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Transfus Med ; 32(5): 402-409, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909541


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Infections with human parvovirus B19 (B19V) are transmissible by blood components and plasma-derived medicines. The European Pharmacopoeia regulates maximum levels of virus allowed in manufacturers' plasma pools. To evaluate contamination risk prior to re-introduction of UK-sourced plasma for manufacturing, we investigated viraemia frequencies of B19V in plasma samples collected from blood donors before and during COVID-enforced lockdown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quantitative PCR for B19V DNA was used to screen pools of 96 anonymised plasma samples collected in England from 2017 (n = 29 505), 2020 (n = 3360) and 2021 (n = 43 200). Selected positive pools were resolved into individual samples. Data on donor notifications and related lookback investigations were collected from European countries by on-line survey in 2020. RESULTS: Screening of 76 065 donations identified 80 B19V-positive pools. While most positive samples had low viral loads (<105  IU ml-1 ), primarily from 2017 (77/29 505; 0.3%), two contained high levels of B19V DNA (1.3 × 108 and 6.3 × 106 IU ml-1 ), both likely to contaminate a final manufacturer's pool and lead to discard. The incidence of B19V infection during lockdown was reduced (1/3360 in 2020; 0/43 200 in 2021). Genomic analysis of positive pools resolved to single samples identified B19V genotype 1 in all nine samples. Seroprevalence of anti-B19V IgG antibodies was 75% (143/192). A survey of B19V screening practices in Europe demonstrated considerable variability. Two blood establishments informed infected blood donors of positive B19V results. CONCLUSION: Information on seroprevalence, incidence and viral loads of B19V viraemia is contributory the evaluation of alternative operational screening strategies for plasma testing.

COVID-19 , Parvoviridae Infections , Parvovirus B19, Human , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , Communicable Disease Control , DNA, Viral , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Parvoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Parvovirus B19, Human/genetics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Viral Load , Viremia/epidemiology
Arch Virol ; 167(9): 1831-1840, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899185


Viral enteritis is a significant threat to domestic dogs. The two primary pathogens that cause viral enteritis in dogs are canine coronavirus (CCoV) and canine parvovirus (CPV). In this study, we investigated the occurrence of CPV-2, CCoV, and canine circovirus coinfection by characterizing circulating subtypes of CPV-2 in faecal samples from symptomatic dogs admitted to veterinary clinics located in Ankara, Elazig, Kayseri, and Kocaeli provinces of Turkey, between 2019 and 2022. Virus detection by PCR and RT-PCR revealed that CPV-2 was present in 48 (77.4%) samples, and no other agents were detected. Based on the occurrence of the codon GAT at positions 1276 to 1278 (coding for aspartate at residue 426) of VP2, all CPV-2 isolates were confirmed to be of the CPV-2b subtype. The complete genome sequences of two CPV-2b isolates showed a high degree of similarity to and phylogenetic clustering with Australian and East Asian strains/isolates. The predominant CPV strain circulating in the three different regions of Turkey was found to be a CPV-2b strain containing the amino acid substitutions at Y324I and T440A, which commonly contribute to immune escape. This is the first report of complete genomic analysis of CPV-2 isolates circulating in symptomatic domestic dogs in Turkey. The evolution of CPV-2 has raised questions about the efficacy of current vaccination regimes and highlights the importance of monitoring the emergence and spread of new CPV-2 variants.

Coronavirus, Canine , Dog Diseases , Enteritis , Parvoviridae Infections , Parvovirus, Canine , Animals , Australia , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Genomics , Parvoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Parvoviridae Infections/veterinary , Phylogeny , Turkey/epidemiology
World J Pediatr ; 16(3): 293-298, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617249


BACKGROUND: The role of human bocavirus (HBoV) as a respiratory pathogen has not been fulfilled yet. We aimed to describe clinical and serological characteristics of children with HBoV hospitalized for acute respiratory tract infection and to evaluate whether differences occur between HBoV alone and in co-infection. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data from 60 children (median age of 6.2 months, range 0.6-70.9) hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms, with HBoV detected from a respiratory sample, using a reverse transcriptase-PCR for 14 respiratory viruses (including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus A and B, human coronavirus OC43, 229E, NL-63 and HUK1, adenovirus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus1-3, and human metapneumovirus). RESULTS: HBoV was detected alone in 29 (48.3%) patients, while in co-infection with other viruses in 31 patients (51.7%), with a peak between December and January. Among the 60 patients, 34 were bronchiolitis, 19 wheezing, 3 pneumonia, 2 upper respiratory tract infection, and 2 whooping cough. Seven children (11.6%) required admission to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) for respiratory failure. No differences was observed in age, family history for atopy and/or asthma, clinical presentations, chest X-ray, or laboratory findings in children with HBoV alone vs. multiple viral detection. RSV was the most frequently co-detected virus (61.3%). When compared with HBoV detection alone, the co-detection of RSV and HBoV was associated with male sex (P = 0.013), younger age (P = 0.01), and lower blood neutrophil count (P = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: HBoV can be detected alone and in co-infection respiratory samples of children with an acute respiratory tract infection. A cause-effect relationship between HBoV and respiratory infection is not clear, so further studies are needed to clarify this point.

Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Human bocavirus/isolation & purification , Parvoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Acute Disease , Age Distribution , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Databases, Factual , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Italy , Male , Parvoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Prognosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Rome , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Distribution