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1.
IUBMB Life ; 74(1): 62-73, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850068

ABSTRACT

Airborne pollution has become a leading cause of global death in industrialized cities and the exposure to environmental pollutants has been demonstrated to have adverse effects on human health. Among the pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is one of the most toxic and although its exposure has been more commonly correlated with respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal (GI) complications have also been reported as a consequence to PM exposure. Due to its composition, PM is able to exert on intestinal mucosa both direct damaging effects, (by reaching it either via direct ingestion of contaminated food and water or indirect inhalation and consequent macrophagic mucociliary clearance) and indirect ones via generation of systemic inflammation. The relationship between respiratory and GI conditions is well described by the lung-gut axis and more recently, has become even clearer during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, when respiratory symptoms were associated with gastrointestinal conditions. This review aims at pointing out the mechanisms and the models used to evaluate PM induced GI tract damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/injuries , Particulate Matter/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Inhalation , Administration, Oral , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiopathology , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/injuries , Intestinal Mucosa/physiopathology , Masks , Microplastics/toxicity , Models, Biological , Mucociliary Clearance/physiology , Nutrition Policy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Particulate Matter/administration & dosage , Respiratory System/injuries , Respiratory System/physiopathology
2.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt C): 113392, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819487

ABSTRACT

Air pollution and meteorological factors can exacerbate susceptibility to respiratory viral infections. To establish appropriate prevention and intervention strategies, it is important to determine whether these factors affect the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therefore, this study examined the effects of sunshine, temperature, wind, and air pollutants including sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and particulate matter ≤10 µm (PM10) on the age-standardized incidence ratio of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in South Korea between January 2020 and April 2020. Propensity score weighting was used to randomly select observations into groups according to whether the case was cluster-related, to reduce selection bias. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with COVID-19 incidence. Age 60 years or over (odds ratio [OR], 1.29; 95% CI, 1.24-1.35), exposure to ambient air pollutants, especially SO2 (OR, 5.19; 95% CI, 1.13-23.9) and CO (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.07-1.27), and non-cluster infection (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.24-1.32) were associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. To manage and control COVID-19 effectively, further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to develop appropriate guidelines to minimize SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Meteorological Concepts , Middle Aged , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Nitrogen Dioxide/toxicity , Ozone/analysis , Ozone/toxicity , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis , Sulfur Dioxide/toxicity
3.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 33 Suppl 27: 38-40, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779268

ABSTRACT

Airborne particulate (PM) components from fossil fuel combustion can induce oxidative stress initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are strongly correlated with airway inflammation and asthma. A valid biomarker of airway inflammation is fractionated exhaled nitric oxide (FENO). The oxidative potential of PM2.5 can be evaluated with the dithiothreitol (DTT) dosage, which represents both ROS chemically produced and intracellular ROS of macrophages. This correlates with quality indicators of the internal environment and ventilation strategies such as dilution and removal of airborne contaminants.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Asthma , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Exhalation , Humans , Oxidative Stress , Particulate Matter/toxicity
4.
Environ Res ; 206: 112261, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719713

ABSTRACT

Knowing the transmission factors and the natural environment that favor the spread of a viral infection is crucial to stop outbreaks and develop effective preventive strategies. This work aims to evaluate the role of Particulate Matter (PM) in the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing especially on that of PM as a vector for SARS-CoV-2. Exposure to PM has been related to new cases and to the clinical severity of people infected by SARS-CoV-2, which can be explained by the oxidative stress and the inflammatory response generated by these particles when entering the respiratory system, as well as by the role of PM in the expression of ACE-2 in respiratory cells in human hosts. In addition, different authors have detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in PM sampled both in outdoor and indoor environments. The results of various studies lead to the hypothesis that the aerosols emitted by an infected person could be deposited in other suspended particles, sometimes of natural but especially of anthropogenic origin, that form the basal PM. However, the viability of the virus in PM has not yet been demonstrated. Should PM be confirmed as a vector of transmission, prevention strategies ought to be adapted, and PM sampling in outdoor environments could become an indicator of viral load in a specific area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Particulate Matter , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/toxicity , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 825: 153964, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689055

