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1.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 66, 2020 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a need for validated clinical risk scores to identify patients at risk of severe disease and to guide decision-making during the covid-19 pandemic. The National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) is widely used in emergency medicine, but so far, no studies have evaluated its use in patients with covid-19. We aimed to study the performance of NEWS2 and compare commonly used clinical risk stratification tools at admission to predict risk of severe disease and in-hospital mortality in patients with covid-19. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study in a public non-university general hospital in the Oslo area, Norway, including a cohort of all 66 patients hospitalised with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from the start of the pandemic; 13 who died during hospital stay and 53 who were discharged alive. Data were collected consecutively from March 9th to April 27th 2020. The main outcome was the ability of the NEWS2 score and other clinical risk scores at emergency department admission to predict severe disease and in-hospital mortality in covid-19 patients. We calculated sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for NEWS2 scores ≥5 and ≥ 6, quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score ≥ 2, ≥2 Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) criteria, and CRB-65 score ≥ 2. Areas under the curve (AUCs) for the clinical risk scores were compared using DeLong's test. RESULTS: In total, 66 patients (mean age 67.9 years) were included. Of these, 23% developed severe disease. In-hospital mortality was 20%. Tachypnoea, hypoxemia and confusion at admission were more common in patients developing severe disease. A NEWS2 score ≥ 6 at admission predicted severe disease with 80.0% sensitivity and 84.3% specificity (Area Under the Curve (AUC) 0.822, 95% CI 0.690-0.953). NEWS2 was superior to qSOFA score ≥ 2 (AUC 0.624, 95% CI 0.446-0.810, p < 0.05) and other clinical risk scores for this purpose. CONCLUSION: NEWS2 score at hospital admission predicted severe disease and in-hospital mortality, and was superior to other widely used clinical risk scores in patients with covid-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Early Warning Score , Hospital Mortality , Patient Admission , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Norway/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index
2.
WMJ ; 121(3): 194-200, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2092486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We perceived changes in the frequency of and reasons for admissions to Wisconsin pediatric intensive care units (PICU) during the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic, and we hypothesized that the rates of total, scheduled, and respiratory viral admissions were lower during the first calendar year of the pandemic than would have been predicted by historical admission data. Such findings would reflect important changes in PICU utilization paradigms during the pandemic. There are no descriptions of PICU admission changes in a single American state during the pandemic. METHODS: We compared all Wisconsin PICU admissions during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 (the study epoch) to admissions in seasonally matched, growth-adjusted "no-COVID-19" projections generated by time series analysis of all Wisconsin PICU admissions in the previous 5 years (the control epoch). RESULTS: We identified 27,425 PICU admissions with 294,577 associated diagnoses in the study and control epochs. Total admissions were 60 ± 9 week-1 in the study epoch versus 103 ± 4 projected (RR 0.63; 95% CI, 0.59-0.68; P < 0.001). Scheduled admissions were 17 ± 6 week-1 in the study epoch versus 28 ± 3 projected (RR 0.61; 95% CI, 0.55-0.67; P < 0.001). Respiratory viral admissions were 8 ± 5 week-1 in the study epoch versus 19 ± 9 projected (RR 0.40; 95% CI, 0.33-0.48; P < 0.001). Some admission categories experienced dramatic declines (c, respiratory/ear, nose, throat), while others experienced less decline (eg, injury/poisoning/adverse effects) or no significant change (eg, diabetic ketoacidosis). Except cases of COVID-19, no category had significantly increased weekly admissions. There were 104 admissions associated with COVID-19 diagnoses in 2020, 4.3% of the study epoch admissions. CONCLUSIONS: We describe PICU admission changes in the first calendar year of COVID-19, informing health care staffing and service planning, as well as decisions regarding strategies to combat the evolving pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Wisconsin/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Critical Care , Retrospective Studies
3.
WMJ ; 121(3): 194-200, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2083655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We perceived changes in the frequency of and reasons for admissions to Wisconsin pediatric intensive care units (PICU) during the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic, and we hypothesized that the rates of total, scheduled, and respiratory viral admissions were lower during the first calendar year of the pandemic than would have been predicted by historical admission data. Such findings would reflect important changes in PICU utilization paradigms during the pandemic. There are no descriptions of PICU admission changes in a single American state during the pandemic. METHODS: We compared all Wisconsin PICU admissions during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 (the study epoch) to admissions in seasonally matched, growth-adjusted "no-COVID-19" projections generated by time series analysis of all Wisconsin PICU admissions in the previous 5 years (the control epoch). RESULTS: We identified 27,425 PICU admissions with 294,577 associated diagnoses in the study and control epochs. Total admissions were 60 ± 9 week-1 in the study epoch versus 103 ± 4 projected (RR 0.63; 95% CI, 0.59-0.68; P < 0.001). Scheduled admissions were 17 ± 6 week-1 in the study epoch versus 28 ± 3 projected (RR 0.61; 95% CI, 0.55-0.67; P < 0.001). Respiratory viral admissions were 8 ± 5 week-1 in the study epoch versus 19 ± 9 projected (RR 0.40; 95% CI, 0.33-0.48; P < 0.001). Some admission categories experienced dramatic declines (c, respiratory/ear, nose, throat), while others experienced less decline (eg, injury/poisoning/adverse effects) or no significant change (eg, diabetic ketoacidosis). Except cases of COVID-19, no category had significantly increased weekly admissions. There were 104 admissions associated with COVID-19 diagnoses in 2020, 4.3% of the study epoch admissions. CONCLUSIONS: We describe PICU admission changes in the first calendar year of COVID-19, informing health care staffing and service planning, as well as decisions regarding strategies to combat the evolving pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Wisconsin/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Critical Care , Retrospective Studies
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(9): e2233964, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047375

