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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264655, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Isolation is an indispensable measure to contain the SARS-CoV-2 virus, but it may have a negative impact on mental health and overall wellbeing. Evidence on the isolation experience, facilitating and complicating factors is needed to mitigate negative effects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This observational, population-based cohort study enrolled 1547 adults from the general population with SARS-CoV-2 infection reported to authorities between 27 February 2020 and 19 January 2021 in Zurich, Switzerland. We assessed the proportion of individuals reporting symptoms of depression and anxiety before, during and after isolation (by DASS-21), and queried worries, positive experiences, and difficulties. We analyzed the association of these outcomes with socio-demographics using ordinal regression. Additionally, we report free-text statements by participants to capture most important aspects of isolation. The proportion of participants affected by depression or anxiety increased during isolation from 10·0% to 17·1% and 9·1% to 17·6%, respectively. Ordinal regression showed that taking care of children increased the difficulty of isolation (OR 2·10, CI 1·43-3·08) and risk of non-compliance (OR 1·63, CI 1·05-2·53), especially in younger participants. A facilitating factor that individuals commonly expressed was receiving more support during isolation. CONCLUSION: Isolation due to SARS-CoV-2 presents a mental burden, especially for younger individuals and those taking care of children. Public health authorities need to train personnel and draw from community-based resources to provide targeted support, information, and guidance to individuals during isolation. Such efforts could alleviate the negative impact isolation has on the mental and physical health of individuals and ensure compliance of the population with recommendations.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Cohort Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Compliance/psychology , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Regression Analysis , Switzerland/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261726, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1651026

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We explored public perceptions about the COVID-19 pandemic to learn how those attitudes may affect compliance with health behaviors. METHODS: Participants were Central Pennsylvania adults from diverse backgrounds purposively sampled (based on race, gender, educational attainment, and healthcare worker status) who responded to a mixed methods survey, completed between March 25-31, 2020. Four open-ended questions were analyzed, including: "What worries you most about the COVID-19 pandemic?" We applied a pragmatic, inductive coding process to conduct a qualitative, descriptive content analysis of responses. RESULTS: Of the 5,948 respondents, 538 were sampled for this qualitative analysis. Participants were 58% female, 56% with ≥ bachelor's degree, and 50% from minority racial backgrounds. Qualitative descriptive analysis revealed four themes related to respondents' health and societal concerns: lack of faith in others; fears of illness or death; frustration at perceived slow societal response; and a desire for transparency in communicating local COVID-19 information. An "us-versus-them" subtext emerged; participants attributed non-compliance with COVID-19 behaviors to other groups, setting themselves apart from those Others. CONCLUSION: Our study uncovered Othering undertones in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, occurring between groups of like-minded individuals with behavioral differences in 'compliance' versus 'non-compliance' with public health recommendations. Addressing the 'us-versus-them' mentality may be important for boosting compliance with recommended health behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Fear/psychology , Patient Compliance/psychology , Prejudice/psychology , Public Health/ethics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Trust/psychology
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9195965, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591582

ABSTRACT

Since its outbreak, the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has caused havoc on people's lives. All activities were paused due to the virus's spread across the continents. Researchers have been working hard to find new medication treatments for the COVID-19 pandemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that safety and self-measures play a major role in preventing the virus from spreading from one person to another. Wireless technology is playing a critical role in avoiding viral propagation. This technology mainly comprises of portable devices that assist self-isolated patients in adhering to safe precautionary measures. Government officials are currently using wireless technologies to identify infected people at large gatherings. In this research, we gave an overview of wireless technologies that assisted the general public and healthcare professionals in maintaining effective healthcare services during COVID-19. We also discussed the possible challenges faced by them for effective implementation in day-to-day life. In conclusion, wireless technologies are one of the best techniques in today's age to effectively combat the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Wireless Technology/trends , Delivery of Health Care , Health Facilities , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Compliance/psychology , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261359, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Refugees are at increased risk for COVID-19 infection in part due to their living conditions, which make it harder to adopt and adhere to widely accepted preventive measures. Little empirical evidence exists about what refugees know about COVID-19 and what they do to prevent infection. This study explored what refugee women and their health care workers understand about COVID-19 prevention, the extent of their compliance to public health recommendations, and what influences the adoption of these measures. METHODS: In October 2020, we conducted 25 in-depth interviews with facility and community health care staff (n = 10) and refugee women attending antenatal and postnatal care services (n = 15) in Eastleigh, Nairobi. FINDINGS: While researchers found a high level of awareness about COVID-19 and related prevention and control measures among refugee women, various barriers affected compliance with such measures, due in part to poverty and in part to rampant misconceptions informed by religious beliefs and political narratives about the virus. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that Kenya's Ministry of Health needs to institute a concerted and continuous education program to bring refugee communities up to speed about COVID-19 and its prevention. In addition to disseminating information about the need to wear masks and repeatedly wash hands, supplies-masks, soap and access to water-need to be made available to poor refugee communities. Future research could explore which measures for disseminating factual information work best in refugee populations with different cultural norms and how best to target interventions to these groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Refugees/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Compliance/psychology , Public Health , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261733, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581733