ABSTRACT

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution poses significant health concerns worldwide and can cause respiratory diseases. However, how it causes health problems is still poorly understood. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)2 is a terminal carboxypeptidase implicated in the functions of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and plays a crucial role in the control of lung inflammation. To investigate whether ACE2 functions in PM2.5-induced lung inflammation, wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice and ACE2 knock-out (KO) mice were intratracheally instilled with PBS or PM2.5 suspension for 3 consecutive days, respectively. The concentrations of cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined by ELISA. The expression of ACE2 and ACE and activation of inflammatory signaling pathways in lung tissues were evaluated by immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting. We found that PM2.5 exposure increased ACE2 expression. Loss of ACE2 significantly elevated the levels of total proteins, total cells, and the concentrations of MCP-1, IL-1ß in BALF after PM2.5 challenge. Additionally, loss of ACE2 enhanced lung pathologies, airway resistance, and inflammatory signaling activation. Collectively, loss of ACE2 exacerbates PM2.5-induced acute lung injury in mice.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Pneumonia , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Particulate Matter/metabolism , Particulate Matter/toxicity
6.
Environ Res ; 207: 112161, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Congenital anomalies (CAs) are the leading causes for children's disabilities and mortalities worldwide. The associations between air pollution and CAs are not fully characterized in fetuses born by in vitro fertilization (IVF) who are at high risk of congenital anomalies. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 16,971 IVF cycles from three hospitals in Hebei Province, China, 2014-2019. Air quality data was obtained from 149 air monitoring stations. Individual average daily concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, CO, and O3 were estimated by spatiotemporal kriging method. Exposure windows were divided into 5: preantral follicle period, antral follicle period, germinal period, embryonic period and early fetal period. Logistic generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the associations between air pollutants and overall or organ-system specific congenital anomalies. Negative control exposure method was used to detect and reduce bias of estimation. RESULTS: We found increasing levels of PM2.5 and PM10 were associated with higher risk of overall congenital anomalies during early fetal period, equating gestation 10-12 weeks (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.09, p = 0.013 for a 10 µg/m3 increase of PM2.5; OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.06, p = 0.021 for a 10 µg/m3 increase of PM10). Cleft lip and cleft palate were associated with PM10 in germinal period and early fetal period. The CAs of eye, ear, face and neck were related to CO in preantral follicle stage. We did not find an association between chromosome abnormalities and air pollution exposure. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that ambient air pollution was a risk factor for congenital anomalies in the fetuses conceived through IVF, especially exposure in early fetal period.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Fertilization in Vitro , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Parturition , Pregnancy
7.
Environ Res ; 209: 112848, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654414

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a new coronavirus (COVID-19) has become a major global concern that has damaged human health and disturbing environmental quality. Some researchers have identified a positive relationship between air pollution (fine particulate matter PM2.5) and COVID-19. Nonetheless, no inclusive investigation has comprehensively examined this relationship for a tropical climate such as India. This study aims to address this knowledge gap by investigating the nexus between air pollution and COVID-19 in the ten most affected Indian states using daily observations from 9th March to September 20, 2020. The study has used the newly developed Hidden Panel Cointegration test and Nonlinear Panel Autoregressive Distributed Lag (NPARDL) model for asymmetric analysis. Empirical results illustrate an asymmetric relationship between PM2.5 and COVID-19 cases. More precisely, a 1% change in the positive shocks of PM2.5 increases the COVID-19 cases by 0.439%. Besides, the estimates of individual states expose the heterogeneous effects of PM2.5 on COVID-19. The asymmetric causality test of Hatemi-J's (2011) also suggests that the positive shocks on PM2.5 Granger-cause positive shocks on COVID19 cases. Research findings indicate that air pollution is the root cause of this outbreak; thus, the government should recognize this channel and implement robust policy guidelines to control the spread of environmental pollution.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Humans , India/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity
8.
Environ Res ; 208: 112758, 2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure may make people more vulnerable to COVID-19 infection. However, previous studies in this area mostly focused on infection before May 2020 and long-term exposure. OBJECTIVE: To assess both long-term and short-term exposure to air pollution and COVID-19 incidence across four case surges from 03/1/2020 to 02/28/2021. METHODS: The cohort included 4.6 million members from a large integrated health care system in southern California with comprehensive electronic medical records (EMR). COVID-19 cases were identified from EMR. Incidence of COVID-19 was computed at the census tract-level among members. Prior 1-month and 1-year averaged air pollutant levels (PM2.5, NO2, and O3) at the census tract-level were estimated based on hourly and daily air quality data. Data analyses were conducted by each wave: 3/1/2020-5/31/2020, 6/1/202-9/30/2020, 10/1/2020-12/31/2020, and 1/1/2021-2/28/2021 and pooled across waves using meta-analysis. Generalized linear mixed effects models with Poisson distribution and spatial autocorrelation were used with adjustment for meteorological factors and census tract-level social and health characteristics. Results were expressed as relative risk (RR) per 1 standard deviation. RESULTS: The cohort included 446,440 COVID-19 cases covering 4609 census tracts. The pooled RRs (95% CI) of COVID-19 incidence associated with 1-year exposures to PM2.5, NO2, and O3 were 1.11 (1.04, 1.18) per 2.3 µg/m3,1.09 (1.02, 1.17) per 3.2 ppb, and 1.06 (1.00, 1.12) per 5.5 ppb respectively. The corresponding RRs (95% CI) associated with prior 1-month exposures were 1.11 (1.03, 1.20) per 5.2 µg/m3 for PM2.5, 1.09 (1.01, 1.17) per 6.0 ppb for NO2 and 0.96 (0.85, 1.08) per 12.0 ppb for O3. CONCLUSION: Long-term PM2.5 and NO2 exposures were associated with increased risk of COVID-19 incidence across all case surges before February 2021. Short-term PM2.5 and NO2 exposures were also associated. Our findings suggest that air pollution may play a role in increasing the risk of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Incidence , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625572

