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2.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(15): 3839-3847, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104075

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Deaths from pneumonia were decreasing globally prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, but it is unclear whether this was due to changes in patient populations, illness severity, diagnosis, hospitalization thresholds, or treatment. Using clinical data from the electronic health record among a national cohort of patients initially diagnosed with pneumonia, we examined temporal trends in severity of illness, hospitalization, and short- and long-term deaths. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort PARTICIPANTS: All patients >18 years presenting to emergency departments (EDs) at 118 VA Medical Centers between 1/1/2006 and 12/31/2016 with an initial clinical diagnosis of pneumonia and confirmed by chest imaging report. EXPOSURES: Year of encounter. MAIN MEASURES: Hospitalization and 30-day and 90-day mortality. Illness severity was defined as the probability of each outcome predicted by machine learning predictive models using age, sex, comorbidities, vital signs, and laboratory data from encounters during years 2006-2007, and similar models trained on encounters from years 2015 to 2016. We estimated the changes in hospitalizations and 30-day and 90-day mortality between the first and the last 2 years of the study period accounted for by illness severity using time covariate decompositions with model estimates. RESULTS: Among 196,899 encounters across the study period, hospitalization decreased from 71 to 63%, 30-day mortality 10 to 7%, 90-day mortality 16 to 12%, and 1-year mortality 29 to 24%. Comorbidity risk increased, but illness severity decreased. Decreases in illness severity accounted for 21-31% of the decrease in hospitalizations, and 45-47%, 32-24%, and 17-19% of the decrease in 30-day, 90-day, and 1-year mortality. Findings were similar among underrepresented patients and those with only hospital discharge diagnosis codes. CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes for community-onset pneumonia have improved across the VA healthcare system after accounting for illness severity, despite an increase in cases and comorbidity burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Veterans , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Patient Acuity , Hospitals
5.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (Per 22-07/08/09): 54-60, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1989975

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a rapidly propagating respiratory virus causing a global pandemic. At the time of development of this study, not much was known about susceptibility to severe illness, especially without other known risk factors. Retrospective research suggested vitamin D level may correlate with severity of illness. This prospective, observational study seeks to determine if vitamin D level at admission is correlated with severity of illness as determined by needing intensive care unit (ICU)-level care within this first 28 days after admission. This study also looked at the relationship of vitamin D level at admission and mortality, need for ventilator, and number of hospital-free, ICU-free, and ventilator-free days in the 28 days after initial admission. METHODS: This study is a prospective, observational study of patients admitted to Brooke Army Medical Center (BAMC), San Antonio, TX, for a diagnosis or complication of COVID-19 illness. A vitamin D level was drawn at admission and chart review was used at the end of 28 days after admission to identify outcome measures. Fisher's Exact test was used for categorical variables, and Kruskal-Wallis test was used for all continuous variables. RESULTS: Deficient vitamin D level at admission (less than 20ng/mL) was associated with an increased risk of requiring ICU-level care during the 28-day period after initial admission (p=0.028). Secondary outcomes measurements also favored the hypothesis, but none were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective, observational study further strengthens the hypothesis vitamin D level at admission is correlated with severity of illness in COVID-19 illness; however, this small study was limited in its ability to control for confounders. It does not prove causation, nor does it imply vitamin D supplementation will prevent COVID-19 or improve outcomes in COVID-19. Further research should aim to include a larger cohort to better understand the relationship of vitamin D level and severity of illness in COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Calcifediol , Humans , Patient Acuity , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives
6.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 11(10): 440-447, 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent COVID-19 surges are attributed to emergence of more transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). The relative severity of VOCs in children is unknown. METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective cohort study of children ≤18 years old diagnosed with COVID-19 from October 2020-February 2022 and whose SARS-CoV-2 isolate underwent Illumina sequencing. We measured the frequency of five markers of COVID-19 severity. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the odds of each severity marker with each VOC. RESULTS: Among 714 children, 471 (66.0%) were infected with a VOC: 96 (13.4%) alpha, 38 (5.3%) gamma, 119 (16.7%) delta, and 215 (30.1%) omicron. High-risk medical conditions and increasing age were independently associated with COVID-19 severity. After adjusting for age, race, ethnicity, high-risk medical conditions, and COVID-19 community incidence, neither alpha, delta, nor omicron was associated with severe COVID-19. Gamma was independently associated with hospitalization (OR 6.7, 95% CI 2.0-22.1); pharmacologic treatment (OR 5.7, 95% CI 1.2-26.8); respiratory support (OR 11.9, 95% CI 2.7-62.4); and severe disease per the WHO Clinical Progression Scale (OR 11.7, 95% CI 2.1-90.5). Upon subgroup analyses, omicron was independently associated with ICU admission and severe disease per the WHO Clinical Progression Scale in children without SARS-CoV-2 immunization or prior COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to non-VOC COVID-19, the gamma VOC was independently associated with increased COVID-19 severity, as was omicron in children without SARS-CoV-2 immunization or prior COVID-19 infection. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and prior COVID-19 prevented severe outcomes during the omicron surge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines , Retrospective Studies , Patient Acuity
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(33): e2204141119, 2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960626

