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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2144470, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1640616

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 has disproportionately affected Black individuals in the US; however, vaccination rates among Black individuals trail those among other racial groups. This disparity is often attributed to a high level of vaccine hesitancy among Black individuals, but few studies have examined changes in vaccine hesitancy over time. Objectives: To compare changes in vaccine hesitancy between Black and White individuals in the US and to examine mechanisms that might help explain the observed differences. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study used 7 waves of data collected using a panel design. A total of 1200 English-speaking adults in the US were recruited from a nonprobability online panel to construct a census-matched sample. Participants were contacted monthly between December 9, 2020, and June 16, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome of interest was self-reported vaccination intention, measured on a 6-point scale (where 1 indicates extremely unlikely and 6 indicates extremely likely). Beliefs about the safety, effectiveness, and necessity of COVID-19 vaccines were measured on a 5-point Likert scale, with higher scores denoting greater agreement. Results: The baseline data included 1200 participants (693 women [52.0%; weighted]; 921 White individuals [64.0%; weighted], 107 Black individuals [12.2%; weighted]; weighted mean [SD] age, 49.5 [17.6] years). The survey participation rate was 57.0% (1264 of 2218). Black and White individuals had comparable vaccination intentions in December 2020, but Black individuals experienced larger increases in vaccination intention than White individuals relative to baseline in March 2021 (b = 0.666; P < .001), April 2021 (b = 0.890; P < .001), May 2021 (b = 0.695; P < .001), and June 2021 (b = 0.709; P < .001). The belief that the vaccines are necessary for protection also increased more among Black than White individuals in March 2021 (b = 0.221; P = .01) and April 2021 (b = 0.187; P = .04). Beliefs that the vaccines are safe and effective (b = 0.125; P < .001) and necessary (b = 0.405; P < .001) were positively associated with vaccination intention. There was no evidence that these associations varied by race. Conclusions and Relevance: This survey study suggests that the intention of Black individuals to be vaccinated was initially comparable to that of White individuals but increased more rapidly. There is some evidence that this increase is associated with changes in beliefs about the vaccine. Vaccination rates continue to be lower among Black individuals than White individuals, but these results suggest that this might be less likely the result of vaccine hesitancy than other factors.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Vaccination , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
4.
Med Care ; 60(1): 3-12, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504829

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Equitable access to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing is important for reducing disparities. We sought to examine differences in the health care setting choice for SARS-CoV-2 testing by race/ethnicity and insurance. Options included traditional health care settings and mobile testing units (MTUs) targeting communities experiencing disproportionately high coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rates. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study among patients in a large health system in the Southeastern US. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression analyses were employed to evaluate associations between patient characteristics and health care setting choice for SARS-CoV-2 testing, defined as: (1) outpatient (OP) care; (2) emergency department (ED); (3) urgent care (UC); and (4) MTUs. Patient characteristics included race/ethnicity, insurance, and the existence of an established relationship with the health care system. RESULTS: Our analytic sample included 105,386 adult patients tested for SARS-CoV-2. Overall, 55% of patients sought care at OP, 24% at ED, 12% at UC, and 9% at MTU. The sample was 58% White, 24% Black, 11% Hispanic, and 8% other race/ethnicity. Black patients had a higher likelihood of getting tested through the ED compared with White patients. Hispanic patients had the highest likelihood of testing at MTUs. Patients without a primary care provider had a higher relative risk of being tested through the ED and MTUs versus OP. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities by race/ethnicity were present in health care setting choice for SARS-CoV-2 testing. Health care systems may consider implementing mobile care delivery models to reach vulnerable populations. Our findings support the need for systemic change to increase primary care and health care access beyond short-term pandemic solutions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/ethnology , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States , Young Adult
5.
Am J Perinatol ; 39(1): 75-83, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447396

