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1.
Environ Pollut ; 303: 119134, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788062

ABSTRACT

It is undeniable that exposure to outdoor air pollution impacts the health of populations and therefore constitutes a public health problem. Any actions or events causing variations in air quality have repercussions on populations' health. Faced with the worldwide COVID-19 health crisis that began at the end of 2019, the governments of several countries were forced, in the beginning of 2020, to put in place very strict containment measures that could have led to changes in air quality. While many works in the literature have studied the issue of changes in the levels of air pollutants during the confinements in different countries, very few have focused on the impact of these changes on health risks. In this work, we compare the 2020 period, which includes two lockdowns (March 16 - May 10 and a partial shutdown Oct. 30 - Dec. 15) to a reference period 2015-2019 to determine how these government-mandated lockdowns affected concentrations of NO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10, and how that affected human health factors, including low birth weight, lung cancer, mortality, asthma, non-accidental mortality, respiratory, and cardiovascular illnesses. To this end, we structured 2020 into four periods, alternating phases of freedom and lockdowns characterized by a stringency index. For each period, we calculated (1) the differences in pollutant levels between 2020 and a reference period (2015-2019) at both background and traffic stations; and (2) the resulting variations in the epidemiological based relative risks of health outcomes. As a result, we found that relative changes in pollutant levels during the 2020 restriction period were as follows: NO2 (-32%), PM2.5 (-22%), PM10 (-15%), and O3 (+10.6%). The pollutants associated with the highest health risk reductions in 2020 were PM2.5 and NO2, while PM10 and O3 changes had almost no effect on health outcomes. Reductions in short-term risks were related to reductions in PM2.5 (-3.2% in child emergency room visits for asthma during the second lockdown) and NO2 (-1.5% in hospitalizations for respiratory causes). Long-term risk reductions related to PM2.5 were low birth weight (-8%), mortality (-3.3%), and lung cancer (-2%), and to NO2 for mortality (-0.96%). Overall, our findings indicate that the confinement period in 2020 resulted in a substantial improvement in air quality in the Grenoble area.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Asthma , COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide , Particulate Matter/analysis
2.
Geospat Health ; 17(s1)2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780140

ABSTRACT

Due to the worldwide spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), human mobility and economic activity have slowed down considerably since early 2020. A relatively high number of those infected develop serious pneumonia leading to progressive respiratory failure, system disease and often death. Apart from close human-to-human contact, the acceleration and global diffusion of this pandemic has been shown to be associated with changes in atmospheric chemistry and air pollution by microscopic particulate matter (PM). Breathing air with high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and PM can result in over-expression of the angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) leading to stress of organs, such as heart and kidneys. Satellite monitoring can play a crucial role in spatio-temporal surveillance of the disease by producing data on pollution as proxy for industrial activity, transport and traffic circulation. Real-time monitoring of COVID-19 in air and chemical pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer available from Earth-observing satellites commuting with Health Information Systems (HIS) would be useful for decision makers involved with public health.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 843862, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776053