ABSTRACT

Susceptibility and severity of COVID-19 infection vary widely. Prior exposure to endemic coronaviruses, common in young children, may protect against SARS-CoV-2. We evaluated risk of severe COVID-19 among adults with and without exposure to young children in a large, integrated healthcare system. Adults with children 0-5 years were matched 1:1 to adults with children 6-11 years, 12-18 years, and those without children based upon a COVID-19 propensity score and risk factors for severe COVID-19. COVID-19 infections, hospitalizations, and need for intensive care unit (ICU) were assessed in 3,126,427 adults, of whom 24% (N = 743,814) had children 18 years or younger, and 8.8% (N = 274,316) had a youngest child 0-5 years. After 1:1 matching, propensity for COVID-19 infection and risk factors for severe COVID-19 were well balanced between groups. Rates of COVID-19 infection were slightly higher for adults with exposure to older children (incident risk ratio, 1.09, 95% confidence interval, [1.05-1.12] and IRR 1.09 [1.05-1.13] for adults with children 6-11 and 12-18, respectively), compared to those with children 0-5 years, although no difference in rates of COVID-19 illness requiring hospitalization or ICU admission was observed. However, adults without exposure to children had lower rates of COVID-19 infection (IRR 0.85, [0.83-0.87]) but significantly higher rates of COVID-19 hospitalization (IRR 1.49, [1.29-1.73]) and hospitalization requiring ICU admission (IRR 1.76, [1.19-2.58]) compared to those with children aged 0-5. In a large, real-world population, exposure to young children was associated with less severe COVID-19 illness. Endemic coronavirus cross-immunity may play a role in protection against severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors
8.
JAMA ; 328(4): 322, 2022 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1958624
9.
Lipids Health Dis ; 21(1): 15, 2022 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bile acids (BAs) not only play an important role in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis but also have antiapoptotic and neuroprotective effects. However, few studies have focused on the relationship of the total bile acid (TBA) levels with the severity and prognosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential associations of the fasting serum TBA levels on admission with the stroke severity, in-hospital complication incidence and 3 -month all-cause mortality in patients with AIS. METHODS: A total of 777 consecutive AIS patients were enrolled in this study and were divided into four groups according to the quartiles of the serum TBA levels on admission. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore the relationship between the fasting TBA levels and the stroke severity, in-hospital complications, and 3-month mortality in AIS patients. RESULTS: Patients in group Q3 had the lowest risk of severe AIS (NIHSS > 10) regardless of the adjustments for confounders (P < 0.05). During hospitalization, 115 patients (14.8%) had stroke progression (NIHSS score increased by ≥ 2), and 222 patients (28.6%) developed at least one complication, with no significant difference among the four groups (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of pneumonia, urinary tract infection (UTI), hemorrhagic transformation (HT), gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), seizures or renal insufficiency (RI) among the four groups (P > 0.05). A total of 114 patients (14.7%) died from various causes (including in-hospital deaths) at the 3-month follow-up, including 42 (21.3%), 26 (13.3%), 19 (9.9%) and 27 (13.9%) patients in groups Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4 respectively, with significant differences (P = 0.013). After adjusting for confounding factors, the risk of death decreased (P -trend < 0.05) in groups Q2, Q3, and Q4 when compared with group Q1, and the OR values were 0.36 (0.16-0.80), 0.30 (0.13-0.70), and 0.29 (0.13-0.65), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: TBA levels were inversely associated with the 3-month mortality of AIS patients but were not significantly associated with the severity of stroke or the incidence of complications.


