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5.
ChemMedChem ; 17(1): e202100576, 2022 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626179

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is an unprecedented global health emergency causing more than 4.2 million fatalities as of 30 July 2021. Only three antiviral therapies have been approved or granted emergency use authorization by the FDA. The SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease (3CLpro ) is deemed an attractive drug target as it plays an essential role in viral polyprotein processing and pathogenesis, although no inhibitors have been approved. This patent review discusses SARS coronavirus 3CLpro inhibitors that have been filed up to 30 July 2021, giving an overview on the types of inhibitors that have generated commercial interest, especially amongst drug companies. Insights into the common structural motifs required for active site binding is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Patents as Topic , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Drug Discovery , Humans , Protein Conformation , Structure-Activity Relationship
7.
Salud Colect ; 16: e2897, 2020 10 17.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608979

ABSTRACT

Taking into account the latent threat of future pandemics, the objective of this study is to analyze - particularly with respect to medications - the sustainability of the health system, healthcare coverage, budgetary efficiency, and connections with the pharmaceutical patent system. In this context, the pharmaceutical patent system acts as a determining factor, given that promoting its existence stimulates the production of research, but in turn its existence stands in the way of rapid advancements, primarily due to the development of protective legislation concerning patents, which has largely accommodated the industry. Given that the pharmaceutical industry has managed to extend the duration of patents and avoid the incorporation of generics, our analysis focuses on the influence of pharmaceutical patents; this influence has led to reflection on the possibility of combining efforts by forging alliances between numerous companies and the public sector in order to face the challenges posed by new diseases caused by viruses that give rise to epidemics and pandemics.


Ante la amenaza latente de futuras pandemias, este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar ­desde el eje de los medicamentos­ la sostenibilidad del sistema sanitario, la cobertura, la eficiencia del gasto y su vinculación al sistema de patentes farmacéuticas. En este marco, el sistema de patentes farmacéuticas adquiere un papel determinante, dado que fomentar su existencia estimula la producción de investigación pero, a su vez, su existencia no suscita un rápido avance, debido al desarrollo legislativo protector que han tenido las patentes y que ha dado lugar a un acomodamiento de la industria. Como la industria farmacéutica ha conseguido extender la duración de patentes y evitar la incorporación de genéricos, se analiza la influencia de las patentes farmacéuticas que ha dado lugar a reflexionar acerca de la posibilidad de consorciar esfuerzos realizando alianzas entre varias empresas y el sector público para afrontar los retos que plantean nuevas enfermedades producidas por virus que dan lugar a epidemias y pandemias.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Drug Costs , Drug Industry/organization & administration , Health Policy , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Patents as Topic , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/economics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drugs, Generic , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Program Evaluation , Virus Diseases/economics , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
8.
Recent Pat Biotechnol ; 15(2): 148-163, 2021 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Face COVID-19 pandemic, a need for accurate information on SARS-CoV-2 virus is urgent and scientific reports have been published on a daily basis to enable effective technologies to fight the disease progression. However, at the initial occurrence of Pandemic, no information on the matter was known and technologies to fight the Pandemic were not readily available. However, searches in patent databases, if strategically designed, can offer quick responses to new pandemics. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is aiming to provide existing information in patent documents useful for the developmentof technologies addressing COVID-19. Considering the emergency situation the world was facing and the knowledge of COVID-19 available until April, 2020, this work presents an analysis of the main characteristics of the technological information in patent documents worldwide, related to coronaviruses and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). METHODS: Regions of concentration of such technologies, the number of available documents and their technological fields are disclosed in three approaches: 1) a wide search, retrieving technologies on SARS or coronaviruses; 2) a targeted search, retrieving documents additionally referring to Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE2), which is used by SARS- CoV-2 to enter a cell and 3) a punctual search, which retrieved patents disclosing aspects related to SARS- CoV-2 available at that time. RESULTS: Results show the high-level technology involved in these developments and a monopoly tendency of such technologies, also evidencing that it is possible to find answers to new problems in patent documents. CONCLUSION: This work, then, aims to contribute to scientific and technological development by raising the awareness of what should be considered when searching for technologies developed for other matters that could provide solutions for a new problem.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disclosure/statistics & numerical data , Patents as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus , Emergencies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
12.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; 31(12): 1177-1188, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526144