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate pregnant women's attitudes toward COVID-19 illness and vaccination and identify factors associated with vaccine acceptability. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional survey among pregnant women enrolled in a prospective COVID-19 cohort study in Salt Lake City, UT, Birmingham, AL, and New York, NY, from August 9 to December 10, 2020. Women were eligible if they were 18 to 50 years old and <28 weeks of gestation. Upon enrollment, women completed surveys regarding concerns about COVID-19 illness and likelihood of getting COVID-19 vaccine if one were available during pregnancy. Vaccine acceptability was defined as a response of "very likely" or "somewhat likely" on a 4-point Likert scale. Factors associated with vaccine acceptability were assessed with multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 939 pregnant women eligible for the main cohort study, 915 (97%) consented to participate. Among these 915 women, 39% self-identified as White, 23% Black, 33% Hispanic, and 4% Other. Sixty-two percent received an influenza vaccine last season. Seventy-two percent worried about getting sick with COVID-19. If they were to get sick, 92% worried about harm to their pregnancy and 80% about harm to themselves. Only 41% reported they would get a vaccine. Of women who were unlikely to get vaccinated, the most frequently cited concern was vaccine safety for their pregnancy (82%). Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic women had lower odds of accepting a vaccine compared with non-Hispanic White women (adjusted odds ratios [aOR] 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.6 for both). Receipt of influenza vaccine during the previous season was associated with higher odds of vaccine acceptability (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-3.0). CONCLUSION: Although most pregnant women worried about COVID-19 illness, <50% were willing to get vaccinated during pregnancy. Racial and ethnic disparities in plans to accept COVID-19 vaccine highlight the need to prioritize strategies to address perceived barriers among groups at high risk for COVID-19. KEY POINTS: · Less than half of pregnant patients stated they would get a COVID-19 vaccine.. · Protecting their baby was the most common reason for acceptance and refusal of the COVID-19 vaccine.. · Patients of minority race/ethnicity and those without prior influenza vaccination were less likely to accept the COVID-19 vaccine..


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
6.
Public Health Rep ; 136(6): 774-781, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430318

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about COVID-19 vaccination intentions among refugee communities in the United States. The objective of this study was to measure COVID-19 vaccination intentions among a sample of refugees in the United States and the reasons for their vaccine acceptance or hesitancy. METHODS: From December 2020 through January 2021, we emailed or text messaged anonymous online surveys to 12 bilingual leaders in the Afghan, Bhutanese, Somali, South Sudanese, and Burmese refugee communities in the United States. We asked community leaders to complete the survey and share the link with community members who met the inclusion criteria (arrived in the United States as refugees, were aged ≥18, and currently lived in the United States). We compared the characteristics of respondents who intended to receive the COVID-19 vaccine with those of respondents who did not intend to receive the vaccine or were unsure. We then conducted crude and adjusted logistic regression analysis to measure the association between employment as an essential worker and COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. RESULTS: Of 435 respondents, 306 (70.3%) indicated that they planned to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Being an essential worker (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.37; 95% CI, 1.44-3.90) and male sex (aOR = 1.87; 95% CI, 1.12-3.12) were significantly associated with higher odds of intending to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Among respondents who intended to receive a COVID-19 vaccine, wanting to protect themselves (68.6%), family members (65.0%), and other people (54.3%) were the main reasons. CONCLUSION: Many refugees who responded to the survey, especially those who worked in essential industries, intended to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Community organizations, health care providers, and public health agencies should work together to ensure that vaccine registration and vaccination sites are accessible to refugees.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Refugees/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Africa/ethnology , Asia/ethnology , COVID-19/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2121931, 2021 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377571