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study uses national benchmarking data to evaluate hospital occupancy and emergency department boarding during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Admission
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(38): e30633, 2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042656

ABSTRACT

We examined the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the emergency department length of stay (EDLOS) and clinical outcomes of patients with severe pneumonia admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) through the emergency department (ED). This single-center retrospective observational study included adult patients with pneumonia admitted to the ICU through the ED between January and December 2019 (pre-pandemic) and between March 2020 and February 2021 (during-pandemic). We compared and analyzed the EDLOS by dividing it into pre-, mid-, and post-EDLOS and in-hospital mortality of patients with pneumonia admitted to the ICU according to the time of ED visits before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Risk factors for in-hospital mortality according to the time of ED visits were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis. In total, 227 patients (73 patients pre-pandemic and 154 patients during the pandemic) with pneumonia admitted to the ICU through the ED were analyzed. During the COVID-19 pandemic, pre-, mid-, and post-EDLOS increased (P < .05), and the in-hospital mortality rate increased by 10.4%; however, this was not significant (P = .155). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed post-EDLOS (ED waiting time after making ICU admission decision) as an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality of patients with pneumonia admitted to the ICU, pre-pandemic (odds ratio [OR] = 2.282, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.367-3.807, P = .002) and during the pandemic (OR = 1.126, 95% CI: 1.002-1.266, P = .047). Mid-EDLOS (ED time to assess, care, and ICU admission decision) was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality of patients with pneumonia admitted to the ICU during the COVID-19 pandemic (OR = 1.835, 95% CI: 1.089-3.092, P = .023). During the pandemic of emerging respiratory infectious diseases, to reduce in-hospital mortality of severe pneumonia patients, it is necessary to shorten the ED waiting time for admission by increasing the number of isolation ICU beds. It is also necessary to accelerate the assessment and care process in the ED, and make prompt decisions regarding admission to the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Patient Admission , Retrospective Studies
7.
Am J Emerg Med ; 60: 29-33, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergency department boarding and crowding lead to worse patient outcomes and patient satisfaction. OBJECTIVE: We describe the implementation of a program to transfer patients requiring medical admission from an academic emergency department to a community hospital's medical floor and analyze its effects on patient outcomes. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed. Data was collected on patient flow through the transfer program. Patient characteristics, boarding time in the emergency department, and hospital-based outcome measures were compared between patients in the transfer program who were successfully transferred to the community hospital and patients who were admitted to the academic medical center. RESULTS: 79 patients were successfully transferred to the community hospital between November 23, 2020 and August 5, 2021, resulting in 279 bed days in the community hospital. Successfully transferred patients experienced a statistically shorter ED boarding time (5.7 vs. 10.9 h, p < 0.0001), ED length of stay (10.5 vs 16.1 h, p < 0.0001), and hospital length of stay (3.5 vs 5.7 days, p < 0.0001) compared to patients initially referred to the transfer program who were admitted to the academic medical center. There were no reported adverse events during transfer, upgrades to the ICU within 24 h of admission, or inpatient deaths for patients who were transferred. CONCLUSION: We implemented an academic emergency department to partner community hospital transfer program that safely level-loads medical patients in a healthcare system.