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of citizens' behaviors in the containment of the virus. Individuals might change their intention to adhere to public health prescriptions depending on various personal characteristics, including their own emotional status, which has been recognized to be a crucial psychological factor in orienting people's adherence to public health recommendation during emergency settings. In particular, it is crucial to support citizens' alliance with authorities and feeling of trust: public engagement is a concept that refers to the general involvement of citizens into public affairs which is generally considered an effective approach to enhance citizens' understanding of their crucial role in public affairs. However, so far there is no agreement on the metrics and indexes that should be used to measures public engagement during a health crisis. The aim of this paper is to validate a psychometric scale (PHEs-E), which intends to measure the readiness of individuals to adhere to the prescribed behavioral change to contain the emergency. Data were collected throughout the pandemic in Italy: in particular, five independent samples were recruited starting from March 2020 to March 2021. Results showed that the proposed measure has good psychometric characteristics. A general linear model was computed to assess the differences of public engagement across the different data points and among citizens with different sociodemographic characteristics. Correlations with other psychological constructs (i.e. Anxiety, Depression and Self-Efficacy) were also tested, showing that more engaged citizens have a lower level of anxiety and depression, and a higher self-efficacy. This study's findings indicate that individuals' characteristics may differentiate citizens' motivation to engage in public health behavioral recommendation to prevent the COVID-19 contagion. However the scale could be useful to perform a psychological monitoring of psychological readiness to engage in public health strategies to face critical events and settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Psychometrics/methods , Stakeholder Participation/psychology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Community Participation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergencies , Female , Guideline Adherence/trends , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Compliance/psychology , Public Health/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
6.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258781, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel viral pandemics present significant challenges to global public health. Non-pharmaceutical interventions (e.g. social distancing) are an important means through which to control the transmission of such viruses. One of the key factors determining the effectiveness of such measures is the level of public adherence to them. Research to date has focused on quantitative exploration of adherence and non-adherence, with a relative lack of qualitative exploration of the reasons for non-adherence. OBJECTIVE: To explore participants' perceptions of non-adherence to COVID-19 policy measures by self and others in the UK, focusing on perceived reasons for non-adherence. METHODS: Qualitative study comprising 12 focus groups conducted via video-conferencing between 25th September and 13th November 2020. Participants were 51 UK residents aged 18 and above, reflecting a range of ages, genders and race/ethnicities. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. RESULTS: Participants reported seeing an increase in non-adherence in others over the course of the pandemic. Reports of non-adherence in self were lower than reports of non-adherence in others. Analysis revealed six main themes related to participants' reported reasons for non-adherence in self and others: (1) 'Alert fatigue' (where people find it difficult to follow, or switch off from, information about frequently changing rules or advice) (2) Inconsistent rules (3) Lack of trust in government (4) Learned Helplessness (5) Resistance and rebelliousness (6)The impact of vaccines on risk perception. Participants perceived a number of systemic failures (e.g. unclear policy, untrustworthy policymakers) to strongly contribute to two forms non-adherence-violations and errors. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that latent and systemic failures-in the form of policy decisions that are commonly experienced as too changeable, inconsistent and confusing, and policy makers that are commonly perceived as untrustworthy-may play a significant role in creating the conditions that enable or encourage non-adherence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Patient Compliance/psychology , Public Health/trends , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Focus Groups , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Public Health/methods , Public Opinion , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom
7.
Sci Prog ; 104(3): 368504211042980, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430320

