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3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2141233, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596574

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic led to the implementation of alternative care modalities (eg, teleconsultations and task shifting) that will continue to be implemented in parallel to traditional care after the pandemic. An ideal balance between alternative and traditional care modalities is unknown. Objectives: To quantify the ideal postpandemic balance between alternative and traditional care modalities among patients with chronic illness and to qualify the circumstances in which patients consider it appropriate to replace traditional care with alternative care. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study invited 5999 adults with chronic illness in ComPaRe, a French nationwide e-cohort of adults with chronic conditions who volunteer their time to participate in research projects, to participate in this study, which was performed from January 27 to February 23, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Participants rated the ideal proportion at which they would use 3 alternative care modalities instead of the traditional care equivalent on a 0% to 100% scale (with 0% indicating using alternative care modalities for none of one's future care and 100% indicating using alternative care modalities for all of one's future care) of their overall future care: (1) teleconsultations, (2) online symptom-checkers to react to new symptoms, and (3) remote monitoring to adapt treatment outside consultations. The median ideal proportion of alternative care use was calculated. Perceived appropriate circumstances in which each alternative modality could replace traditional care were collected with open-ended questions. Analyses were performed on a weighted data set representative of patients with chronic illness in France. Results: Of the 5999 invited individuals, 1529 (mean [SD] age, 50.3 [14.7] years; 1072 [70.1%] female) agreed to participate (participation rate, 25.5%). Participants would choose teleconsultations for 50.0% of their future consultations (IQR, 11.0%-52.0%), online symptom-checkers over contacting their physician for 22.0% of new symptoms (IQR, 2.0%-50.0%), and remote monitoring instead of consultations for 52.3% of their treatment adaptations (IQR, 25.4%-85.4%). Participants reported 67 circumstances for which replacing traditional with alternative care modalities was considered appropriate, including 31 care activities (eg, prescription renewal and addressing acute or minor complaints), 25 patient characteristics (eg, stable chronic condition and established patient-physician relationship), and 11 required characteristics of the alternative care modalities (eg, quality assurance). Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this survey study suggest that after the pandemic, patients would choose alternative over traditional care for 22% to 52% of the time across different care needs. Participants proposed 67 criteria to guide clinicians in replacing traditional care with alternative care. These findings provide a guide for redesigning care in collaboration with patients after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Disease/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Patient Preference , Adult , Female , France , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 781161, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575929

ABSTRACT

Globally, vaccine hesitancy is a growing public health problem. It is detrimental to the consolidation of immunization program achievements and elimination of vaccine-targeted diseases. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in China and explore its contributing factors. A national cross-sectional online survey among Chinese adults (≥18 years old) was conducted between August 6, 2021 and August 9 via a market research company. We collected sociodemographic information; lifestyle behavior; quality of life; the knowledge, awareness, and behavior of COVID-19; the knowledge, awareness, and behavior of COVID-19 vaccine; willingness of COVID-19 vaccination; accessibility of COVID-19 vaccination services; skepticism about COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccine; doctor and vaccine developer scale; and so on. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the associations by using logistic regression models. A total of 29,925 residents (48.64% men) were enrolled in our study with mean age of 30.99 years. We found an overall prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy at 8.40% (95% CI, 8.09-8.72) in primary vaccination and 8.39% (95% CI, 8.07-8.70) in booster vaccination. In addition, after adjusting for potential confounders, we found that women, higher educational level, married residents, higher score of health condition, never smoked, increased washing hands, increased wearing mask, increased social distance, lower level of vaccine conspiracy beliefs, disease risks outweigh vaccine risk, higher level of convenient vaccination, and higher level of trust in doctor and developer were more willing to vaccinate than all others (all p < 0.05). Age, sex, educational level, marital status, chronic disease condition, smoking, healthy behaviors, the curability of COVID-19, the channel of accessing information of COVID-19 vaccine, endorsement of vaccine conspiracy beliefs, weigh risks of vaccination against risks of the disease, making a positive influence on the health of others around you, and lower trust in healthcare system may affect the variation of willingness to take a COVID-19 vaccine (all p < 0.05). The prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was modest in China, even with the slight resulting cascade of changing vaccination rates between the primary and booster vaccination. Urgent action to address vaccine hesitancy is needed in building trust in medical personnel and vaccine producers, promoting the convenience of vaccination services, and spreading reliable information of COVID-19 vaccination via the Internet and other media.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , China/epidemiology , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
5.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05027, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575087