ABSTRACT

According to the World Bank Group, 36 of the 50 most polluted cities in the European Union are in Poland. Thus, ambient air pollution and its detrimental health effects are a matter of immense importance in Poland. This narrative review aims to analyse current findings on air pollution and health in Poland, with a focus on respiratory diseases, including COVID-19, as well as the Poles' awareness of air pollution. PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases were searched. In total, results from 71 research papers were summarized qualitatively. In Poland, increased air pollution levels are linked to increased general and respiratory disease mortality rates, higher prevalence of respiratory diseases, including asthma, lung cancer and COVID-19 infections, reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). The proximity of high traffic areas exacerbates respiratory health problems. People living in more polluted regions (south of Poland) and in the winter season have a higher level of air pollution awareness. There is an urgent need to reduce air pollution levels and increase public awareness of this threat. A larger number of multi-city studies are needed in Poland to consistently track the burden of diseases attributable to air pollution.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Environ Public Health ; 2021: 7112548, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622110

ABSTRACT

Background: Most of the households in developing countries burn biomass fuel in traditional stoves with incomplete combustion that leads to high indoor air pollution and acute respiratory infections. Acute respiratory infection is the most common cause of under-five morbidity and mortality accounting for 2 million deaths worldwide and responsible for 18% of deaths among under-five children in Ethiopia. Although studies were done on acute respiratory infections, the majority of studies neither clinically diagnose respiratory infections nor use instant measurement of particulate matter. Methods: The community-based cross-sectional study design was employed among under-five children in Jimma town from May 21 to June 7, 2020. A total of 265 children through systematic random sampling were included in the study. The data were collected using a pretested semistructured questionnaire and laser pm 2.5 meter for indoor particulate matter concentration. Associations among factors were assessed through correlation analysis, and binary logistic regression was done to predict childhood acute respiratory infections. Variables with p-value less than 0.25 in bivariate regression were the candidate for the final multivariate logistic regression. Two independent sample t-tests were done to compare significant mean difference between concentrations of particulate matter. Results: Among 265 under-five children who were involved in the study, 179 (67.5%) were living in households that predominantly use biomass fuel. Prevalence of acute respiratory infections in the study area was 16%. Children living in households that use biomass fuel were four times more likely to develop acute respiratory infections than their counterparts (AOR: 4.348; 95% CI: 1.632, 11.580). The size of household was significantly associated with the prevalence of acute respiratory infections. Under-five children living in households that have a family size of six and greater had odds of 1.7 increased risk of developing acute respiratory infections than their counterparts (AOR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.299, 2.212). The other factor associated with acute respiratory infection was separate kitchen; children living in households in which there were no separate kitchen were four times at increased risk of developing acute respiratory infection than children living in households which have separate kitchen (AOR: 4.591; 95% CI: 1.849, 11.402). The concentration of indoor particulate matter was higher in households using biomass fuel than clean fuel. There was statistically higher particulate matter concentration in the kitchen than living rooms (t = 4.509, p ≤ 0.001). Particulate matter 2.5 concentrations (µg/m3) of the households that had parental smoking were significantly higher than their counterparts (AOR: 20.224; 95% CI: 1.72, 12.58). Conclusion: There is an association between acute respiratory infections and biomass fuel usage among under-five children. Focusing on improved energy sources is essential to reduce the burden and assure the safety of children.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , Respiratory Tract Infections , Air Pollution, Indoor/statistics & numerical data , Biomass , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2022 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613774