Subject(s)
Hospitals, Community , Patient Admission , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Length of Stay , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
9.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 23(7): 535-543, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956633

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between nationwide school closures and prevalence of common admission diagnoses in the pediatric critical care unit. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: National database evaluation using the Virtual Pediatric Systems LLC database. PATIENTS: All patients admitted to the PICU in 81 contributing hospitals in the United States. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Diagnosis categories were determined for all 110,418 patients admitted during the 20-week study period in each year (2018, 2019, and 2020). Admission data were normalized relative to statewide school closure dates for each patient using geographic data. The "before school closure" epoch was defined as 8 weeks prior to school closure, and the "after school closure" epoch was defined as 12 weeks following school closure. For each diagnosis, admission ratios for each study day were calculated by dividing 2020 admissions by 2018-2019 admissions. The 10 most common diagnosis categories were examined. Significant changes in admission ratios were identified for bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and asthma. These changes occurred at 2, 8, and 35 days following school closure, respectively. PICU admissions decreased by 82% for bronchiolitis, 76% for pneumonia, and 76% for asthma. Nonrespiratory diseases such as diabetic ketoacidosis, status epilepticus, traumatic injury, and poisoning/ingestion did not show significant changes following school closure. CONCLUSIONS: School closures are associated with a dramatic reduction in the prevalence of severe respiratory disease requiring PICU admission. School closure may be an effective tool to mitigate future pandemics but should be balanced with potential academic, economic, mental health, and social consequences.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bronchiolitis , Pneumonia , Child , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Patient Admission , Retrospective Studies , Schools , United States/epidemiology
10.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 46(10): 1801-1807, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Patients affected by obesity and Coronavirus disease 2019, the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), appear to have a higher risk for intensive care (ICU) admission. A state of low-grade chronic inflammation in obesity has been suggested as one of the underlying mechanisms. We investigated whether obesity is associated with differences in new inflammatory biomarkers mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM), C-terminal proendothelin-1 (CT-proET-1), and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 105 critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were divided in patients with obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2, n = 42) and patients without obesity (BMI < 30 kg/m2, n = 63) and studied in a retrospective observational cohort study. MR-proADM, CT-proET-1 concentrations, and conventional markers of white blood count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin (PCT) were collected during the first 7 days. RESULTS: BMI was 33.5 (32-36.1) and 26.2 (24.7-27.8) kg/m2 in the group with and without obesity. There were no significant differences in concentrations MR-proADM, CT-proET-1, WBC, CRP, and PCT at baseline and the next 6 days between patients with and without obesity. Only MR-proADM changed significantly over time (p = 0.039). Also, BMI did not correlate with inflammatory biomarkers (MR-proADM rho = 0.150, p = 0.125, CT-proET-1 rho = 0.179, p = 0.067, WBC rho = -0.044, p = 0.654, CRP rho = 0.057, p = 0.564, PCT rho = 0.022, p = 0.842). Finally, no significant differences in time on a ventilator, ICU length of stay, and 28-day mortality between patients with or without obesity were observed. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, obesity was not associated with differences in MR-proADM, and CT-proET-1, or impaired outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register, NL8460.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin , COVID-19 , Endothelin-1 , Obesity , Peptide Fragments , Protein Precursors , SARS-CoV-2 , Adrenomedullin/blood , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Disease Progression , Endothelin-1/blood , Humans , Obesity/complications , Patient Admission , Peptide Fragments/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , Prognosis , Protein Precursors/blood , Retrospective Studies
11.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263069, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910500