ABSTRACT

From 2013 to 2017, progress has been made by implementing the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan. Under the background of the 3 Year Action Plan to Fight Air Pollution (2018-2020), the pollution status of PM2.5, a typical air pollutant, has been the focus of continuous attention. The spatiotemporal specificity of PM2.5 pollution in the Chinese urban atmospheric environment from 2018 to 2020 can be summarized to help conclude and evaluate the phased results of the battle against air pollution, and further, contemplate the governance measures during the period of the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025). Based on PM2.5 data from 2018 to 2020 and taking 366 cities across China as research objects, this study found that PM2.5 pollution has improved year by year from 2018 to 2020, and that the heavily polluted areas were southwest Xinjiang and North China. The number of cities with a PM2.5 concentration in the range of 25-35 µg/m3 increased from 34 in 2018 to 86 in 2019 and 99 in 2020. Moreover, the spatial variation of the PM2.5 gravity center was not significant. Concretely, PM2.5 pollution in 2018 was more serious in the first and fourth quarters, and the shift of the pollution's gravity center from the first quarter to the fourth quarter was small. Global autocorrelation indicated that the space was positively correlated and had strong spatial aggregation. Local Moran's I and Local Geti's G were applied to identify hotspots with a high degree of aggregation. Integrating national population density, hotspots were classified into four areas: the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Fenwei Plain, the Yangtze River Delta, and the surrounding areas were selected as the key hotspots for further geographic weighted regression analysis in 2018. The influence degree of each factor on the average annual PM2.5 concentration declined in the following order: (1) the proportion of secondary industry in the GDP, (2) the ownership of civilian vehicles, (3) the annual grain planting area, (4) the annual average population, (5) the urban construction land area, (6) the green space area, and (7) the per capita GDP. Finally, combined with the spatiotemporal distribution of PM2.5, specific suggestions were provided for the classified key hotspots (Areas A, B, and C), to provide preliminary ideas and countermeasures for PM2.5 control in deep-water areas in the 14th Five-Year Plan.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring , Particulate Matter , Socioeconomic Factors , China/epidemiology , Cities , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Policy , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 735699, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775876

ABSTRACT

Background: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is one of the most common outdoor air pollutants, and secondhand smoking (SHS) is an important source of inhalable indoor air pollution. Previous studies were controversial and inconsistent about PM2.5 and SHS air pollutants on neonatal birth weight outcomes, and no studies assessed the potential interactive effects between PM2.5 and SHS on birth weight outcomes. Purpose: To investigate the interaction between gestational PM2.5 and SHS air pollution exposure on the risk of macrosomia among pregnant women and examine the modifying effect of SHS exposure on the association of PM2.5 air pollution and birth weight outcomes during pregnancy. Methods: Research data were derived from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project (NFPHEP), which lasted 3 years from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2012. At least 240,000 Chinese women from 220 counties were enrolled in this project. PM2.5 exposure concentration was obtained using a hindcast model specific for historical PM2.5 estimation from satellite-retrieved aerosol optic depth. Different interaction models about air pollution exposure on birth weight outcomes were established, according to the adjustment of different confounding factors and different pregnancy stages. The establishment of interaction models was based on multivariable logistic regression, and the main confounding factors were maternal age at delivery and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) of participants. SHS subgroups analysis was conducted to further confirm the results of interaction models. Results: In total, 197,877 participants were included in our study. In the full-adjusted interaction model, maternal exposure to PM2.5 was associated with an increased risk of macrosomia in whole, the first-, second-, and third trimesters of pregnancy (p < 0.001). The interactive effect was statistically significant between maternal exposure to PM2.5 and SHS on the risk of macrosomia in the whole (interaction p < 0.050) and the first-trimester pregnancy (interaction p < 0.050), not in the second (interaction p > 0.050) or third trimester (interaction p > 0.050) of pregnancy. The higher frequency of SHS exposure prompted the stronger interaction between the two air pollutants in the whole pregnancy and the first-trimester pregnancy. Conclusions: In the whole and first-trimester pregnancy, maternal exposure to SHS during pregnancy enhanced the risk of macrosomia among pregnant women exposed to PM2.5 air pollutants, and the interaction became stronger with the higher frequency of SHS exposure.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Fetal Macrosomia , Particulate Matter , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Female , Fetal Macrosomia/chemically induced , Fetal Macrosomia/etiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/analysis
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771188