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccine acceptance and hesitancy among the general population and health care workers play an important role in successfully controlling the Coronavirus Disease (COVID)-19 pandemic. While there is evidence for vaccine hesitancy across the globe, wide variation in factors influencing vaccine acceptance has been reported, mainly from High-Income Countries (HIC). However, the evidence from Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) remains unclear. The objective of this review was to describe the determinants of vaccine acceptance and strategies to address those in an LMIC context. Methods: The World Health Organization's (WHO) Measuring Behavioral and Social Drivers of Vaccination (BeSD) Increasing Vaccination Model was employed to identify factors that influenced vaccine acceptance. All evidence related to supply-side and demand-side determinants and social and health system processes were examined. A comprehensive search for published literature was conducted in three databases and grey literature in relevant websites of government, multinational agencies, and COVID-19 resource aggregators, followed by a narrative synthesis. Results: Overall, the results showed that the vaccine acceptance rates differed across LMICs, with a wide variety of reasons cited for vaccine hesitancy. Vaccine acceptance was reportedly greater among males, those with higher education, elevated socio-economic status, the unmarried, those employed as health care workers. Evidence suggested that exposure to misinformation about COVID-19 vaccines and public concerns over the safety of vaccines may contribute to lower acceptance rates. Strategies to increase vaccine acceptance rates included direct engagement with communities through influencers, including community leaders and health experts; clear and transparent communication about COVID-19 vaccines, financial and non-financial incentives; and strong endorsement from health care workers. Trust in government was identified as a significant enabler of vaccine acceptance. Conclusions: There is a need for measures to address public acceptability, trust and concern over the safety and benefit of approved vaccines. Local context is essential to consider while developing programs to promote vaccine uptake. The governments worldwide also need to strategize to develop plans to address the anxiety and vaccine related concerns of community regarding vaccine hesitancy. There is a need for further research to evaluate strategies to address vaccine hesitancy in LMIC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Developing Countries , Humans , Male , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(11): 1646-1652, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572708

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus Disease 2019 is a life-threatening disease, especially for people suffering from chronic diseases. As the vaccine is considered an essential tool to confront pandemics, many international medical institutions have developed vaccines. Countries around the world started immunizing their citizens. This study aims to assess the acceptance and barriers of COVID-19 vaccine uptake among Saudi Arabian people who suffer from chronic diseases. METHODOLOGY: In February-March 2021, a cross-sectional study of Saudi Arabian people who have chronic diseases was undertaken. It was based on an Arabic self-administered online questionnaire and used a convenience sampling technique. 310 people were invited. The response rate was 97%. RESULTS: 51.95% of the participants agreed to take the COVID-19 vaccine, 33.5% were unsure about being vaccinated, and 14.5% refused. The most frequent concerns between participants and receiving the vaccine were about the side effects and the perceived misconception that following preventative measures is enough to protect against the virus. Significant associations between age, education, and occupation with acceptance rate were found (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Although a higher acceptance for the targeted group was expected, the participants showed a moderate acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine. Addressing the barriers in the current study regarding vaccine uptake and focusing on building trust in the safety and efficacy of the vaccine will aid in hesitancy and resistance toward the vaccine, specifically if these measures were undertaken by an authority such as the Saudi Ministry of Health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Chronic Disease , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(51)2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569347

ABSTRACT

The US COVID-19 Trends and Impact Survey (CTIS) is a large, cross-sectional, internet-based survey that has operated continuously since April 6, 2020. By inviting a random sample of Facebook active users each day, CTIS collects information about COVID-19 symptoms, risks, mitigating behaviors, mental health, testing, vaccination, and other key priorities. The large scale of the survey-over 20 million responses in its first year of operation-allows tracking of trends over short timescales and allows comparisons at fine demographic and geographic detail. The survey has been repeatedly revised to respond to emerging public health priorities. In this paper, we describe the survey methods and content and give examples of CTIS results that illuminate key patterns and trends and help answer high-priority policy questions relevant to the COVID-19 epidemic and response. These results demonstrate how large online surveys can provide continuous, real-time indicators of important outcomes that are not subject to public health reporting delays and backlogs. The CTIS offers high value as a supplement to official reporting data by supplying essential information about behaviors, attitudes toward policy and preventive measures, economic impacts, and other topics not reported in public health surveillance systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status Indicators , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epidemiologic Methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6433-6436, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557694