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Studies have demonstrated a potential correlation between low vitamin D status and both an increased risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 and poorer clinical outcomes. This retrospective study examines if, and to what degree, a relationship exists between pre-infection serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and disease severity and mortality due to SARS-CoV-2. PARTICIPANTS: The records of individuals admitted between April 7th, 2020 and February 4th, 2021 to the Galilee Medical Center (GMC) in Nahariya, Israel, with positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) were searched for historical 25(OH)D levels measured 14 to 730 days prior to the positive PCR test. DESIGN: Patients admitted to GMC with COVID-19 were categorized according to disease severity and level of 25(OH)D. An association between pre-infection 25(OH)D levels, divided between four categories (deficient, insufficient, adequate, and high-normal), and COVID-19 severity was ascertained utilizing a multivariable regression analysis. To isolate the possible influence of the sinusoidal pattern of seasonal 25(OH)D changes throughout the year, a cosinor model was used. RESULTS: Of 1176 patients admitted, 253 had records of a 25(OH)D level prior to COVID-19 infection. A lower vitamin D status was more common in patients with the severe or critical disease (<20 ng/mL [87.4%]) than in individuals with mild or moderate disease (<20 ng/mL [34.3%] p < 0.001). Patients with vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) were 14 times more likely to have severe or critical disease than patients with 25(OH)D ≥40 ng/mL (odds ratio [OR], 14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4 to 51; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, pre-infection deficiency of vitamin D was associated with increased disease severity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Vitamin D/blood
12.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262487, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has a severe impact on all aspects of patient care. Among the numerous biomarkers of potential validity for diagnostic and clinical management of COVID-19 are biomarkers at the interface of iron metabolism and inflammation. METHODS: The follow-up study included 54 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with a moderate and severe/critical form of the disease. Iron deficiency specific biomarkers such as iron, ferritin, transferrin receptor, hepcidin, and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) as well as relevant markers of inflammation were evaluated twice: in the first five days when the patient was admitted to the hospital and during five to 15 days; and their validity to diagnose iron deficiency was further assessed. The regression and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analyses were performed to evaluate the prognosis and determine the probability for predicting the severity of the disease in the first five days of COVID-19. RESULTS: Based on hemoglobin values, anemia was observed in 21 of 54 patients. Of all iron deficiency anemia-related markers, only ZnPP was significantly elevated (P<0.001) in the anemic group. When patients were grouped according to the severity of disease, slight differences in hemoglobin or other anemia-related parameters could be observed. However, the levels of ZnPP were significantly increased in the severely ill group of patients. The ratio of ZnPP to lymphocyte count (ZnPP/L) had a discrimination power stronger than the neutrophil to lymphocyte count ratio (N/L) to determine disease severity. Additionally, only two markers were independently associated with the severity of COVID-19 in logistic regression analysis; D-dimer (OR (5.606)(95% CI 1.019-30.867)) and ZnPP/L ratio (OR (74.313) (95% CI 1.081-5108.103)). CONCLUSIONS: For the first time ZnPP in COVID-19 patients were reported in this study. Among all iron-related markers tested, ZnPP was the only one that was associated with anemia as based on hemoglobin. The increase in ZnPP might indicate that the underlying cause of anemia in COVID-19 patients is not only due to the inflammation but also of nutritional origin. Additionally, the ZnPP/L ratio might be a valid prognostic marker for the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/blood , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/complications , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Protoporphyrins/blood , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/epidemiology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Logistic Models , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Prognosis , Turkey/epidemiology
13.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0260580, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910478