ABSTRACT

Total suspended particles (TSP) were collected in Vladivostok, Russia, which is a typical port city. This study investigated the concentration, potential sources, and long-term variation in particle PAHs and NPAHs in the atmosphere of Vladivostok. The PAH and NPAH concentrations were higher in winter than in summer (PAHs: winter: 18.6 ± 9.80 ng/m3 summer: 0.54 ± 0.21 ng/m3; NPAHs: winter: 143 ± 81.5 pg/m3 summer: 143 ± 81.5 pg/m3). The diagnostic ratios showed that PAHs and NPAHs mainly came from vehicle emissions in both seasons, while heating systems were the main source of air pollution in winter. The TEQ assessment values were 2.90 ng/m3 and 0.06 ng/m3 in winter and summer, respectively, suggesting a significant excess cancer risk in the general population in winter. The ILCR values conveyed a potential carcinogenic risk because the value was between 1 × 10-5 and 1 × 10-7 and ingestion was a main contributor in Vladivostok. However, it is worth noting that the concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs showed an overall downward trend from 1999 to 2020. An important reason for this is the cogenerations project implemented by the Far Eastern Center for Strategic Research on Fuel and Energy Complex Development in 2010. This research clarified the latest variations in PAHs and NPAHs to provide continuous observation data for future chemical reaction or model prediction research.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Air Pollutants/analysis , China , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/analysis , Risk Assessment , Seasons
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5539, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768852

ABSTRACT

Changes in the aerosol composition of sulfate (SO42-) and nitrate (NO3-) from 2012 to 2019 have been captured as a paradigm shift in the region downwind of China. Specifically, SO42- dramatically decreased and NO3- dramatically increased over downwind locations such as western Japan due to the faster reduction of SO2 emissions than NOx emissions and the almost constant trend of NH3 emissions from China. Emissions from China sharply decreased during COVID-19 lockdowns in February-March 2020, after which China's economic situation seemed to recover going into 2021. Given this substantial change in Chinese emissions, it is necessary to clarify the impact of long-range PM2.5 transport into the leeward of East Asia. In this study, ground-based aerosol compositions observed at three sites in western Japan were analysed. The concentrations of PM2.5, SO42- and NO3- decreased in 2020 (during COVID-19) compared with 2018-2019 (before COVID-19). In 2021 (after COVID-19), PM2.5 and NO3- increased and SO42- was unchanged. This suggests the returning long-range PM2.5 transport in 2021. From numerical simulations, the status of Chinese emissions during COVID-19 did not explain this returning impact in 2021. This study shows that the status of Chinese emissions in 2021 recovered to that before COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Far East/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis
7.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0263265, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765533

ABSTRACT

In the last century, the increase in traffic, human activities and industrial production have led to a diffuse presence of air pollution, which causes an increase of risk of several health conditions such as respiratory diseases. In Europe, air pollution is a serious concern that affects several areas, one of the worst ones being northern Italy, and in particular the Po Valley, an area characterized by low air quality due to a combination of high population density, industrial activity, geographical factors and weather conditions. Public health authorities and local administrations are aware of this problem, and periodically intervene with temporary traffic limitations and other regulations, often insufficient to solve the problem. In February 2020, this area was the first in Europe to be severely hit by the SARS-CoV-2 virus causing the COVID-19 disease, to which the Italian government reacted with the establishment of a drastic lockdown. This situation created the condition to study how significant is the impact of car traffic and industrial activity on the pollution in the area, as these factors were strongly reduced during the lockdown. Differently from some areas in the world, a drastic decrease in pollution measured in terms of particulate matter (PM) was not observed in the Po Valley during the lockdown, suggesting that several external factors can play a role in determining the severity of pollution. In this study, we report the case study of the city of Pavia, where data coming from 23 air quality sensors were analyzed to compare the levels measured during the lockdown with the ones coming from the same period in 2019. Our results show that, on a global scale, there was a statistically significant reduction in terms of PM levels taking into account meteorological variables that can influence pollution such as wind, temperature, humidity, rain and solar radiation. Differences can be noticed analyzing daily pollution trends too, as-compared to the study period in 2019-during the study period in 2020 pollution was higher in the morning and lower in the remaining hours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cities/statistics & numerical data , Particulate Matter/analysis , Quarantine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Data Mining , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Traffic-Related Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Weather
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(7): 4272-4281, 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764112