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Significant differences in hesitancy to receive COVID-19 vaccination by race/ethnicity have been observed in several settings. Racial/ethnic differences in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among health care workers (HCWs), who face occupational and community exposure to COVID-19, have not been well described. OBJECTIVE: To assess hesitancy to COVID-19 vaccination among HCWs across different racial/ethnic groups and assess factors associated with vaccine hesitancy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This survey study was conducted among HCWs from 2 large academic hospitals (ie, a children's hospital and an adult hospital) over a 3-week period in November and December 2020. Eligible participants were HCWs with and without direct patient contact. A 3-step hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between race/ethnicity and vaccine hesitancy controlling for demographic characteristics, employment characteristics, COVID-19 exposure risk, and being up to date with routine vaccinations. Data were analyzed from February through March 2021. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Vaccine hesitancy, defined as not planning on, being unsure about, or planning to delay vaccination, served as the outcome. RESULTS: Among 34 865 HCWs eligible for this study, 12 034 individuals (34.5%) completed the survey and 10 871 individuals (32.2%) completed the survey and reported their race/ethnicity. Among 10 866 of these HCWs with data on sex, 8362 individuals (76.9%) were women, and among 10 833 HCWs with age data, 5923 individuals (54.5%) were younger than age 40 years. (Percentages for demographic and clinical characteristics are among the number of respondents for each type of question.) There were 8388 White individuals (77.2%), 882 Black individuals (8.1%), 845 Asian individuals (7.8%), and 449 individuals with other or mixed race/ethnicity (4.1%), and there were 307 Hispanic or Latino individuals (2.8%). Vaccine hesitancy was highest among Black HCWs (732 individuals [83.0%]) and Hispanic or Latino HCWs (195 individuals [63.5%]) (P < .001). Among 5440 HCWs with vaccine hesitancy, reasons given for hesitancy included concerns about side effects (4737 individuals [87.1%]), newness of the vaccine (4306 individuals [79.2%]), and lack of vaccine knowledge (4091 individuals [75.2%]). The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for vaccine hesitancy was 4.98 (95% CI, 4.11-6.03) among Black HCWs, 2.10 (95% CI, 1.63-2.70) among Hispanic or Latino HCWs, 1.48 (95% CI, 1.21-1.82) among HCWs with other or mixed race/ethnicity, and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.26-1.71) among Asian HCWs compared with White HCWs (P < .001). The aOR was decreased among Black HCWs when adjusting for employment characteristics and COVID-19 exposure risk (aOR, 4.87; 95% CI, 3.96-6.00; P < .001) and being up to date with prior vaccines (aOR, 4.48; 95% CI, 3.62-5.53; P < .001) but not among HCWs with other racial/ethnic backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This study found that vaccine hesitancy before the authorization of the COVID-19 vaccine was increased among Black, Hispanic or Latino, and Asian HCWs compared with White HCWs. These findings suggest that interventions focused on addressing vaccine hesitancy among HCWs are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Hospitals, Teaching , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Adult , African Americans , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Motivation , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256122, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372007

ABSTRACT

The introduction of COVID-19 vaccines is a major public health breakthrough. However, members of US Black and Hispanic communities, already disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 virus, may be less willing to receive the vaccine. We conducted a broad, representative survey of US adults (N = 1,950) in order to better understand vaccine beliefs and explore opportunities to increase vaccine acceptance among these groups. The survey results suggested that Black and Hispanic individuals were less willing than Whites to receive the vaccine. US Blacks and Hispanics also planned to delay receiving the COVID-19 vaccine for a longer time period than Whites, potentially further increasing the risk of contracting COVID-19 within populations that are already experiencing high disease prevalence. Black respondents were less likely to want the COVID-19 vaccine at all compared with Whites and Hispanics, and mistrust of the vaccine among Black respondents was significantly higher than other racial/ethnic groups. Encouragingly, many Black and Hispanic respondents reported that COVID-19 vaccine endorsements from same-race medical professionals would increase their willingness to receive it. These respondents said they would also be motivated by receiving more information on the experiences of vaccine study participants who are of their own race and ethnicity. The results have implications for improved messaging of culturally-tailored communications to help reduce COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among communities disproportionately impacted by the pandemic.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Vaccination , Adult , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data
11.
Contraception ; 104(3): 262-264, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279563