ABSTRACT

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) remain a serious public health problem. In previous work, two models of an intensive care unit (ICU) showed that differing population structures had markedly different rates of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission. One explanation for this difference is the models having differing long-term equilbrium dynamics, resulting from different basic reproductive numbers, R0. We find in this system however that this is not the case, and that both models had the same value for R0. Instead, short-term, transient dynamics, characterizing a series of small, self-limiting outbreaks caused by pathogen reintroduction were responsible for the differences. These results show the importance of these short-term factors for disease systems where reintroduction events are frequent, even if they are below the epidemic threshold. Further, we examine how subtle changes in how a hospital is organized-or how a model assumes a hospital is organized-in terms of the admission of new patients may impact transmission rates. This has implications for both novel pathogens introduced into ICUs, such as Ebola, MERS or COVID-19, as well as existing healthcare-associated infections such as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Intensive Care Units , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Models, Statistical , Patient Admission , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/transmission , Humans , Nurses , Physicians , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Stochastic Processes
14.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0263688, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 surge in Taiwan, the Far East Memorial Hospital established a system including a centralized quarantine unit and triage admission protocol to facilitate acute care surgical inpatient services, prevent nosocomial COVID-19 infection and maintain the efficiency and quality of health care service during the pandemics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients undergoing acute care surgery. The triage admission protocol was based on rapid antigen tests, Liat® PCR and RT-PCT tests. Type of surgical procedure, patient characteristics, and efficacy indices of the centralized quarantine unit and emergency department (ED) were collected and analyzed before (Phase I: May 11 to July 2, 2021) and after (Phase II: July 3 to July 31, 2021) the system started. RESULTS: A total of 287 patients (105 in Phase I and 182 in Phase II) were enrolled. Nosocomial COVID-19 infection occur in 27 patients in phase I but zero in phase II. More patients received traumatological, orthopedic, and neurologic surgeries in phase II than in phase I. The patients' surgical risk classification, median total hospital stay, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, intraoperative blood loss, operation time, and the number of patients requiring postoperative ICU care were similar in both groups. The duration of ED stay and waiting time for acute care surgery were longer in Phase II (397 vs. 532 minutes, p < 0.0001). The duration of ED stay was positively correlated with the number of surgical patients visiting the ED (median = 66 patients, Spearman's ρ = 0.207) and the occupancy ratio in the centralized quarantine unit on that day (median = 90.63%, Spearman's ρ = 0.191). CONCLUSIONS: The triage admission protocol provided resilient quarantine needs and sustainable acute care surgical services during the COVID-19 pandemic. The efficiency was related to the number of medical staff dedicated to the centralized quarantine unit and number of surgical patients visited in ED.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/methods , Triage/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Admission/standards , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Taiwan/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Time-to-Treatment , Young Adult
15.
Int Rev Psychiatry ; 34(2): 128-139, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860625