Subject(s)
Bile Acids and Salts/blood , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Aged , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Prognosis , Risk Factors
11.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270814, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1919122

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Influenza A virus infection is a contagious acute respiratory infection which mostly evolves in an epidemic form, less frequently as pandemic outbreaks. It can take a severe clinical form that needs to be managed in intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical aspects of influenza A, then to determine independent predictive factors of ICU mortality in Abderrahmen Mami hospital, Ariana, Tunisia. METHODS: It was a single-center study, including all hospitalized patients in intensive care, between November 1st, 2009 and October 31st, 2019, with influenza A virus infection. We recorded demographic, clinical and biological data, evolving features; then multivariate analysis of the predictive factors of ICU mortality was realized. RESULTS: During the study period (10 consecutive seasons), 120 patients having severe Influenza A were admitted (Proportion = 2.5%) from all hospitalized patients, with a median age of 48 years and a gender-ratio of 1.14. Among women, 14 were pregnant. Only 7 patients (5.8%) have had seasonal flu vaccine during the year before ICU admission. The median values of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment were respectively 26, 10 and 3. Virus strains identified with polymerase chain reaction were H1N1 pdm09 (84.2%) and H3N2 (15.8%). Antiviral therapy was prescribed in 88 (73.3%) patients. A co-infection was recorded in 19 cases: bacterial (n = 17) and aspergillaire (n = 2). An acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was diagnosed in 82 patients. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) was conducted for 72 (60%) patients with success in 34 cases. Endotracheal intubation was performed in 59 patients with median duration of invasive mechanical ventilation 8 [3.25-13] days. The most frequent complications were acute kidney injury (n = 50, 41.7%), shock (n = 48, 40%), hospital-acquired infections (n = 46, 38.8%) and thromboembolic events (n = 19, 15.8%). The overall ICU mortality rate was of 31.7% (deceased n = 38). Independent predictive factors of ICU mortality identified were: age above 56 years (OR = 7.417; IC95% [1.474-37.317]; p = 0.015), PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 95 mmHg (OR = 9.078; IC95% [1.636-50.363]; p = 0.012) and lymphocytes count ≤ 1.325 109/L (OR = 10.199; IC95% [1.550-67.101]; p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Influenza A in ICU is not uncommon, even in A(H1N1) dominant seasons; its management is highly demanding. It is responsible for considerable morbi-mortality especially in elderly patients.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Aged , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/mortality , Influenza, Human/therapy , Influenza, Human/virology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation , Patient Acuity , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , Tunisia/epidemiology
13.
BMJ ; 376: e068414, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909704