ABSTRACT

Introduction: NGOs and governments of some countries have demanded suspension of patents protection of COVID-19 vaccines and the underlying technology to enhance worldwide access. At the same time, companies actually developing and producing COVID-19 vaccines have to navigate the patent landscape and have to deal with 3rd party patents.Areas covered: This article discusses these different aspects regarding patent protection of COVID-19 vaccines. Patent searches have been carried out in Espacenet and the ORBIT database. Different search strings were used by the author, based on his own background knowledge.Expert opinion: SARS-CoV 2 was for the first time fully described on 10 January 2020, so it is so far not possible to determine if, and by whom, patent applications were filed for respective vaccines. On that background, allegations that patents would be responsible for insufficient access to the vaccine in particular in developing countries are baseless. Even the key players are facing contraints caused by third-party patents, and legal disputes are already ongoing. Anyway, the bigger obstacle for worldwide equitable vaccine distribution seems to reside in know how transfer and production capacities, as ramping up production requires considerable efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Patents as Topic , Humans , RNA, Viral/immunology
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502440

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contains spike proteins that assist the virus in entering host cells. In the absence of a specific intervention, efforts are afoot throughout the world to find an effective treatment for SARS-CoV-2. Through innovative techniques, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are being designed and developed to block a particular pathway of SARS-CoV-2 infection. More than 100 patent applications describing the development of MAbs and their application against SARS-CoV-2 have been registered. Most of them target the receptor binding protein so that the interaction between virus and host cell can be prevented. A few monoclonal antibodies are also being patented for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. Some of them, like Regeneron® have already received emergency use authorization. These protein molecules are currently preferred for high-risk patients such as those over 65 years old with compromised immunity and those with metabolic disorders such as obesity. Being highly specific in action, monoclonal antibodies offer one of the most appropriate interventions for both the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2. Technological advancement has helped in producing highly efficacious MAbs. However, these agents are known to induce immunogenic and non-immunogenic reactions. More research and testing are required to establish the suitability of administering MAbs to all patients at risk of developing a severe illness. This patent study is focused on MAbs as a therapeutic option for treating COVID-19, as well as their invention, patenting information, and key characteristics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus M Proteins/immunology , Humans , Patents as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
14.
Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov ; 16(2): 136-160, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cancer is a multistep process involving genetic and epigenetic changes in the somatic genome. Genetic mutations as well as environmental factors lead to the initiation, promotion, and progression of cancer. Metastasis allows cancer cells to spread via circulatory and lymphatic systems; secondary tumorigenesis typically leads to a fatal outcome. Recent experimental evidence suggests that Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) play a pivotal role in tumor progression. A tumor is heterogeneous and composed of different cell types. CSCs are a subpopulation of tumor cells possessing abilities to self-renew and differentiate. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to present repurposed drugs, and potential candidates, that can serve as anticancer medications intended to target resistant cancer cells, i.e. CSCs. METHODS: Research publications, FDA filings, and patents have been reviewed for repurposed drugs or drug combinations that can act to improve cancer treatment and care. RESULTS: Drugs that act against CSCs include ones approved for treatment of diabetes (metformin & thiazolidinediones), parasitic diseases (chloroquine, niclosamide, mebendazole & pyrvinium), psychotic disorders (thioridazine, clomipramine & phenothiazines), alcoholism (disulfiram), lipid disorder (statins), inflammatory diseases (tranilast, auranofin, acetaminophen & celecoxib), antibiotics (azithromycin), and other disorders. Current research findings advocate the existence of beneficial effects by combining these repurposed drugs, and also through their complementary use with conventional cancer therapies. CONCLUSION: Repurposing FDA-approved medications towards cancer care, by targeting the resistant CSCs, will allow for a quicker, cheaper development and approval process. A larger drug library available to physicians will allow for increased efficacy during both first-line and recurrent cancer treatments.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplastic Stem Cells/drug effects , Animals , Drug Repositioning , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Epigenesis, Genetic , Humans , Mutation , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/pathology , Patents as Topic
15.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438674