ABSTRACT

Lassa fever, caused by the Lassa virus of the Arenaviruses family, is a re-emerging public health concern that has led to 300,000 infections and 5000 deaths annually in Africa. Highly prevalent in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea, Nigeria, Côte d'lvoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin, patients infected with the virus can manifest with cough, sore throat, headache, nausea, and vomiting among other symptoms. Coexisting with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and its impacts, cases of Lassa fever in the African population have been reported to decrease due to hesitancy in visiting clinics that leads to unreported cases-all contributing to a silent outbreak in West Africa. Thus, to overcome current burdens, gaps, and challenges caused by Lassa fever amidst COVID-19 in Africa, various recommendations for efficient control of transmission, measures for disease containment, and strategies to correct misperceptions were made.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lassa Fever/epidemiology , Lassa Fever/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Africa, Western/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Lassa Fever/diagnosis , Lassa virus , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines
11.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(11): 783-794D, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551419

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate vaccine hesitancy leading to underimmunization and a measles outbreak in Rwanda and to develop a conceptual, community-level model of behavioural factors. Methods: Local immunization systems in two Rwandan communities (one recently experienced a measles outbreak) were explored using systems thinking, human-centred design and behavioural frameworks. Data were collected between 2018 and 2020 from: discussions with 11 vaccination service providers (i.e. hospital and health centre staff); interviews with 161 children's caregivers at health centres; and nine validation interviews with health centre staff. Factors influencing vaccine hesitancy were categorized using the 3Cs framework: confidence, complacency and convenience. A conceptual model of vaccine hesitancy mechanisms with feedback loops was developed. Findings: A comparison of service providers' and caregivers' perspectives in both rural and peri-urban settings showed that similar factors strengthened vaccine uptake: (i) high trust in vaccines and service providers based on personal relationships with health centre staff; (ii) the connecting role of community health workers; and (iii) a strong sense of community. Factors identified as increasing vaccine hesitancy (e.g. service accessibility and inadequate follow-up) differed between service providers and caregivers and between settings. The conceptual model could be used to explain drivers of the recent measles outbreak and to guide interventions designed to increase vaccine uptake. Conclusion: The application of behavioural frameworks and systems thinking revealed vaccine hesitancy mechanisms in Rwandan communities that demonstrate the interrelationship between immunization services and caregivers' vaccination behaviour. Confidence-building social structures and context-dependent challenges that affect vaccine uptake were also identified.


Subject(s)
Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Vaccines , Child , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Rwanda/epidemiology , Systems Analysis , Vaccination
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6535-6543, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544301

ABSTRACT

Measurement of the population's general knowledge of the coronavirus vaccine is very important to improve public acceptance and decrease vaccine hesitancy in confronting the disease. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the participants towards the coronavirus vaccine. Data were collected using an online survey, in the form of a structured questionnaire, conducted during April-May 2021 in Egypt, and subjects from all over Egypt participated. The questionnaire was divided into three parts to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding coronavirus. The first part was to assess participants' experience about coronavirus infection (eight items), the second was to assess the health beliefs about coronavirus and vaccine (16 items) and the third was to assess general knowledge, attitude, and practices of the participants towards vaccine (28 items). A total of 871 (465 females) participants participated, 81% of them were still committed to the precautionary measures for protection. Eighty-eight percent of them accepted to take the vaccine. Eighty-three percent of the participants answered that they will encourage family, friends, and colleagues to get the vaccine. Ninety-four percent knew that the coronavirus vaccine provides immunity against infection for a period of 6-12 months. 91.9% believed that the current infection with coronavirus is one of the main contraindications to vaccination. Eighty-nine percent believed that both pregnant women and chronic disease patients can get vaccinated and also that there is no specific age for a specific type of vaccination. Ninety-four percent of them knew that subjects taking immunosuppressive drugs should be prescribed Sinopharm, not AstraZeneca vaccine. The median score of this survey was 20/22 regarding knowledge about the coronavirus vaccine. Overall, the study participants had good knowledge about the coronavirus vaccine and accepted to take the vaccine, which indicates the highly commendable efforts to confront the coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Egypt , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Young Adult
13.
J Med Ethics ; 47(8): 547-548, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537986