ABSTRACT

In 2019, a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, was first reported in Wuhan, China. The virus causes the disease commonly known as COVID-19, and, since its emergence, it has infected over 252 million individuals globally and taken the lives of over 5 million in the same time span. Primary research on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 focused on understanding the biomolecular composition of the virus. This research has led to the development of multiple vaccines with great efficacy and antiviral treatments for the disease. The development of biomedical interventions has been crucial to combating this pandemic; additionally, environmental confounding variables that could have exacerbated the pandemic need further assessment. In this research study, we conducted a spatial analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentration and its association with COVID-19 mortality in the United States. Results of this study demonstrate a significant positive correlation between PM concentration levels and COVID-19 mortality; however, this does not necessarily imply a causal relationship. These results are consistent with similar studies in Italy and China, where significant COVID-19 cases and corresponding deaths were exhibited. Furthermore, maps of the data demonstrate clustering of COVID-19 mortality which suggest further investigation into the social determinants of health impacting the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Spatial Analysis
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613765

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused a global pandemic with considerable impact. Studies have examined the influence of socioeconomic status and air pollution on COVID-19 risk but in low detail. This study seeks to further elucidate the nuances of socioeconomic status, as defined by the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), air pollution, and their relationship. We examined the effect of IMD and air pollution on the likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 among 66,732 UKB participants tested for SARS-CoV-2 from 16 March 2020 through 16 March 2021. Logistic regression was performed controlling for age, sex, ancestry and IMD or air pollution in the respective models. IMD and its sub-scores were significantly associated with increased risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. All particulate matter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels were associated with increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Measures of green space and natural environment around participants' homes were associated with reduced likelihood of SARS-CoV-2. Socioeconomic status and air pollution have independent effects on the risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Green space and natural environment space in the proximity of people's homes may mediate the effect of air pollution on the risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Biological Specimen Banks , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
13.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt D): 112369, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574591

ABSTRACT

Brazil, the country most impacted by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the southern hemisphere, use intensive care admissions per day, mobility and other indices to monitor quarantines and prevent the transmissions of SARS-CoV-2. In this study we quantified the associations between residential mobility index (RMI), air pollution, meteorology, and daily cases and deaths of COVID-19 in São Paulo, Brazil. We applied a semiparametric generalized additive model (GAM) to estimate: 1) the association between RMI and COVID-19, accounting for ambient particulate matter (PM2.5), ozone (O3), relative humidity, temperature and delayed exposure between 4 and 21 days, and 2) the association between COVID-19 and exposure to for ambient particulate matter (PM2.5), ozone (O3), accounting for relative humidity, temperature and mobility. We found that an RMI of 45.28% results in 1212 cases (95% CI: 1189 to 1235) and 44 deaths (95% CI: 40 to 47). Increasing the isolation from 45.28% to 50% would avoid 438 cases and 21 deaths. Also, we found that an increment of 10 µg⋅m-³ of PM2.5 results in a risk of 1.140 (95% CI: 1.021 to 1.274) for cases and 1.086 (95% CI: 1.008 to 1.170) for deaths, while O3 produces a relative risk of 1.075 (95% CI: 1.006 to 1.150) for cases and 1.063 (95% CI: 1.006 to 1.124) for deaths, respectively. We compared our results with observations and literature review, finding well agreement. Policymakers can use such mobility indices as tools to control social distance activities. Spatial distancing is an important factor to control COVID-19, however, measuring face-mask usage would enhance the understanding the pandemic dynamic. Small increments of air pollution result in an increased number of COVID-19 cases and deaths.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 112023, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545000