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the truthfulness of patients about their pre-appointment COVID-19 screening tests at a dental clinic. METHODS: A total of 613 patients were recruited for the study from the dental clinic at the Faculty of Dentistry, Najran University, Saudi Arabia. The data collection was done in three parts from the patients who visited the hospital to receive dental treatment. The first part included the socio-demographic characteristics of the patients and the COVID-19 swab tests performed within the past 14 days. The second part was the clinical examination, and the third part was a confirmation of the swab test taken by the patient by checking the Hesen website using the patient ID. After data collection, statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 26.0. Descriptive analysis was done and expressed as mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage (%). A cross-tabulation, also described as a contingency table, was used to identify trends and patterns across data and explain the correlation between different variables. RESULTS: It was seen from the status of the swab test within 14 days of the patient's arrival at the hospital for the dental treatment that 18 (2.9%) patients lied about the pre-treatment swab test within 14 days, and 595 (97.1%) were truthful. The observed and expected counts showed across genders and diagnosis a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001), and there was no significant difference seen across different age groups (p = 0.064) of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Dental healthcare workers are worried and assume a high risk of COVID-19 infection as the patients are not truthful about the pre-treatment COVID-19 swab test. Routine rapid tests on patients and the healthcare staff are a feasible option for lowering overall risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Truth Disclosure/ethics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Dental Offices/ethics , Dental Offices/organization & administration , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Office Visits/statistics & numerical data , Patient Compliance/psychology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
9.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 54(2): 582-599, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384186

ABSTRACT

The current study taught 6 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to increase passive compliance of wearing a facemask across sequentially increasing durations of time. A changing-criterion design embedded within a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a resetting differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) without escape extinction procedure on passive compliance. Terminal probe sessions determined DRO fading intervals. Results showed that 2 participants acquired mastery level passive compliance (30 min) without fading during the initial baseline sessions. The remaining 4 participants acquired mastery level passive compliance following fading intervals within the DRO intervention. Participants' passive compliance generalized across 2 novel settings. This study replicates previous studies and extends empirical support for the use of DRO without escape extinction interventions for increasing passive compliance with medical devices in children with ASD.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , Masks , Patient Compliance/psychology , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male
10.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(9): 1145-1160, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341000

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic lingers, the possibility of 'pandemic fatigue' has raised worldwide concerns. Here, we examine whether there was a gradual reduction in adherence to protective behaviours against COVID-19 from March through December 2020, as hypothesized in expectations of fatigue. We considered self-report behaviours from representative samples of the populations of 14 countries (N = 238,797), as well as mobility and policy data for 124 countries. Our results show that changes in adherence were empirically meaningful and geographically widespread. While a low-cost and habituating behaviour (mask wearing) exhibited a linear rise in adherence, high-cost and sensitizing behaviours (physical distancing) declined, but this decline decelerated over time, with small rebounds seen in later months. Reductions in adherence to physical distancing showed little difference across societal groups, but were less intense in countries with high interpersonal trust. Alternative underlying mechanisms and policy implications are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Compliance/psychology , Attitude to Health , Global Health , Health Policy , Humans , Infection Control , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Self Report , Socioeconomic Factors , Trust
11.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256618