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore racial/ethnic disparities in family planning telehealth use. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed telehealth and in-clinic visits (n = 3142) from ten family planning clinics (April 1-July 31, 2020) by race/ethnicity and month. RESULTS: Telehealth comprised 1257/3142 (40.0%) of overall visits. Telehealth was used by 242/765 (31.6%) of Black/African American and 31/106 (29.2%) multiracial patients. Patients with unknown (162/295, 54.9%), White (771/1870, 41.2%), and other (51/106, 48.1%) identities comprised the majority of telehealth visits. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found differences in telehealth use during the COVID-19 pandemic response. IMPLICATIONS: Understanding barriers and facilitators to telehealth is critical to reducing disparities in access.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Facilities and Services Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Family Planning Services/methods , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Arkansas , Family Planning Services/statistics & numerical data , Female , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Kansas , Minority Groups , Missouri , Oklahoma , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data
12.
J Health Commun ; 25(10): 827-830, 2020 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236160

ABSTRACT

In an era of Freddie Gray and Black Lives Matter, a long history of structural racism, combined with disproportionate rates of COVID-19, the African American community has seen a lot of reasons to demand social justice, equal treatment and immediate access to solutions to health disparities. Despite the promise of COVID-19 vaccines, the community is highly distrustful of the vaccine and institutions given a history of mistreatment and many other current concerns. Trusted messengers such as Black pastors are crucial to protecting the community that faces a disproportionate amount of disease. We present a framework to build trust and acceptance including understanding history and context; listening and empathy; engaging pastors as trusted messengers; creating partnerships with shared responsibility and power; and co-creation of solutions with faith leaders and their community, governments and institutions to create sustainable, long-term change. Efforts to support vaccine acceptance must be customized to the variety of needs and realities of the African American community, not just the topic of concern to the institution. Evaluations are needed to help ensure the community is engaged and feeling heard. Pastors and other religious leaders can work with government and institutions to bring information, facilitate discussion, build trust and develop measurable improvement efforts. Although acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines may not be achieved overnight, the process of focusing on issues that are important to the community is an important step in laying the foundation for both COVID-19 vaccines and future interventions.


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Clergy , Community Participation/methods , Health Status Disparities , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , African Americans/education , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Health Communication/methods , Humans , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Racism , Trust
13.
J Health Commun ; 25(10): 819-826, 2020 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236154

ABSTRACT

Developing a COVID-19 vaccine is a critical strategy for combatting the pandemic. However, for vaccination efforts to succeed, there must be widespread willingness to vaccinate. Prior research has found that Black Americans, who are disproportionately impacted by COVID-19, report lower intentions to get a vaccine than do other populations. We investigate two potential contributors to this disparity: COVID-19 vaccine-related behavioral beliefs and trust in four COVID-19 information sources (mainstream media, social media, President Trump, and public health officials and agencies). Using a nationally-representative survey (n= 889), we demonstrate that differences in vaccination beliefs explain the lower vaccination intentions reported by Black participants, compared to non-Black participants. However, while trust in information sources is associated with vaccination beliefs, differences in trust do not account for the observed differences in vaccination beliefs by race. Furthermore, we find that race moderates the relationships between trust in two sources (Trump and public health officials and agencies) and vaccination beliefs. The effects of trusting these sources on COVID-19 vaccine-related beliefs are smaller among Black participants; thus trust in these sources is less consequential to their pro-vaccination beliefs. Our results suggest that trust in information sources alone does not explain the observed relationship between race and vaccination beliefs.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Health Behavior/ethnology , Health Communication , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Trust , African Americans/psychology , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Intention , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Patient Education as Topic , Racism/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e218500, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210565