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Understanding the latest global spatio-temporal pattern of lung cancer burden attributable to ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) is crucial to prioritize global lung cancer prevention, as well as environment improvement. METHODS: Data on lung cancer attributable to ambient PM2.5 were downloaded from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2019. The numbers and age-standardized rates on lung cancer mortality (ASMR) and disability-adjusted life years (ASDR) were estimated by age, sex, region, and country. We used estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) to quantify the temporal trends of ASMR and ASDR from 1990 to 2019. RESULTS: In 2019, the number of global lung cancer deaths and DALYs attributable to ambient PM2.5 was approximately 0.31 million and 7.02 million respectively, among which more deaths and DALYs occurred in males. At GBD region level, the heaviest burden occurred in East Asia, accounting for over 50% worldwide, with China ranked first worldwide. The number of ambient PM2.5 attributable lung cancer deaths and DALYs has over doubled from 1990 to 2019, but high sociodemographic index (SDI) region had a rapid decrease, with EAPC -2.21 in ASMR (95% CI: -2.32, -2.09). The age-specific mortality rate or DALY rate has increased in all age groups in low to middle SDI regions from 1990 to 2019. The ASMR or ASDR showed an inverted V-shaped association with SDI. The EAPC in ASMR or ASDR was highly negatively correlated with ASMR or ASDR in 1990 and SDI in 2019, with coefficients around 0.70. CONCLUSIONS: The number of ambient PM2.5-related lung cancer deaths and DALYs has largely increased because of the increase of exposure to PM2.5, population growth, and aging. Local governments should do economic activities under the consideration of public health, especially in high-burden areas.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Particulate Matter , Disability-Adjusted Life Years , Global Burden of Disease , Global Health , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Male , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
15.
Biomed J ; 44(6S1): S25-S36, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atmospheric contamination, especially particulate matter (PM), can be associated viral infections connected with respiratory failure. Literature data indicates that intensity of SARS-CoV-2 infections worldwide can be associated with PM pollution levels. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between atmospheric contamination, measured as PM2.5 and PM10 levels, and the number of COVID-19 cases and related deaths in Poland in a one-year observation study. METHODS: Number and geographical distribution of COVID-19 incidents and related deaths, as well as PM2.5 and PM10 exposure levels in Poland were obtained from publicly accessible databases. Average monthly values of these parameters for individual provinces were calculated. Multiple regression analysis was performed for the period between March 2020 and February 2021, taking into account average monthly exposure to PM2.5 and PM10, monthly COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants and the population density across Polish provinces. RESULTS: Only December 2020 the number of new infections was significantly related to the three analyzed factors: PM2.5, population density and the number of laboratory COVID-19 tests (R2 = 0.882). For COVID-19 mortality, a model with all three significant factors: PM10, population density and number of tests was obtained as significant only in November 2020 (R2 = 0.468). CONCLUSION: The distribution of COVID-19 incidents across Poland was independent from annual levels of particulate matter concentration in provinces. Exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 was associated with COVID-19 incidence and mortality in different provinces only in certain months. Other cofactors such as population density and the number of performed COVID-19 tests also corresponded with both COVID-19-related infections and deaths only in certain months. Particulate matter should not be treated as the sole determinant of the spread and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic but its importance in the incidence of infectious diseases should not be forgotten.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131615, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509647

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systematic evaluations of the cumulative effects and mortality displacement of ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution on deaths are lacking. We aimed to discern the cumulative effect profile of PM exposure, and investigate the presence of mortality displacement in a large-scale population. METHODS: We conducted a time-series analysis with different exposure-lag models on 13 cities in Jiangsu, China, to estimate the effects of PM pollution on non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality (2015-2019). Over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive models were integrated with distributed lag models to estimate cumulative exposure effects, and assess mortality displacement. RESULTS: Pooled cumulative effect estimates with lags of 0-7 and 0-14 days were substantially larger than those with single-day and 2-day moving average lags. For each 10 µg/m3 increment in PM2.5 concentration with a cumulative lag of 0-7 days, we estimated an increase of 0.50 % (95 % CI: 0.29, 0.72), 0.63 % (95 % CI: 0.38, 0.88), and 0.50 % (95 % CI: 0.01, 1.01) in pooled estimates of non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. Both PM10 and PM2.5 were associated with significant increases in non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality with a cumulative lag of 0-14 days. We observed mortality displacement within 30 days for non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that risk assessment based on single-day or 2-day moving average lag structures may underestimate the adverse effects of PM pollution. The cumulative effects of PM exposure on non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality can last up to 14 days. Evidence of mortality displacement for non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory deaths was found.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Cardiovascular Diseases , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mortality , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity
17.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(2): 535-542, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Some studies have shown that air pollution, often assessed by thin particulate matter with diameter below 2.5 µg/m3 (PM2.5), may contribute to severe COVID-19 courses, as well as play a role in the onset and evolution of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the impact of air pollution on COVID-19 has never been explored specifically amongst patients with MS (PwMS). This retrospective observational study aims to explore associations between PM2.5 and COVID-19 severity amongst PwMS. METHODS: Data were retrieved from an Italian web-based platform (MuSC-19) which includes PwMS with COVID-19. PM2.5 2016-2018 average concentrations were provided by the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service. Italian patients inserted in the platform from 15 January 2020 to 9 April 2021 with a COVID-19 positive test were included. Ordered logistic regression models were used to study associations between PM2.5 and COVID-19 severity. RESULTS: In all, 1087 patients, of whom 13% required hospitalization and 2% were admitted to an intensive care unit or died, were included. Based on the multivariate analysis, higher concentrations of PM2.5 increased the risk of worse COVID-19 course (odds ratio 1.90; p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Even if several other factors explain the unfavourable course of COVID-19 in PwMS, the role of air pollutants must be considered and further investigated.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151286, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487963