ABSTRACT

Global spread of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is placing an unprecedented pressure on the environment and health. In this study, a new perspective is proposed to assess the inhalation bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM2.5 for people with various lung health conditions. In vitro bioaccessibility (IVBA) was measured using modified epithelial lung fluids simulating the extracellular environment of patients with severe and mild lung inflammation. The average PAH IVBA in PM2.5 of 24.5 ± 4.52% under healthy conditions increased (p = 0.06) to 28.6 ± 3.17% and significantly (p < 0.05) to 32.3 ± 5.32% under mild and severe lung inflammation conditions. A mechanistic study showed that lung inflammation decreased the critical micelle concentrations of main pulmonary surfactants (i.e., from 67.8 (for dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine) and 53.3 mg/L (for bovine serum albumin) to 44.5 mg/L) and promoted the formation of micelles, which enhanced the solubilization and competitive desorption of PAHs from PM2.5 in the lung fluids. In addition, risk assessment considering different IVBA values suggested that PAH contamination levels in PM2.5, which were safe for healthy people, may not be acceptable for patients with lung inflammation. Because of the large number of COVID-19 infections, and the fact that some survivors of COVID-19 were observed to still show symptoms of interstitial lung inflammation, the finding here can provide important implications for both the scientific community and policy makers in addressing health risk and air pollution control during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Lung , Particulate Matter/analysis , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/analysis , Risk Assessment
9.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 241: 113949, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757396

ABSTRACT

Household air pollution from solid fuel combustion was estimated to cause 2.31 million deaths worldwide in 2019; cardiovascular disease is a substantial contributor to the global burden. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between household air pollution (24-h gravimetric kitchen and personal particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC)) and C-reactive protein (CRP) measured in dried blood spots among 107 women in rural Honduras using wood-burning traditional or Justa (an engineered combustion chamber) stoves. A suite of 6 additional markers of systemic injury and inflammation were considered in secondary analyses. We adjusted for potential confounders and assessed effect modification of several cardiovascular-disease risk factors. The median (25th, 75th percentiles) 24-h-average personal PM2.5 concentration was 115 µg/m3 (65,154 µg/m3) for traditional stove users and 52 µg/m3 (39, 81 µg/m3) for Justa stove users; kitchen PM2.5 and BC had similar patterns. Higher concentrations of PM2.5 and BC were associated with higher levels of CRP (e.g., a 25% increase in personal PM2.5 was associated with a 10.5% increase in CRP [95% CI: 1.2-20.6]). In secondary analyses, results were generally consistent with a null association. Evidence for effect modification between pollutant measures and four different cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., high blood pressure) was inconsistent. These results support the growing evidence linking household air pollution and cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution, Indoor , Air Pollution , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , C-Reactive Protein , Cooking/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Honduras/epidemiology , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Wood/analysis , Wood/chemistry
10.
Bioessays ; 43(9): e2100046, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756555

ABSTRACT

Air pollution is a major global challenge for a multitude of reasons. As a specific concern, there is now compelling evidence demonstrating a causal relationship between exposure to airborne pollutants and the onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD). As such, reducing air pollution as a means to decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mortality should be a global health priority. This review provides an overview of the cardiovascular effects of air pollution and uses two major events of 2020-the Australian bushfires and COVID-19 pandemic lockdown-to illustrate the relationship between air pollution and CVD. The bushfires highlight the substantial human and economic costs associated with elevations in air pollution. Conversely, the COVID-19-related lockdowns demonstrated that stringent measures are effective at reducing airborne pollutants, which in turn resulted in a potential reduction in cardiovascular events. Perhaps one positive to come out of 2020 will be the recognition that tough measures are effective at reducing air pollution and that these measures have the potential to stop thousands of deaths from CVD.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Fires , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Australia/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 03 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742425

ABSTRACT

Air pollution exposure has become ubiquitous and is increasingly detrimental to human health. Small Particulate matter (PM) is one of the most harmful forms of air pollution. It can easily infiltrate the lungs and trigger several respiratory diseases, especially in vulnerable populations such as children and elderly people. In this work, we start by leveraging a retrospective study of 416 children suffering from respiratory diseases. The study revealed that asthma prevalence was the most common among several respiratory diseases, and that most patients suffering from those diseases live in areas of high traffic, noise, and greenness. This paved the way to the construction of the MOREAIR dataset by combining feature abstraction and micro-level scale data collection. Unlike existing data sets, MOREAIR is rich in context-specific components, as it includes 52 temporal or geographical features, in addition to air-quality measurements. The use of Random Forest uncovered the most important features for the understanding of air-quality distribution in Moroccan urban areas. By linking the medical data and the MOREAIR dataset, we observed that the patients included in the medical study come mostly from neighborhoods that are characterized by either high average or high variations of pollution levels.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Respiration Disorders , Aged , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Child , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Retrospective Studies
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(4): 255, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729334