ABSTRACT

Importance: Active SARS-CoV-2 (coronavirus) transmission continues in the US. It is unclear whether better access to coronavirus testing and more consistent use of testing could substantially reduce transmission. Objective: To describe coronavirus testing in persons with new onset of febrile illness and analyze whether there are changes over time and differences by race and ethnicity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from the COVID-19 Citizen Science Study, launched in March 2020, which recruited participants via press release, word-of-mouth, and partner organizations. Participants completed daily surveys about COVID-19 symptoms and weekly surveys about coronavirus testing. All adults (aged at least 18 years) with a smartphone were eligible to join. For this analysis, US participants with new onset of febrile illness from April 2020 to October 2020 were included. Data analysis was performed from November 2020 to March 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Receipt of a coronavirus test result within 7 days of febrile illness onset. Results: Of the 2679 participants included in this analysis, the mean (SD) age was 46.3 (13.4) years, 1983 were female (74%), 2017 were college educated (75%), and a total of 3865 distinct new febrile illness episodes were reported (300 episodes [7.8%] from Hispanic participants, 71 episodes [1.8%] from Black participants, and 3494 episodes [90.4%] from not Black, not Hispanic participants) between April 2 and October 23, 2020. In weekly surveys delivered during the 14 days after fever onset, 12% overall (753 participants) indicated receipt of a test result. Using serial survey responses and parametric time-to-event modeling, it was estimated that by 7 days after onset of febrile illness, a total of 20.5% (95% CI, 19.1%-22.0%) had received a test result. This proportion increased from 9.8% (95% CI, 7.5%-12.0%) early in the epidemic to 24.1% (95% CI, 21.5%-26.7%) at the end of July, but testing rates did not substantially improve since then, increasing to 25.9% (95% CI; 21.6%-30.3%) in late October at the start of the winter surge. Black participants reported receiving a test result about half as often as others (7% [7 of 103] of survey responses vs 12% [53 of 461] for Hispanic vs 13% [693 of 5516] for not Black, not Hispanic; P = .03). This association was not statistically significant in adjusted time-to-event models (hazard ratio = 0.59 vs not Black, not Hispanic participants; 95% CI, 0.26-1.34). Conclusions and Relevance: Systematic underuse of coronavirus testing was observed in this cohort study through late October 2020, at the beginning of the winter COVID-19 surge, which may have contributed to preventable coronavirus transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Fever , Health Services Accessibility , Health Services Misuse , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Misuse/prevention & control , Health Services Misuse/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
19.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(6): 105746, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155562

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has impacted acute stroke care with several reports showing worldwide drops in stroke caseload during the pandemic. We studied the impact of COVID-19 on acute stroke care in our health system serving Southeast Michigan as we rolled out a policy to limit admissions and transfers. METHODS: in this retrospective study conducted at two stroke centers, we included consecutive patients presenting to the ED for whom a stroke alert was activated during the period extending from 3/20/20 to 5/20/20 and a similar period in 2019. We compared demographics, time metrics, and discharge outcomes between the two groups. RESULTS: of 385 patients presented to the ED during the two time periods, 58% were African American. There was a significant decrease in the number of stroke patients presenting to the ED and admitted to the hospital between the two periods (p <0.001). In 2020, patients had higher presenting NIHSS (median: 2 vs 5, p = 0.012), discharge NIHSS (median: 2 vs 3, p = 0.004), and longer times from LKW to ED arrival (4.8 vs 9.4 h, p = 0.031) and stroke team activation (median: 10 vs 15 min, p = 0.006). In 2020, stroke mimics rates were lower among African Americans. There were fewer hospitalizations (p <0.001), and transfers from outside facilities (p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: a trend toward faster stroke care in the ED was observed during the pandemic along with dramatically reduced numbers of ED visits, hospitalizations and stroke mimics. Delayed ED presentations and higher stroke severity characterized the African American population, highlighting deepening of racial disparities during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Healthcare Disparities/trends , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Quality Indicators, Health Care/trends , Stroke/therapy , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Female , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Race Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/ethnology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
20.
Am J Manag Care ; 27(2): e32-e33, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106774

ABSTRACT

The fall season was accompanied by an urgent warning from the CDC of an impending "twindemic" of coronavirus disease 2019 and influenza. Despite the warnings, Black women are not lining up for vaccinations.


Subject(s)
African Americans/ethnology , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Vaccination , Women , Female , Humans , New York , Vulnerable Populations
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