ABSTRACT

Increases in youth psychiatric presentations to out-patient and emergency department settings during COVID-19 have been reported. This study, using data from five hospitals in Ireland, examines changes in the number and type of paediatric admissions during COVID-19 (March 2020 - February 2021) compared to the previous two years. ICD-10 classification was used to establish admissions with mental, behavioural, neuro-developmental disorders and psychosocial reasons (MBN-PS). Overall hospital admissions fell by 25.3%, while MBN-PS fell by only 2.6%, mostly during an initial lockdown. Admissions for MBN-PS increased in July-August (9.2%), increased further in September-December (28.3%), returning to pre-COVID-19 levels in January-February 2021. Significant increases were observed among youths with anorexia nervosa (47.8%), other eating disorders (42.9%), and admissions for anxiety (29.6%), with these effects relating to females only. Although admissions for self-harm increased (3%) and rates of ASD admissions reduced (17%), these were not statistically significant. The disproportionate increase in admissions for MBN-PS compared to medical admissions suggests an adverse effect of COVID-19 on youth mental health, for females in particular, and supports previous reports of a pandemic specific increase in eating psychopathology. Combined community and acute service delivery and capacity planning are urgently needed given the prior underfunding of services pre-pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Admission
16.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266343, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The "Coronavirus Disease 2019" (COVID-19) pandemic has become a major challenge for all healthcare systems worldwide, and besides generating a high toll of deaths, it has caused economic losses. Hospitals have played a key role in providing services to patients and the volume of hospital activities has been refocused on COVID-19 patients. Other activities have been limited/repurposed or even suspended and hospitals have been operating with reduced capacity. With the decrease in non-COVID-19 activities, their financial system and sustainability have been threatened, with hospitals facing shortage of financial resources. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of COVID-19 on the revenues of public hospitals in Lorestan province in western Iran, as a case study. METHOD: In this quasi-experimental study, we conducted the interrupted time series analysis to evaluate COVID-19 induced changes in monthly revenues of 18 public hospitals, from April 2018 to August 2021, in Lorestan, Iran. In doing so, public hospitals report their earnings to the University of Medical Sciences monthly; then, we collected this data through the finance office. RESULTS: Due to COVID-19, the revenues of public hospitals experienced an average monthly decrease of $172,636 thousand (P-value = 0.01232). For about 13 months, the trend of declining hospital revenues continued. However, after February 2021, a relatively stable increase could be observed, with patient admission and elective surgeries restrictions being lifted. The average monthly income of hospitals increased by $83,574 thousand. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 has reduced the revenues of public hospitals, which have faced many problems due to the high costs they have incurred. During the crisis, lack of adequate fundings can damage healthcare service delivery, and policymakers should allocate resources to prevent potential shocks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Iran/epidemiology , Patient Admission
17.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 8997709, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807711

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Health care workers have had a challenging task since the COVID-19 outbreak. Prompt and effective predictors of clinical outcomes are crucial to recognize potentially critically ill patients and improve the management of COVID-19 patients. The aim of this study was to identify potential predictors of clinical outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: The study was designed as a retrospective cohort study, which included 318 patients treated from June 2020 to January 2021 in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Clinical Hospital Center "Bezanijska Kosa" in Belgrade, Serbia. The verified diagnosis of COVID-19 disease, patients over 18 years of age, and the hospitalization in ICU were the criteria for inclusion in the study. The optimal cutoff value of D-dimer, CRP, IL-6, and PCT for predicting hospital mortality was determined using the ROC curve, while the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used to assess survival. RESULTS: The study included 318 patients: 219 (68.9%) were male and 99 (31.1%) female. The median age of patients was 69 (60-77) years. During the treatment, 195 (61.3%) patients died, thereof 130 male (66.7%) and 65 female (33.3%). 123 (38.7%) patients were discharged from hospital treatment. The cutoff value of IL-6 for in-hospital death prediction was 74.98 pg/mL (Sn 69.7%, Sp 62.7%); cutoff value of CRP was 81 mg/L (Sn 60.7%, Sp 60%); cutoff value of procalcitonin was 0.56 ng/mL (Sn 81.1%, Sp 76%); and cutoff value of D-dimer was 760 ng/mL FEU (Sn 63.4%, Sp 57.1%). IL-6 ≥ 74.98 pg/mL, CRP ≥ 81 mg/L, PCT ≥ 0.56 ng/mL, and D-dimer ≥ 760 ng/mL were statistically significant predictors of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: IL-6 ≥ 74.98 pg/mL, CRP values ≥ 81 mg/L, procalcitonin ≥ 0.56 ng/mL, and D-dimer ≥ 760 ng/mL could effectively predict in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , Patient Admission , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
18.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264644, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793511

