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Prof Case Manag ; 26(2): 62-69, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087857


PURPOSE: Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the disease known as COVID-19, case management has emerged as a critical intervention in the treatment of cases, particularly for patients with severe symptoms and medical complications. In addition, case managers have been on the front lines of the response across the health care spectrum to reduce risks of contagion, including among health care workers. The purpose of this article is to discuss the case management response, highlighting the importance of individual care plans to provide access to the right care and treatment at the right time to address both the consequences of the disease and patient comorbidities. PRIMARY PRACTICE SETTINGS: The COVID-19 response spans the full continuum of health and human services, including acute care, subacute care, workers' compensation (especially catastrophic case management), home health, primary care, and community-based care. IMPLICATIONS FOR CASE MANAGEMENT PRACTICE: From the earliest days of the pandemic, case managers have assumed an important role on the front lines of the medical response to COVID-19, ensuring that procedures are in place for managing a range of patients: those who were symptomatic but able to self-isolate and care for themselves at home; those who had serious symptoms and needed to be hospitalized; and those who were asymptomatic and needed to be educated about the importance of self-isolating. Across the care spectrum, individualized responses to the clinical and psychosocial needs of patients with COVID-19 in acute care, subacute care, home health, and other outpatient settings have been guided by the well-established case management process of screening, assessing, planning, implementing, following up, transitioning, and evaluating. In addition, professional case managers are guided by values such as advocacy, ensuring access to the right care and treatment at the right time; autonomy, respecting the right to self-determination; and justice, promoting fairness and equity in access to resources and treatment. The value of justice also addresses the sobering reality that people from racial and ethnic minority groups are at an increased risk of getting sick and dying from COVID-19. Going forward, case management will continue to play a major role in supporting patients with COVID-19, in both inpatient and outpatient settings, with telephonic follow-up and greater use of telehealth.

COVID-19/nursing , Case Management/standards , Critical Care Nursing/education , Health Personnel/education , Health Personnel/psychology , Patient Care Planning/standards , Patient-Centered Care/standards , Adult , Case Management/statistics & numerical data , Curriculum , Education, Nursing, Continuing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Care Planning/statistics & numerical data , Patient-Centered Care/statistics & numerical data , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(1): 209-214, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933206


OBJECTIVE: Describe the care preference changes among nursing home residents receiving proactive Advance Care Planning (ACP) conversations from health care practitioners during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Nursing home residents (n = 963) or their surrogate decision makers had at least 1 ACP conversation with a primary health care practitioner between April 1, 2020, and May 30, 2020, and made decisions of any changes in code status and hospitalization preferences. METHODS: Health care practitioners conducted ACP conversations proactively with residents or their surrogate decision makers at 15 nursing homes in a metropolitan area of the southwestern United States between April 1, 2020, and May 30, 2020. ACP conversations reviewed code status and goals of care including Do Not Hospitalize (DNH) care preference. Resident age, gender, code status, and DNH choice before and after the ACP conversations were documented. Descriptive data analyses identified significant changes in resident care preferences before and after ACP conversations. RESULTS: Before the most recent ACP discussion, 361 residents were full code status and the rest were Out of Hospital Do Not Resuscitate (DNR). Of the individuals with Out of Hospital DNR, 188 residents also chose DNH. After the ACP conversation, 88 residents opted to change from full code status to Out of Hospital DNR, thereby increasing the percentage of residents with Out of Hospital DNR from 63% to 72%. Almost half of the residents decided to keep or change to the DNH care option after the ACP conversation. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Proactive ACP conversations during COVID-19 increased DNH from less than a quarter to almost half among the nursing home residents. Out of Hospital DNR increased by 9%. It is important for all health care practitioners to proactively review ACP with nursing home residents and their surrogate decision makers during a pandemic, thereby ensuring care consistent with personal goals of care and avoiding unnecessary hospitalizations.

Advance Care Planning/statistics & numerical data , Advance Directives/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Homes , Withholding Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Care Planning/statistics & numerical data , Resuscitation Orders , Retrospective Studies , Southwestern United States