were women, and the median age was 25.6 (IQR, 24.9-26.3) years. The median exposure level for PM2.5 was 4.4 [IQR, 2.6-6.8] µg/m3 on case days; for PM10, 7.7 [IQR, 4.6-11.3] µg/m3 on case days; for BC, 0.3 [IQR, 0.2-0.5] µg/m3 on case days; and for NOx, 8.2 [5.6-14.1] µg/m3 on case days. Median exposure levels on control days were 3.8 [IQR, 2.4-5.9] µg/m3 for PM2.5, 6.6 [IQR, 4.5-10.4] µg/m3 for PM10, 0.2 [IQR, 0.2-0.4] µg/m3 for BC, and 7.7 [IQR, 5.3-12.8] µg/m3 for NOx. Each IQR increase in short-term exposure to PM2.5 on lag 2 was associated with a relative increase in positive results of SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing of 6.8% (95% CI, 2.1%-11.8%); exposure to PM10 on lag 2, 6.9% (95% CI, 2.0%-12.1%); and exposure to BC on lag 1, 5.8% (95% CI, 0.3%-11.6%). These findings were not associated with NOx, nor were they modified by sex, smoking, or having asthma, overweight, or self-reported COVID-19 respiratory symptoms. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this case-crossover study of Swedish young adults suggest that short-term exposure to particulate matter and BC was associated with increased risk of positive PRC test results for SARS-CoV-2, supporting the broad public health benefits of reducing ambient air pollution levels.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Adult , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Over Studies , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Nitrogen Oxides/analysis , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785703

ABSTRACT

Exposure to atmospheric particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide has been linked to SARS-CoV-2 infection and death. We hypothesized that long-term exposure to farming-related air pollutants might predispose to an increased risk of COVID-19-related death. To test this hypothesis, we performed an ecological study of five Italian Regions (Piedmont, Lombardy, Veneto, Emilia-Romagna and Sicily), linking all-cause mortality by province (administrative entities within regions) to data on atmospheric concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and ammonia (NH3), which are mainly produced by agricultural activities. The study outcome was change in all-cause mortality during March-April 2020 compared with March-April 2015-2019 (period). We estimated all-cause mortality rate ratios (MRRs) by multivariate negative binomial regression models adjusting for air temperature, humidity, international import-export, gross domestic product and population density. We documented a 6.9% excess in MRR (proxy for COVID-19 mortality) for each tonne/km2 increase in NH3 emissions, explained by the interaction of the period variable with NH3 exposure, considering all pollutants together. Despite the limitations of the ecological design of the study, following the precautionary principle, we recommend the implementation of public health measures to limit environmental NH3 exposure, particularly while the COVID-19 pandemic continues. Future studies are needed to investigate any causal link between COVID-19 and farming-related pollution.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Particulate Matter , Agriculture/statistics & numerical data , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Sicily/epidemiology
16.
Curr Environ Health Rep ; 9(2): 276-298, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777889

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to summarize and provide clear insights into studies that evaluate the interaction between air pollution, climate, and health in North Africa. RECENT FINDINGS: Few studies have estimated the effects of climate and air pollution on health in North Africa. Most of the studies highlighted the evidence of the link between climate and air pollution as driving factors and increased mortality and morbidity as health outcomes. Each North African country prioritized research on a specific health factor. It was observed that the health outcome from each driving factor depends on the studied area and data availability. The latter is a major challenge in the region. As such, more studies should be led in the future to cover more areas in North Africa and when more data are available. Data availability will help to explore the applicability of different tools and techniques new to the region. This review explores studies related to climate and air pollution, and their possible impacts on health in North Africa. On one hand, air quality studies have focused mainly on particulate matter exceedance levels and their long-term exposure impacts, namely, morbidity and mortality. The observed differences between the various studies are mainly due to the used exposure-response function, the studied population, background emissions, and natural emission from the Sahara Desert that characterize the region. On the other hand, climate studies have focused primarily on the impact of heat waves, vector-borne disease, and mental disorders. More than half of these studies have been on leishmaniasis disease. The review revealed unbalanced and insufficient research on health impacts from air pollution episodes and climate extremes across the region.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Climate , Climate Change , Humans , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 740800, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775894