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (hereafter COVID-19) has changed the daily routines of people around the world. When the first case was confirmed on 11 March 2020 in Turkey, the number of cases reached 4500 per day by 10 April in Turkey. Afterwards, the government declared more restrictive lockdown measures for 31 metropolitan cities starting 10 April, and it was implemented for the following weekends, national, and religious holidays. The change in concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and NO2 during these measures with respect to the pre-lockdown period, the same period in the previous years and for different levels of measures for the cities in the Marmara Region of Turkey was investigated in this study. The daily mean concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and NO2 obtained from 11 stations operated by the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization and Google mobility data are used in this study. Average PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations during the lockdown period declined with respect to the pre-lockdown period and the previous year for all stations. Average PM10 concentrations during the lockdown of 8 of 11 stations declined, while the rest of the stations increased with respect to the pre-lockdown period. In 9 of the 11 stations, the average concentration of PM10 decreased compared to the previous four years. In 7 of the 11 stations, the number of days exceeding WHO limit for PM10 was decreased during the lockdown period with respect to the pre-lockdown period. For PM2.5, the number of days exceeding WHO limit was decreased during the lockdown period compared to the pre-lockdown period for all the stations. For NO2, the number of days exceeding WHO limit was decreased during the lockdown period compared to the pre-lockdown period for 7 of the 8 stations. There is a significant relationship between mobility decrease and NO2 concentrations in large cities. The correlation coefficients are generally lower in small cities in the study region.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Quality Improvement , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
13.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726016

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reached over five million confirmed cases worldwide, and numbers are still growing at a fast rate. Despite the wide outbreak of the infection, a remarkable asymmetry is observed in the number of cases and in the distribution of the severity of the COVID-19 symptoms in patients with respect to the countries/regions. In the early stages of a new pathogen outbreak, it is critical to understand the dynamics of the infection transmission, in order to follow contagion over time and project the epidemiological situation in the near future. While it is possible to reason that observed variation in the number and severity of cases stems from the initial number of infected individuals, the difference in the testing policies and social aspects of community transmissions, the factors that could explain high discrepancy in areas with a similar level of healthcare still remain unknown. Here, we introduce a binary classifier based on an artificial neural network that can help in explaining those differences and that can be used to support the design of containment policies. We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection frequency positively correlates with particulate air pollutants, and specifically with particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), while ozone gas is oppositely related with the number of infected individuals. We propose that atmospheric air pollutants could thus serve as surrogate markers to complement the infection outbreak anticipation.


Subject(s)
Atmosphere/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Ozone , Particulate Matter/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Ozone/analysis , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(3): 229, 2022 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712276

ABSTRACT

Recently, black carbon (BC) has been identified as a potential transmitter for COVID-19 besides being responsible for climate change and serious health hazards. To mitigate the dreaded consequences of COVID-19 pandemic, the Government of India declared a nationwide lockdown on March 24, 2020. Accordingly, observations on equivalent black carbon (EBC) aerosols using AE 51 Aethalometer were performed during different lockdowns in Doon Valley. During April, May, June, and July, the monthly average EBC mass concentration recorded 2.12 ± 1.14 µg m-3, 2.58 ± 1.46 µg m-3, 2.74 ± 1.49 µg m-3, and 2.12 ± 1.32 µg m-3, respectively. A comparison of diurnal variation patterns with earlier studies indicates a significant reduction in EBC mass concentration levels. Bipolar NWR analysis for April and May depicts that relatively high EBC concentration was experienced with prominent south-easterly winds. The EBC concentration level during daytime was high compared to nighttime hours. Preliminary visualization of scanning electron micrographs indicates the variable morphology of aerosols. The bulk particle EDX spectral analysis indicates C, O, Na, F, Al, Si, K, Ca, and Ti elements with a dominance of C and O. Windblown dust seems to be the major contributor to the ambient aerosols. Furthermore, MODIS recorded the fire anomaly (attributed to the wheat stubble burning) starting from mid of April to early-June along the Indo-Gangetic Basin. Heavy loading of polluted aerosols was visible in CALIPSO data imageries. HYSPLIT cluster trajectories indicate that the study region is strongly influenced by the air mass transporting from the Gangetic Plain, Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Gulf region.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , India , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
15.
Geospat Health ; 17(s1)2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709038