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been present for many months, influencing diets such as the gluten-free diet (GFD), which implies daily challenges even in non-pandemic conditions. Persons following the GFD were invited to answer online ad hoc and validated questionnaires characterizing self-perceptions of the pandemic, current clinical condition, dietary characteristics, adherence to GFD, anxiety, and depression. Of 331 participants, 87% experienced shortage and higher cost of food and 14.8% lost their jobs. Symptoms increased in 29% and 36.6% failed to obtain medical help. Although 52.3% increased food preparation at home and purchased alternative foodstuffs, 53.8% had consumed gluten-containing foods. The Health Eating Index was intermediate/"needs improvement" (mean 65.6 ± 13.3 points); in 49.9% (perception) and 44.4% (questionnaire), adherence was "bad". Anxiety and depression scores were above the cutoff in 28% and 40.4%, respectively. Adherence and mental health were strongly related. The likelihood of poor adherence was 2.3 times higher (p < 0.004) in participants declaring that pandemic altered GFD. Those suffering depressive symptoms were 1.3 times more likely to have poor adherence (p < 0.000). Depression and faulty GFD (mandatory for treatment) appear, affecting a high proportion of participants, suggesting that support measures aimed at these aspects would help improve the health condition of people that maintain GFD. Comparisons of data currently appearing in the literature available should be cautious because not only cultural aspects but conditions and timing of data collection are most variable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Celiac Disease/psychology , Diet, Gluten-Free/psychology , Patient Compliance/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Celiac Disease/diet therapy , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Diet, Gluten-Free/statistics & numerical data , Diet, Healthy , Female , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250833, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223798

ABSTRACT

Despite the availability of highly effective and well-tolerated direct-acting antivirals, not all patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection receive treatment. This retrospective, multi-centre, noninterventional, case-control study identified patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection initiating (control) or not initiating (case) treatment at 43 sites in Germany from September 2017 to June 2018. It aimed to compare characteristics of the two patient populations and to identify factors involved in patient/physician decision to initiate/not initiate chronic hepatitis C virus treatment, with a particular focus on historical barriers. Overall, 793 patients were identified: 573 (72%) who received treatment and 220 (28%) who did not. In 42% of patients, the reason for not initiating treatment was patient wish, particularly due to fear of treatment (17%) or adverse events (13%). Other frequently observed reasons for not initiating treatment were in accordance with known historical barriers for physicians to initiate therapy, including perceived or expected lack of compliance (14.5%), high patient age (10.9%), comorbidities (15.0%), alcohol abuse (9.1%), hard drug use (7.7%), and opioid substitution therapy (4.5%). Patient wish against therapy was also a frequently reported reason for not initiating treatment in the postponed (35.2%) and not planned (47.0%) subgroups; of note, known historical factors were also common reasons for postponing treatment. Real-world and clinical trial evidence is accumulating, which suggests that such historical barriers do not negatively impact treatment effectiveness. Improved education is key to facilitate progress towards the World Health Organization target of eliminating viral hepatitis as a major public health threat by 2030.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/psychology , Patient Compliance/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sustained Virologic Response , Young Adult
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e28973, 2021 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization's Emergency Committee declared the rapid, worldwide spread of COVID-19 a global health emergency. Since then, tireless efforts have been made to mitigate the spread of the disease and its impact, and these efforts have mostly relied on nonpharmaceutical interventions. By December 2020, the safety and efficacy of the first COVID-19 vaccines were demonstrated. The large social media platform Twitter has been used by medical researchers for the analysis of important public health topics, such as the public's perception on antibiotic use and misuse and human papillomavirus vaccination. The analysis of Twitter-generated data can be further facilitated by using Twitter's built-in, anonymous polling tool to gain insight into public health issues and obtain rapid feedback on an international scale. During the fast-paced course of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Twitter polling system has provided a viable method for gaining rapid, large-scale, international public health insights on highly relevant and timely SARS-CoV-2-related topics. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to understand the public's perception on the safety and acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines in real time by using Twitter polls. METHODS: We developed 2 Twitter polls to explore the public's views on available COVID-19 vaccines. The surveys were pinned to the Digital Health and Patient Safety Platform Twitter timeline for 1 week in mid-February 2021, and Twitter users and influencers were asked to participate in and retweet the polls to reach the largest possible audience. RESULTS: The adequacy of COVID-19 vaccine safety (ie, the safety of currently available vaccines; poll 1) was agreed upon by 1579 out of 3439 (45.9%) Twitter users. In contrast, almost as many Twitter users (1434/3439, 41.7%) were unsure about the safety of COVID-19 vaccines. Only 5.2% (179/3439) of Twitter users rated the available COVID-19 vaccines as generally unsafe. Poll 2, which addressed the question of whether users would undergo vaccination, was answered affirmatively by 82.8% (2862/3457) of Twitter users, and only 8% (277/3457) categorically rejected vaccination at the time of polling. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to the perceived high level of uncertainty about the safety of the available COVID-19 vaccines, we observed an elevated willingness to undergo vaccination among our study sample. Since people's perceptions and views are strongly influenced by social media, the snapshots provided by these media platforms represent a static image of a moving target. Thus, the results of this study need to be followed up by long-term surveys to maintain their validity. This is especially relevant due to the circumstances of the fast-paced pandemic and the need to not miss sudden rises in the incidence of vaccine hesitancy, which may have detrimental effects on the pandemic's course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Compliance/psychology , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
14.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249914, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197378