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the risk of persistent and new clinical sequelae in adults aged ≥65 years after the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: UnitedHealth Group Clinical Research Database: deidentified administrative claims and outpatient laboratory test results. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged ≥65 years who were continuously enrolled in a Medicare Advantage plan with coverage of prescription drugs from January 2019 to the date of diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, matched by propensity score to three comparison groups that did not have covid-19: 2020 comparison group (n=87 337), historical 2019 comparison group (n=88 070), and historical comparison group with viral lower respiratory tract illness (n=73 490). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The presence of persistent and new sequelae at 21 or more days after a diagnosis of covid-19 was determined with ICD-10 (international classification of diseases, 10th revision) codes. Excess risk for sequelae caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2 was estimated for the 120 days after the acute phase of the illness with risk difference and hazard ratios, calculated with 95% Bonferroni corrected confidence intervals. The incidence of sequelae after the acute infection was analyzed by age, race, sex, and whether patients were admitted to hospital for covid-19. RESULTS: Among individuals who were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2, 32% (27 698 of 87 337) sought medical attention in the post-acute period for one or more new or persistent clinical sequelae, which was 11% higher than the 2020 comparison group. Respiratory failure (risk difference 7.55, 95% confidence interval 7.18 to 8.01), fatigue (5.66, 5.03 to 6.27), hypertension (4.43, 2.27 to 6.37), memory difficulties (2.63, 2.23 to 3.13), kidney injury (2.59, 2.03 to 3.12), mental health diagnoses (2.50, 2.04 to 3.04), hypercoagulability 1.47 (1.2 to 1.73), and cardiac rhythm disorders (2.19, 1.76 to 2.57) had the greatest risk differences compared with the 2020 comparison group, with similar findings to the 2019 comparison group. Compared with the group with viral lower respiratory tract illness, however, only respiratory failure, dementia, and post-viral fatigue had increased risk differences of 2.39 (95% confidence interval 1.79 to 2.94), 0.71 (0.3 to 1.08), and 0.18 (0.11 to 0.26) per 100 patients, respectively. Individuals with severe covid-19 disease requiring admission to hospital had a markedly increased risk for most but not all clinical sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm an excess risk for persistent and new sequelae in adults aged ≥65 years after acute infection with SARS-CoV-2. Other than respiratory failure, dementia, and post-viral fatigue, the sequelae resembled those of viral lower respiratory tract illness in older adults. These findings further highlight the wide range of important sequelae after acute infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , International Classification of Diseases , Male , Medicare Part C , Patient Acuity , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Risk , United States/epidemiology
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1299, 2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908217

ABSTRACT

Recently, an international randomized controlled clinical trial showed that patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection treated orally with the 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) inhibitor PF-07321332 within three days of symptom onset showed an 89% lower risk of COVID-19-related hospital admission/ death from any cause as compared with the patients who received placebo. Lending support to this critically important result of the aforementioned trial, we demonstrated in our study that patients infected with a SARS-Cov-2 sub-lineage (B.1.1.284) carrying the Pro108Ser mutation in 3CLpro tended to have a comparatively milder clinical course (i.e., a smaller proportion of patients required oxygen supplementation during the clinical course) than patients infected with the same sub-lineage of virus not carrying the mutation. Characterization of the mutant 3CLpro revealed that the Kcat/Km of the 3CLpro enzyme containing Ser108 was 58% lower than that of Pro108 3CLpro. Hydrogen/deuterium-exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) revealed that the reduced activity was associated with structural perturbation surrounding the substrate-binding region of the enzyme, which is positioned behind and distant from the 108th amino acid residue. Our findings of the attenuated clinical course of COVID-19 in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 strains with reduced 3CLpro enzymatic activity greatly endorses the promising result of the aforementioned clinical trial of the 3CLpro inhibitor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Mutation, Missense , Patient Acuity , Adult , Aged , Amino Acid Substitution , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/genetics , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
15.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 34(5): 475-480, 2022 May.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903525