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with high-consequence infectious diseases (HCID) are rare in Western Europe. However, high-level isolation units (HLIU) must always be prepared for patient admission. Case fatality rates of HCID can be reduced by providing optimal intensive care management. We here describe a single centre's preparation, its embedding in the national context and the challenges we faced during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. METHODS: Ten team leaders organize monthly whole day trainings for a team of doctors and nurses from the HLIU focusing on intensive care medicine. Impact and relevance of training are assessed by a questionnaire and a perception survey, respectively. Furthermore, yearly exercises with several partner institutions are performed to cover different real-life scenarios. Exercises are evaluated by internal and external observers. Both training sessions and exercises are accompanied by intense feedback. RESULTS: From May 2017 monthly training sessions were held with a two-month and a seven-month break due to the first and second wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, respectively. Agreement with the statements of the questionnaire was higher after training compared to before training indicating a positive effect of training sessions on competence. Participants rated joint trainings for nurses and doctors at regular intervals as important. Numerous issues with potential for improvement were identified during post processing of exercises. Action plans for their improvement were drafted and as of now mostly implemented. The network of the permanent working group of competence and treatment centres for HCID (Ständiger Arbeitskreis der Kompetenz- und Behandlungszentren für Krankheiten durch hochpathogene Erreger (STAKOB)) at the Robert Koch-Institute (RKI) was strengthened throughout the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. DISCUSSION: Adequate preparation for the admission of patients with HCID is challenging. We show that joint regular trainings of doctors and nurses are appreciated and that training sessions may improve perceived skills. We also show that real-life scenario exercises may reveal additional deficits, which cannot be easily disclosed in training sessions. Although the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic interfered with our activities the enhanced cooperation among German HLIU during the pandemic ensured constant readiness for the admission of HCID patients to our or to collaborating HLIU. This is a single centre's experience, which may not be generalized to other centres. However, we believe that our work may address aspects that should be considered when preparing a unit for the admission of patients with HCID. These may then be adapted to the local situations.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/therapy , Critical Care/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Patient Isolation/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Competence , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Education, Medical, Continuing/methods , Education, Medical, Continuing/organization & administration , Education, Nursing, Continuing/methods , Education, Nursing, Continuing/organization & administration , Environment Design , Germany/epidemiology , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Patient Isolation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Simulation Training/organization & administration , Workflow
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 853757, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776076

ABSTRACT

Background: The rising prevalence of multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs), such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), is an increasing concern in healthcare settings. Materials and Methods: Leveraging data from electronic healthcare records and a unique MDRO universal screening program, we developed a data-driven modeling framework to predict MRSA, VRE, and CRE colonization upon intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and identified the associated socio-demographic and clinical factors using logistic regression (LR), random forest (RF), and XGBoost algorithms. We performed threshold optimization for converting predicted probabilities into binary predictions and identified the cut-off maximizing the sum of sensitivity and specificity. Results: Four thousand six hundred seventy ICU admissions (3,958 patients) were examined. MDRO colonization rate was 17.59% (13.03% VRE, 1.45% CRE, and 7.47% MRSA). Our study achieved the following sensitivity and specificity values with the best performing models, respectively: 80% and 66% for VRE with LR, 73% and 77% for CRE with XGBoost, 76% and 59% for MRSA with RF, and 82% and 83% for MDRO (i.e., VRE or CRE or MRSA) with RF. Further, we identified several predictors of MDRO colonization, including long-term care facility stay, current diagnosis of skin/subcutaneous tissue or infectious/parasitic disease, and recent isolation precaution procedures before ICU admission. Conclusion: Our data-driven modeling framework can be used as a clinical decision support tool for timely predictions, characterization and identification of high-risk patients, and selective and timely use of infection control measures in ICUs.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Intensive Care Units , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Patient Admission
20.
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