ABSTRACT

Studies of citizens' compliance with COVID-19 preventive measures routinely rely on survey data. While such data are essential, public health restrictions provide clear signals of what is socially desirable in this context, creating a potential source of response bias in self-reported measures of compliance. In this research, we examine whether the results of a guilt-free strategy recently proposed to lessen this constraint are generalizable across twelve countries, and whether the treatment effect varies across subgroups. Our findings show that the guilt-free strategy is a useful tool in every country included, increasing respondents' proclivity to report non-compliance by 9 to 16 percentage points. This effect holds for different subgroups based on gender, age and education. We conclude that the inclusion of this strategy should be the new standard for survey research that aims to provide crucial data on the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Patient Compliance/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Female , Guilt , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 182(7): 631-636, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197289

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) is an effective treatment for allergic rhinitis, asthma, and venom allergy. Compliance is essential for SCIT to obtain maximal benefit as it is a long-term treatment. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the level of real-life SCIT compliance in pediatric patients and the associated factors. Additional aims were to determine how SCIT compliance was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and why some patients dropped out SCIT. METHOD: Pediatric patients diagnosed with allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, or venom allergy that received SCIT between September 2012 and July 2020 were analyzed. RESULTS: The study included 201 children (66.7% male) with a median (interquartile range) age of 12.8 years (9.4-15.2) at the time of the first SCIT injection. The overall compliance rate before COVID-19 pandemic was 86.1%. Short SCIT follow-up time and venom anaphylaxis were found to be risk factors for drop out. The leading causes of drop outs were moving to another city/country (32.1%), symptom improvement (17.8%), treatment ineffectiveness (14.2%), and adverse reactions (14.2%). Among the 108 patients that were still receiving SCIT during the COVID-19 pandemic, 31 (28.7%) dropped out the therapy. The most frequent reasons for drop-out were fear of being infected with COVID-19 (35.4%) and thinking that the AIT practise stopped due to COVID-19 pandemic (29%). Male gender and older age were found to be the independent risk factors for drop-out of SCIT. CONCLUSIONS: Real life compliance in children was found 13.9% and it was higher than adults. Nearly one-third of children dropped out during the CO-VID-19 pandemic. Male gender and older age are associated with SCIT drop-out during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Desensitization, Immunologic , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/therapy , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Desensitization, Immunologic/adverse effects , Desensitization, Immunologic/methods , Desensitization, Immunologic/psychology , Desensitization, Immunologic/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Logistic Models , Male , Patient Compliance/psychology , Patient Dropouts/psychology , Patient Dropouts/statistics & numerical data , Turkey
16.
Future Oncol ; 17(20): 2621-2629, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195990