ABSTRACT

Rapid, large-scale uptake of new vaccines against COVID-19 will be crucial to decrease infections and end the pandemic. In a recent article in this journal, Julian Savulescu argued in favour of monetary incentives to convince more people to be vaccinated once the vaccine becomes available. To evaluate the potential of his suggestion, we conducted an experiment investigating the impact of payments and the communication of individual and prosocial benefits of high vaccination rates on vaccination intentions. Our results revealed that none of these interventions or their combinations increased willingness to be vaccinated shortly after a vaccine becomes available. Consequently, decision makers should be cautious about introducing monetary incentives and instead focus on interventions that increase confidence in vaccine safety first, as this has shown to be an especially important factor regarding the demand for the new COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , COVID-19 , Motivation , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Vaccination/economics , Vaccination/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Education , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e230, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537261

ABSTRACT

We conducted a retrospective observational study in patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) who received medical care in 688 COVID-19 ambulatory units and hospitals in Mexico City between 24 February 2020 and 24 December 2020, to study if the elderly seek medical care later than younger patients and their severity of symptoms at initial medical evaluation. Patients were categorised into eight groups (<20, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and ≥80 years). Symptoms at initial evaluation were classified according to a previously validated classification into respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms. Comparisons between time from symptom onset to medical care for every age category were performed through variance analyses. Logistic regression models were applied to determine the risk of presenting symptoms of severity according to age, and mortality risk according to delays in medical care. In total, 286 020 patients were included (mean age: 42.8, s.d.: 16.8 years; 50.4% were women). Mean time from symptom onset to medical care was 4.04 (s.d.: 3.6) days and increased with older age categories (P < 0.0001). Mortality risk increased by 6.4% for each day of delay in medical care from symptom onset. The risk of presenting with the symptoms of severity was greater with increasing age categories. In conclusion, COVID-19 patients with increasing ages tend to seek medical care later, with higher rates of symptoms of severity at initial presentation in both ambulatory units and hospitals.


Subject(s)
Aging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
16.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(3): 414-420, 2021 Mar 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534263

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the incidence of acute respiratory infection (ARI) and related healthcare seeking behaviors in population in the period of COVID-19 epidemic in China. Methods: According to the province specific cumulative incidence rates of COVID-19 reported as of March 31, 2020, the low, medium and high-risk areas were classified. In these areas, a stratified two stage cluster random sampling method was used to select participants for face-to-face questionnaire surveys. Data on the incidence of ARI and related healthcare seeking behaviors in community residents during COVID-19 epidemic period were collected to calculate the attack rate of ARI and related healthcare seeking rate. Logistic regression method was used to explore the influencing factors for ARI incidence and healthcare seeking behavior. Results: A total of 34 857 community residents were surveyed, in whom 647 (1.9%) reported that they had ARI symptoms during the COVID-19 epidemic period, and 241 (37.2%) had healthcare seeking behaviors. In terms of the incidence of COVID-19-related ARI, in high-risk area, the risk of COVID-19-related ARI was 1.36 times (95%CI: 1.12-1.65) than that in low-risk area; among different age groups, the risk of COVID-19-related ARI in age groups 20-39 years, ≥60 years was 1.80 times (95%CI: 1.29-2.59) and 1.63 times (95%CI: 1.14-2.40) than that in age group 1-9 years; the risk of COVID-19-related ARI in people with underlying diseases was 1.53 times (95%CI: 1.23-1.89) than that in those without underlying diseases; the risk of COVID-19-related ARI in people with contacts with confirmed cases of COVID-19 and people with fever or respiratory symptoms was 1.53 times (95%CI: 1.01-2.27) and 6.60 times (95%CI: 5.05-8.53) than those in people without these contacts. The healthcare seeking rate in COVID-19-related ARI patients with exposures to those with fever or respiratory symptoms was 1.68 times (95%CI: 1.05-2.70) than that in such patients without the exposures. Conclusions: The attack rate of COVID-19-related ARI was affected by the local epidemic level of COVID-19, and in high-risk area, the attack rate of COVID-19-related ARI was also high. The healthcare seeking rate in patients with COVID-19-related ARI was low. Therefore, it is necessary to encourage the healthcare seeking in people with ARI in COVID-19 pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 779720, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528877