ABSTRACT

This study hypothesizes that public health responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including a mandated restriction of activity (commonly called a 'lockdown') resulted in reduced transportation activities and changes in air quality in Texas, USA. This presented a natural experiment where population mobility and air quality before and after the lockdown could be compared. Changes in mobility were measured by SafeGraph mobility data (from opt-in smart phone applications that transmit location data) and air quality changes were based on NO2 concentrations measured by the European Space Agency's Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite (from the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument). The changes in population mobility and NO2 concentration between mid-March 2020 (lockdown initiated) and the end of 2020, as compared to the same time window in 2019, were the basis of exploring the lockdown hypothesis. Additionally, numerous socio-economic (place based) indicators were hypothesized to follow public health vulnerability assumptions based on COVID- 19 incidence patterns. This hypothesis was subjected to geovisualization techniques in order to find potential patterns and insights into the complex combinations of these place-based data. Our results suggest that simultaneously visualizing COVID-19, mobility, air quality and socio-economic data yields insights in underlying spatial processes related to public health policy decisions. The hypothesis that the lockdown resulted in reduced mobility and NO2 concentrations was found partially correct - this trend was observed in highly urbanized areas, but not in less populated areas. Data related public health vulnerability assumptions (e.g. a region's age, poverty, education, etc.) were agreed with in part, but disagreed with in part.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
16.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264336, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708908

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected the socially and environmentally vulnerable, including through indirect effects on other health conditions. Asthma is one such condition, which may be exacerbated by both prolonged adverse in-home exposures if quarantining in unhealthy homes and prolonged outdoor exposures if the ambient air quality is unhealthy or hazardous. As both are often the case in Environmental Justice (EJ) communities, here we have analyzed data at the census tract (CT) level for Louisiana to assess any correlation between social and environmental vulnerability, and health issues like COVID-19 and asthma. Higher Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), Particulate Matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and Ozone levels were associated with higher rates of cumulative COVID-19 incidence at various time points during the pandemic, as well as higher average annual asthma hospitalization rates and estimated asthma prevalence. Further, cumulative COVID-19 incidence during the first three months of the pandemic was moderately correlated with both asthma hospitalizations and estimated prevalence, suggesting similar underlying factors may be affecting both conditions. Additionally, 137 CTs were identified where social and environmental vulnerabilities co-existed, of which 75 (55%) had high estimated prevalence of asthma. These areas are likely to benefit from asthma outreach that considers both social and environmental risk factors. Fifteen out of the 137 CTs (11%) not only had higher estimated prevalence of asthma but also a high burden of COVID-19. Further research in these areas may help to elucidate any common social determinants of health that underlie both asthma and COVID-19 burdens, as well as better clarify the possible role of the environment as related to the COVID-19 burden in Louisiana.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/analysis , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Social Vulnerability , COVID-19/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Louisiana/epidemiology , Ozone/analysis , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 151(2): 881, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704651