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic needs no introduction at present. Only a few treatments are available for this disease, including remdesivir and favipiravir. Accordingly, the pharmaceutical industry is striving to develop new treatments for COVID-19. Molnupiravir, an orally active RdRp inhibitor, is in a phase 3 clinical trial against COVID-19. The objective of this review article is to enlighten the researchers working on COVID-19 about the discovery, recent developments, and patents related to molnupiravir. Molnupiravir was originally developed for the treatment of influenza at Emory University, USA. However, this drug has also demonstrated activity against a variety of viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Now it is being jointly developed by Emory University, Ridgeback Biotherapeutics, and Merck to treat COVID-19. The published clinical data indicate a good safety profile, tolerability, and oral bioavailability of molnupiravir in humans. The patient-compliant oral dosage form of molnupiravir may hit the market in the first or second quarter of 2022. The patent data of molnupiravir revealed its granted compound patent and process-related patent applications. We also anticipate patent filing related to oral dosage forms, inhalers, and a combination of molnupiravir with marketed drugs like remdesivir, favipiravir, and baricitinib. The current pandemic demands a patient compliant, safe, tolerable, and orally effective COVID-19 treatment. The authors believe that molnupiravir meets these requirements and is a breakthrough COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Drug Discovery , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytidine/administration & dosage , Cytidine/chemistry , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxylamines/administration & dosage , Hydroxylamines/chemistry , Patents as Topic , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/chemistry , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Proteins/metabolism
16.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 3717-3731, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416992

ABSTRACT

Compulsory licensing for drug patents is of great significance to ensure the accessibility of drugs. Although the development of China's compulsory licensing system for drug patents has been gradually improved, there are still problems. For example, the scope of the object is not realistic, the setting of the initiating subject is unreasonable, the reasons for issuance are not clear, the duration and scope of the license are not refined, and the provisions on the exploitation fee are missing. Consequently, in order to improve China's compulsory licensing system for drug patents, it is necessary to expand reasonably the scope of the object, remove the restrictions on the initiating subject, adjust the initiating rights of different subjects, determine the duration and scope of the license and the applicability of the hearing on a case-by-case basis, and determine a reasonable exploitation fee by taking into account the national income, patent cost, market share and other factors, in consideration of the flexibly international norms and the actual situation in China.


Subject(s)
Licensure/legislation & jurisprudence , Patents as Topic/legislation & jurisprudence , China , Drug Industry/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Legislation, Drug
20.
Am J Law Med ; 47(2-3): 157-175, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361581

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed myriad and complex challenges for our national health care system spanning preparedness, response, access, costs, infrastructure, coordination, and medical innovation. These challenges implicate federal, state, and local agencies and actors, as well as international collaborative bodies. One constant throughout the pandemic has been the pressing need for safe and effective diagnostics, prophylactic vaccines, and drug treatments to counter the virus.1 Inarguably, significant problems with the multi-faceted system of drug and vaccine innovation and regulation manifested long before the COVID-19 pandemic.2 The pandemic, however, has laid bare the inextricable connections among federal funding, patents, product review and approval mechanisms, and the eventual medical products and resulting costs.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/economics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Approval/legislation & jurisprudence , Government Agencies , Patents as Topic , Therapies, Investigational/economics , Humans , Information Dissemination , Intellectual Property , Research Support as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
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