ABSTRACT

Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter pollution (APMP) is a global health issue that directly affects the human respiratory system. Thus, we estimated the spatiotemporal trends in the burden of APMP-related respiratory diseases from 1990 to 2019. Methods: Based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, data on the burden of APMP-related respiratory diseases were analyzed by age, sex, cause, and location. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to analyze the temporal trends in the burden of different respiratory diseases over the 30 years. Results: Globally, in 2019, APMP contributed the most to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with 695.1 thousand deaths and 15.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs); however, the corresponding age-standardized death and DALY rates declined from 1990 to 2019. Similarly, although age-standardized death and DALY rates since 1990 decreased by 24% and 40%, respectively, lower respiratory infections (LRIs) still had the second highest number of deaths and DALYs attributable to APMP. This was followed by tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer, which showed increased age-standardized death and DALY rates during the past 30 years and reached 3.78 deaths per 100,000 persons and 84.22 DALYs per 100,000 persons in 2019. Among children aged < 5 years, LRIs had a huge burden attributable to APMP, whereas for older people, COPD was the leading cause of death and DALYs attributable to APMP. The APMP-related burdens of LRIs and COPD were relatively higher among countries with low and low-middle socio-demographic index (SDI), while countries with high-middle SDI showed the highest burden of TBL cancer attributable to APMP. Conclusions: APMP contributed substantially to the global burden of respiratory diseases, posing a significant threat to human health. Effective actions aimed at air pollution can potentially avoid an increase in the PM2.5-associated disease burden, especially in highly polluted areas.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Adult , Aged , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Global Burden of Disease , Humans , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 735699, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775876

ABSTRACT

Background: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is one of the most common outdoor air pollutants, and secondhand smoking (SHS) is an important source of inhalable indoor air pollution. Previous studies were controversial and inconsistent about PM2.5 and SHS air pollutants on neonatal birth weight outcomes, and no studies assessed the potential interactive effects between PM2.5 and SHS on birth weight outcomes. Purpose: To investigate the interaction between gestational PM2.5 and SHS air pollution exposure on the risk of macrosomia among pregnant women and examine the modifying effect of SHS exposure on the association of PM2.5 air pollution and birth weight outcomes during pregnancy. Methods: Research data were derived from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project (NFPHEP), which lasted 3 years from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2012. At least 240,000 Chinese women from 220 counties were enrolled in this project. PM2.5 exposure concentration was obtained using a hindcast model specific for historical PM2.5 estimation from satellite-retrieved aerosol optic depth. Different interaction models about air pollution exposure on birth weight outcomes were established, according to the adjustment of different confounding factors and different pregnancy stages. The establishment of interaction models was based on multivariable logistic regression, and the main confounding factors were maternal age at delivery and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) of participants. SHS subgroups analysis was conducted to further confirm the results of interaction models. Results: In total, 197,877 participants were included in our study. In the full-adjusted interaction model, maternal exposure to PM2.5 was associated with an increased risk of macrosomia in whole, the first-, second-, and third trimesters of pregnancy (p < 0.001). The interactive effect was statistically significant between maternal exposure to PM2.5 and SHS on the risk of macrosomia in the whole (interaction p < 0.050) and the first-trimester pregnancy (interaction p < 0.050), not in the second (interaction p > 0.050) or third trimester (interaction p > 0.050) of pregnancy. The higher frequency of SHS exposure prompted the stronger interaction between the two air pollutants in the whole pregnancy and the first-trimester pregnancy. Conclusions: In the whole and first-trimester pregnancy, maternal exposure to SHS during pregnancy enhanced the risk of macrosomia among pregnant women exposed to PM2.5 air pollutants, and the interaction became stronger with the higher frequency of SHS exposure.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Fetal Macrosomia , Particulate Matter , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Female , Fetal Macrosomia/chemically induced , Fetal Macrosomia/etiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/analysis
19.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726016

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reached over five million confirmed cases worldwide, and numbers are still growing at a fast rate. Despite the wide outbreak of the infection, a remarkable asymmetry is observed in the number of cases and in the distribution of the severity of the COVID-19 symptoms in patients with respect to the countries/regions. In the early stages of a new pathogen outbreak, it is critical to understand the dynamics of the infection transmission, in order to follow contagion over time and project the epidemiological situation in the near future. While it is possible to reason that observed variation in the number and severity of cases stems from the initial number of infected individuals, the difference in the testing policies and social aspects of community transmissions, the factors that could explain high discrepancy in areas with a similar level of healthcare still remain unknown. Here, we introduce a binary classifier based on an artificial neural network that can help in explaining those differences and that can be used to support the design of containment policies. We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection frequency positively correlates with particulate air pollutants, and specifically with particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), while ozone gas is oppositely related with the number of infected individuals. We propose that atmospheric air pollutants could thus serve as surrogate markers to complement the infection outbreak anticipation.


Subject(s)
Atmosphere/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Ozone , Particulate Matter/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Ozone/analysis , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
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