ABSTRACT

Introduction: With the approval of COVID-19 vaccinations for children and adolescents in China, parental vaccine hesitancy will emerge as a new challenge with regard to the administration of these vaccines. However, little is known regarding this hesitancy as well as regional differences that may exist between parents from Shandong vs. Zhejiang. Methods: To assess these issues, an online survey was conducted via a Wenjuanxing platform over the period from July 22 to August 14, 2021. Parents from Shandong and Zhejiang were recruited from Wechat groups and results from a total of 917 subjects were analyzed. Factors evaluated in this survey included socio-demographic variables, parental vaccine hesitancy, Parental Attitudes toward Childhood Vaccines (PACV) domains (behavior, safety and efficacy, general attitudes) and social support. Results: Compared with those from Shandong (N = 443), parents from Zhejiang (N = 474) showed significantly higher prevalence rates of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy (19.4 vs. 11.7%, p = 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed that yearly household incomes of ≥120,000 RMB (p = 0.041), medical workers (p = 0.022) and general attitudes of PACV (p = 0.004) were risk factors for vaccine hesitancy among parents from Shandong, while behavior (p = 0.004), safety and efficacy (p < 0.001) and general attitudes of PACV (p = 0.002) were risk factors for parents from Zhejiang. Among parents with vaccine hesitancy (N = 144), concerns over side effects (91.0%) and unknown effects (84.0%) of the COVID-19 vaccine were the most prevalent reasons for hesitancy. Evidence providing proof of vaccine safety (67.4%) and assurance of a low risk of being infected by COVID-19 (60.4%) were the two most effective persuasive factors. Conclusion: Parents from Zhejiang showed a higher prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy as compared with those from Shandong. Behavior, safety and efficacy, and general attitudes of PACV were the risk factors associated with this hesitancy in these parents from Zhejiang. Given the identification of the various reasons for parental vaccine hesitancy, different strategies as well as regional adjustments in these strategies will be required for an effective and convincing protocol for childhood vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Parents , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines/adverse effects
18.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 421, 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528692

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To promote public health and resume university activities, COVID-19 vaccination has been mandated from an increasing number of universities worldwide. The objective of the study is to understand the factors that impact preference and willingness to take the vaccine among university students in Hong Kong universities utilizing an online questionnaire. The findings will be imperative for health education and the success of the vaccination program. RESULTS: We conducted a discrete choice experiment survey among university students in Hong Kong and applied conditional logit regression to estimate their vaccine preference and the weight of each attribute. Regression results showed adverse reactions, efficacy, origin of the vaccine, required number of doses and out-of-pocket price are significant determinants for the choice of vaccine, ranked from the most to least important. Similar preference weighting results were observed after adjusting age, sex, monthly household income, studying medical-related subjects and recent influenza vaccination. Safety, efficacy and origin of the vaccine are key drivers for vaccination decisions among young adults in Hong Kong. Health education and communication focused on these factors are urgently needed to overcome vaccine hesitancy and improve the vaccine uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hong Kong , Humans , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Universities , Vaccination , Young Adult
19.
Crit Care Med ; 49(12): 2058-2069, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528201

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To provide updated information on the burdens of sepsis during acute inpatient admissions for Medicare beneficiaries. DESIGN: Analysis of paid Medicare claims via the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services DataLink Project. SETTING: All U.S. acute-care hospitals, excluding federally operated hospitals (Veterans Administration and Defense Health Agency). PATIENTS: All Medicare beneficiaries, January 2012-February 2020, with an explicit sepsis diagnostic code assigned during an inpatient admission. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The count of Medicare Part A/B (fee-for-service) plus Medicare Advantage inpatient sepsis admissions rose from 981,027 (CY2012) to 1,700,433 (CY 2019). The proportion of total admissions with sepsis in the Medicare Advantage population rose from 21.43% to 35.39%, reflecting the increasing beneficiary proportion enrolled in Medicare Advantage. In CY2019, 6-month mortality rates in Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries for sepsis continued to decline, but remained high: 59.9% for septic shock, 35.5% for severe sepsis, 30.8% for sepsis attributed to a specific organism, and 26.5% for unspecified sepsis. Total fee-for-service-only inpatient hospital costs rose from $17.79B (CY2012) to $22.98B (CY2019). We estimated that the aggregate cost of sepsis hospital care for the entire U.S. population was at least $57.47B in 2019. Inclusion of 14 months' (January 2019-February 2020) newer data exposed new trends: the cost per patient, number of admissions, and fraction of patients with sepsis labeled as present on admission inflected around November 2015, coincident with the change to International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition, and introduction of the Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock Management Bundle (SEP-1) metric. CONCLUSIONS: Sepsis among Medicare beneficiaries precoronavirus disease 2019 imposed immense burdens upon patients, their families, and the taxpayers.


Subject(s)
Medicare/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Sepsis/diagnosis , Fee-for-Service Plans/economics , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Sepsis/economics , Sepsis/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
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