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has escalated into one of the most serious crises in the 21st Century. Given the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 and its high mortality rate, here we investigate the impact and relationship of airborne PM2.5 to COVID-19 mortality. Previous studies have indicated that PM2.5 has a positive relationship with the spread of COVID-19. To gain insights into the delayed effect of PM2.5 concentration (µgm-3) on mortality, we focused on the role of PM2.5 in Wuhan City in China and COVID-19 during the period December 27, 2019 to April 7, 2020. We also considered the possible impact of various meteorological factors such as temperature, precipitation, wind speed, atmospheric pressure and precipitation on pollutant levels. The results from the Pearson's correlation coefficient analyses reveal that the population exposed to higher levels of PM2.5 pollution are susceptible to COVID-19 mortality with a lag time of >18 days. By establishing a generalized additive model, the delayed effect of PM2.5 on the death toll of COVID-19 was verified. A negative correction was identified between temperature and number of COVID-19 deaths, whereas atmospheric pressure exhibits a positive correlation with deaths, both with a significant lag effect. The results from our study suggest that these epidemiological relationships may contribute to the understanding of the COVID-19 pandemic and provide insights for public health strategies.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Environ Int ; 158: 106930, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Age, sex, race and comorbidities are insufficient to explain why some individuals remain asymptomatic after SARS-CoV-2 infection, while others die. In this sense, the increased risk caused by the long-term exposure to air pollution is being investigated to understand the high heterogeneity of the COVID-19 infection course. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the underlying effect of long-term exposure to NO2 and PM10 on the severity and mortality of COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted with 2112 patients suffering COVID-19 infection. We built two sets of multivariate predictive models to assess the relationship between the long-term exposure to NO2 and PM10 and COVID-19 outcome. First, the probability of either death or severe COVID-19 outcome was predicted as a function of all the clinical variables together with the pollutants exposure by means of two regularized logistic regressions. Subsequently, two regularized linear regressions were constructed to predict the percentage of dead or severe patients. Finally, odds ratios and effects estimates were calculated. RESULTS: We found that the long-term exposure to PM10 is a more important variable than some already stated comorbidities (i.e.: COPD/Asthma, diabetes, obesity) in the prediction of COVID-19 severity and mortality. PM10 showed the highest effects estimates (1.65, 95% CI 1.32-2.06) on COVID-19 severity. For mortality, the highest effect estimates corresponded to age (3.59, 95% CI 2.94-4.40), followed by PM10 (2.37, 95% CI 1.71-3.32). Finally, an increase of 1 µg/m3 in PM10 concentration causes an increase of 3.06% (95% CI 1.11%-4.25%) of patients suffering COVID-19 as a severe disease and an increase of 2.68% (95% CI 0.53%-5.58%) of deaths. DISCUSSION: These results demonstrate that long-term PM10 burdens above WHO guidelines exacerbate COVID-19 health outcomes. Hence, WHO guidelines, the air quality standard established by the Directive 2008/50/EU, and that of the US-EPA should be updated accordingly to protect human health.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , World Health Organization
20.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol ; 39: 100443, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1459135

ABSTRACT

The study of the impacts of air pollution on COVID-19 has gained increasing attention. However, most of the existing studies are based on a single country, with a high degree of variation in the results reported in different papers. We attempt to inform the debate about the long-term effects of air pollution on COVID-19 by conducting a multi-country analysis using a spatial ecological design, including Canada, Italy, England and the United States. The model allows the residual spatial autocorrelation after accounting for covariates. It is concluded that the effects of PM2.5 and NO2 are inconsistent across countries. Specifically, NO2 was not found to be an important factor affecting COVID-19 infection, while a large effect for PM2.5 in the US is not found in the other three countries. The Population Attributable Fraction for COVID-19 incidence ranges from 3.4% in Canada to 45.9% in Italy, although with considerable uncertainty in these estimates.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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