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the value of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) in evaluating the severity of patients infected with novel coronavirus Delta variant. METHODS: A total of 28 patients infected with novel coronavirus Delta variant in designated hospital treated by the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University medical team from December 2021 to January 2022 were enrolled (23 cases of common type, 4 severe and 1 critical cases). The detailed clinical data of patients was collected. Then, Pearson's correlation analysis was used to identify the blood examination indexes which affected the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2). According to the median standard deviation of red blood cell distribution width (RDW-SD, 42.5 fL), 28 patients were divided into low RDW-SD group (≤ 42.5 fL, 16 cases) and high RDW-SD group (> 42.5 fL, 12 cases), and the immune related indexes of the two groups were compared. Receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) was drawn to evaluate the predictive value of RDW-SD on the severity of illness of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). RESULTS: Correlation analysis showed that RDW-SD was the only index related to PaO2 and PaCO2 on the first day of admission, which was negative correlation with PaO2 (r = -0.379, P = 0.047) and positive correlation with PaCO2 (r = 0.509, P = 0.006). The results of effects of different clinical characteristics on RDW-SD level showed that there was no statistically significant difference in RDW-SD between groups with different clinical characteristics (including male/female, ≥ 65 years old/< 65 years old, having/without hypertension, having/without diabetes, smoking/not smoking, having/without hyperpyrexia, with/without fever for 3 days, with/without respiratory symptoms, with/without digestive symptoms). It was suggested that RDW-SD be relatively stable and not affected by the patient's baseline level. The percentage of B cells in low RDW-SD group was higher than that in high RDW-SD group (23.01±3.01 vs. 15.34±5.34, P < 0.05), immunoglobulin G (IgG) level in low RDW-SD group was lower than that in high RDW-SD group (g/L: 11.43±3.20 vs. 15.42±1.54, P < 0.05). The area under ROC curve (AUC) of RDW-SD in evaluating severe cases was 0.83 [95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 0.59-1.06], which was close to multilobularinltration, hypo-lymphocytosis, bacterial coinfection, smoking history, hyper-tension and age (MuL BSTA score; AUC = 0.82, 95%CI was 0.51-1.12) and better than British Thoracic Society's modified pneumonia score (CURB-65 score; AUC = 0.70, 95%CI was 0.50-0.91). CONCLUSIONS: RDW-SD has significant evaluative effect on the severity of COVID-19 patients with Delta variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Erythrocytes , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Acuity , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
16.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 819267, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892612

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to apply machine learning models and a nomogram to differentiate critically ill from non-critically ill COVID-19 pneumonia patients. Methods: Clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory parameters, cytokine profile, and immune cellular data of 63 COVID-19 pneumonia patients were retrospectively reviewed. Outcomes were followed up until Mar 12, 2020. A logistic regression function (LR model), Random Forest, and XGBoost models were developed. The performance of these models was measured by area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis. Results: Univariate analysis revealed that there was a difference between critically and non-critically ill patients with respect to levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-10, T cells, CD4+ T, and CD8+ T cells. Interleukin-10 with an AUC of 0.86 was most useful predictor of critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Ten variables (respiratory rate, neutrophil counts, aspartate transaminase, albumin, serum procalcitonin, D-dimer and B-type natriuretic peptide, CD4+ T cells, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10) were used as candidate predictors for LR model, Random Forest (RF) and XGBoost model application. The coefficients from LR model were utilized to build a nomogram. RF and XGBoost methods suggested that Interleukin-10 and interleukin-6 were the most important variables for severity of illness prediction. The mean AUC for LR, RF, and XGBoost model were 0.91, 0.89, and 0.93 respectively (in two-fold cross-validation). Individualized prediction by XGBoost model was explained by local interpretable model-agnostic explanations (LIME) plot. Conclusions: XGBoost exhibited the highest discriminatory performance for prediction of critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. It is inferred that the nomogram and visualized interpretation with LIME plot could be useful in the clinical setting. Additionally, interleukin-10 could serve as a useful predictor of critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-10 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Nomograms , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3024, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890228

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women with COVID-19 require special attention and care, since the infection does not only affect the mother, but also her neonate and adversely affects pregnancy outcomes. The main goal of this retrospective cohort study is to investigate association between the maternal COVID-19 severity and risk of developing adverse neonatal outcomes. Patients were stratified into asymptomatic/mild and moderate to severe COVID-19. The following neonatal outcomes were assessed: gestational age at the time of delivery, birth weight, neonatal infection, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. The average age of patients was 28.5 ± 1.4 years old and majority were multigravida (74.0%, n = 148). Of total 200 pregnant women with COVID-19, 26.5% (n = 53) had moderate/severe disease and presented with higher incidence of preterm delivery and low birth weight (88.7%, n = 47; p < 0.001). In addition, more than half of the newborns delivered by mothers with severe disease were infected by SARS-COV-2 (58.5%, n = 31) and majority were admitted to the NICU (95.0%, n = 52). Based on the multivariate logistic regression analysis, pregnant women with moderate to severe COVID-19 were at much higher risk of preterm delivery, lower birth weight, neonatal infection, as well as neonatal ICU admission (p < 0.001). In addition, multigravida women were at higher risk for preterm delivery and lower birth weight (p = 0.017 and p = 0.02; respectively). Appropriate protective measures and early detection of suspected COVID-19 should be addressed for more favorable obstetric outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Patient Acuity , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Retrospective Studies
18.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(5): 580-589, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797659