ABSTRACT

During the Covid-19 pandemic and resulting lockdowns, road traffic volumes reduced significantly leading to reduced pollutant concentrations and noise levels. Noise and the air pollution data during the lockdown period and loosening of restrictions through five phases in 2021 are examined for a school site in the United Kingdom. Hourly and daily average noise level as well as the average over each phase, correlations between noise and air pollutants, variations between pollutants, and underlying reasons explaining the temporal variations are explored. Some strong linear correlations were identified between a number of traffic-sourced air pollutants, especially between the differently sized particulates PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 (0.70 < r <0.98) in all phases and an expected inverse correlation between nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ground-level ozone (O3) (-0.68 < r < -0.78) as NO2 is a precursor of O3. Noise levels exhibit a weak correlation with the measured air pollutants and moderate correlation with meteorological factors, including wind direction, temperature, and relative humidity. There was a consistent and significant increase in noise levels (p < 0.01) of up to 3 dB with initial easing, and this was maintained through the remaining phases.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollution/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
18.
J Environ Manage ; 310: 114787, 2022 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703237

ABSTRACT

The impact of the SARS-CoV pandemic has gone well beyond health concerns, reaching the maritime industry. The study on the environmental impact of shipping industry during COVID-19 pandemic can provide useful insights to propose new management policies regarding shipping operations, both in-port and on the route. We present a case study centred in the Port of Barcelona covering a 30 nautical miles range in the period March to July 2020, during which different levels of restrictions and stringent lockdown measures were enforced. In this paper, we assess the impact of COVID-19 on maritime traffic and its related emissions in port cities using real-time Automatic Identification System (AIS) data. Interestingly, results show that the decline in maritime traffic is not correlated with a decrease in maritime emissions due to changes in vessel operation. During lockdown (March to June 2020), we observed a 27.9% reduction in the number of port calls compared to the pre-lockdown scenario, whereas pollutant emissions show a moderate decrease (1.8% for CO2), no significant reduction (SO2 and PM) or a slight increase (1.3% for NOx). This can be directly assigned to changes in vessel operation mode, i.e. vessels switched from Underway to At Anchor or Moored status, during which auxiliary engines are used at higher loads.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Environmental Pollutants , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Environ Pollut ; 301: 119027, 2022 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700515

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 lockdown, atmospheric PM2.5 in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) showed the highest reduction in China, but the reasons, being a critical question for future air quality policy design, are not yet clear. In this study, we analyzed the relationships among gaseous precursors, secondary aerosols and atmospheric oxidation capacity in Shenzhen, a megacity in the PRD, during the lockdown period in 2020 and the same period in 2021. The comprehensive observational datasets showed large lockdown declines in all primary and secondary pollutants (including O3). We found that, however, the daytime concentrations of secondary aerosols during the lockdown period and normal period were rather similar when the corresponding odd oxygen (Ox≡O3+NO2, an indicator of photochemical processing avoiding the titration effect of O3 by freshly emitted NO) were at similar levels. Therefore, reduced Ox, rather than the large reduction in precursors, was a direct driver to achieve the decline in secondary aerosols. Moreover, Ox was also found to determine the spatial distribution of intercity PM2.5 levels in winter PRD. Thus, an effective strategy for winter PM2.5 mitigation should emphasize on control of winter O3 formation in the PRD and other regions with similar conditions.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Ozone , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Ozone/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690261

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, several governments imposed severe restrictions on socio-economic activities, putting most of the world population into a general lockdown in March 2020. Although scattered, studies on this topic worldwide have rapidly emerged in the literature. Hence, this systematic review aimed to identify and discuss the scientifically validated literature that evaluated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions on air quality. Thus, a total of 114 studies that quantified the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on air quality through monitoring were selected from three databases. The most evaluated countries were India and China; all the studies intended to evaluate the impact of the pandemic on air quality, mainly concerning PM10, PM2.5, NO2, O3, CO, and SO2. Most of them focused on the 1st lockdown, comparing with the pre- and post-lockdown periods and usually in urban areas. Many studies conducted a descriptive analysis, while others complemented it with more advanced statistical analysis. Although using different methodologies, some studies reported a temporary air quality improvement during the lockdown. More studies are still needed, comparing different lockdown and lifting periods and, in other areas, for a definition of better-targeted policies to reduce air pollution.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
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