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We assessed long-term outcomes of dexamethasone 12 mg versus 6 mg given daily for up to 10 days in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe hypoxaemia. METHODS: We assessed 180-day mortality and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using EuroQoL (EQ)-5D-5L index values and EQ visual analogue scale (VAS) in the international, stratified, blinded COVID STEROID 2 trial, which randomised 1000 adults with confirmed COVID-19 receiving at least 10 L/min of oxygen or mechanical ventilation in 26 hospitals in Europe and India. In the HRQoL analyses, higher values indicated better outcomes, and deceased patients were given a score of zero. RESULTS: We obtained vital status at 180 days for 963 of 982 patients (98.1%) in the intention-to-treat population, EQ-5D-5L index value data for 922 (93.9%) and EQ VAS data for 924 (94.1%). At 180 days, 164 of 486 patients (33.7%) had died in the 12 mg group versus 184 of 477 (38.6%) in the 6 mg group [adjusted risk difference - 4.3%; 99% confidence interval (CI) - 11.7-3.0; relative risk 0.89; 0.72-1.09; P = 0.13]. The adjusted mean differences between the 12 mg and the 6 mg groups in EQ-5D-5L index values were 0.06 (99% CI - 0.01 to 0.12; P = 0.10) and in EQ VAS scores 4 (- 3 to 10; P = 0.22). CONCLUSION: Among patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxaemia, dexamethasone 12 mg compared with 6 mg did not result in statistically significant improvements in mortality or HRQoL at 180 days, but the results were most compatible with benefit from the higher dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dexamethasone , Hypoxia , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Patient Acuity , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome
20.
Crit Care Med ; 50(4): 595-606, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate healthcare system-driven variation in general characteristics, interventions, and outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to the ICU within one Western European region across three countries. DESIGN: Multicenter observational cohort study. SETTING: Seven ICUs in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine, one region across Belgium, The Netherlands, and Germany. PATIENTS: Consecutive COVID-19 patients supported in the ICU during the first pandemic wave. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory values, and outcome data were retrieved after ethical approval and data-sharing agreements. Descriptive statistics were performed to investigate country-related practice variation. From March 2, 2020, to August 12, 2020, 551 patients were admitted. Mean age was 65.4 ± 11.2 years, and 29% were female. At admission, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores were 15.0 ± 5.5, 16.8 ± 5.5, and 15.8 ± 5.3 (p = 0.002), and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores were 4.4 ± 2.7, 7.4 ± 2.2, and 7.7 ± 3.2 (p < 0.001) in the Belgian, Dutch, and German parts of Euregio, respectively. The ICU mortality rate was 22%, 42%, and 44%, respectively (p < 0.001). Large differences were observed in the frequency of organ support, antimicrobial/inflammatory therapy application, and ICU capacity. Mixed-multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that differences in ICU mortality were independent of age, sex, disease severity, comorbidities, support strategies, therapies, and complications. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs within one region, the Euregio Meuse-Rhine, differed significantly in general characteristics, applied interventions, and outcomes despite presumed genetic and socioeconomic background, admission diagnosis, access to international literature, and data collection are similar. Variances in healthcare systems' organization, particularly ICU capacity and admission criteria, combined with a rapidly spreading pandemic might be important drivers for the observed differences. Heterogeneity between patient groups but also healthcare systems should be presumed to interfere with outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Intensive Care Units , APACHE , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Patient Transfer , Treatment Outcome
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