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of coronaphobia on treatment and follow-up compliance in cancer patients. The records of 230 cancer patients were reviewed. Coronaphobia was assessed via the validated COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19P-S). A total of 64% of the patients had a high coronaphobia score. Among them, 59% were noncompliant. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, low educational status, treatment type, following COVID-19 news, having knowledge about COVID-19 transmission and higher C19P-S score were associated with noncompliance (p = 0.006, p < 0.001, p = 0.002, p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that having knowledge about COVID-19 transmission was related to a higher C19P-S score (p = 0.001). The cancer patients studied had significant coronaphobia. Moreover, greater coronaphobia was significantly associated with noncompliance with follow-up and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Neoplasms/psychology , Patient Compliance/psychology , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Psychometrics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
17.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 205-211, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Potential role of health literacy in determining adherence to COVID-19 preventive behavior, pharmacological, and lifestyle management among diagnosed patients of chronic diseases during nationwide lockdown is inadequately investigated. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from May-August 2020 among diagnosed patients of chronic diseases residing in a COVID-19 hotspot of urban Jodhpur, Rajasthan, and availing health services from primary care facility. Telephonic interviews of participants were conducted to determine their health literacy using HLS-EU-Q47 questionnaire, adherence to COVID-19 preventive behaviour as per World Health Organization recommendations, and compliance to prescribed pharmacological and physical activity recommendations for chronic disease. RESULTS: All the 605 diagnosed patients of chronic diseases availing services from primary care facility were contacted for the study, yielding response rate of 68% with 412 agreeing to participate. Insufficient health literacy was observed for 65.8% participants. Only about half of participants had scored above median for COVID-19 awareness (55.1%) and preventive behavior (45.1%). Health literacy was observed to be significant predictor of COVID-19 awareness [aOR: 3.53 (95% CI: 1.81-6.88)]; COVID-19 preventive behavior [aOR: 2.06, 95%CI; 1.14-3.69] and compliance to pharmacological management [aOR: 3.05; 95% CI: 1.47-6.35] but not for physical activity. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 awareness, preventive behavior, and compliance to pharmacological management is associated with health literacy among patients of chronic disease availing services from primary health facility. Focusing on health literacy could thus be an essential strategic intervention yielding long term benefits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Literacy/trends , Patient Compliance , Primary Health Care/trends , Quarantine/trends , Urban Population/trends , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Chronic Disease , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Facilities/trends , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Compliance/psychology , Registries , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249891, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183676

ABSTRACT

Mask wearing has been advocated by public health officials as a way to reduce the spread of COVID-19. In the United States, policies on mask wearing have varied from state to state over the course of the pandemic. Even as more and more states encourage or even mandate mask wearing, many citizens still resist the notion. Our research examines mask wearing policy and adherence in association with COVID-19 case rates. We used state-level data on mask wearing policy for the general public and on proportion of residents who stated they always wear masks in public. For all 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC), these data were abstracted by month for April ─ September 2020 to measure their impact on COVID-19 rates in the subsequent month (May ─ October 2020). Monthly COVID-19 case rates (number of cases per capita over two weeks) >200 per 100,000 residents were considered high. Fourteen of the 15 states with no mask wearing policy for the general public through September reported a high COVID-19 rate. Of the 8 states with at least 75% mask adherence, none reported a high COVID-19 rate. States with the lowest levels of mask adherence were most likely to have high COVID-19 rates in the subsequent month, independent of mask policy or demographic factors. Mean COVID-19 rates for states with at least 75% mask adherence in the preceding month was 109.26 per 100,000 compared to 249.99 per 100,000 for those with less adherence. Our analysis suggests high adherence to mask wearing could be a key factor in reducing the spread of COVID-19. This association between high mask adherence and reduced COVID-19 rates should influence policy makers and public health officials to focus on ways to improve mask adherence across the population in order to mitigate the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Masks/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Health Policy/trends , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Compliance/psychology , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology
19.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 56(5): 545-551, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have experienced changes to the routine management because of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The aim of this study was to examine patients with IBD's adherence to the restrictions imposed by society and the hospital, worries and concerns regarding medical treatment and clinical follow-up under the pandemic. METHODS: IBD patients (≥18 years) at the outpatient clinic at Oslo University Hospital were included and answered a self-report questionnaire including concerns regarding their disease, medical therapy and follow-up during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. RESULTS: In total, 522 IBD patients were included, 317 Crohn's disease, 205 ulcerative colitis, 386 patients <50 years. Eighteen percent were in obligatory quarantine, and more often patients <50 years compared to patients ≥50 years. Five patients tested positive to SARS- CoV-2. A higher proportion <50 years reported worries for their medical treatment and risk of COVID -19 disease compared to those ≥50 years. Forty percent avoided family, two-thirds avoided friends, and 4% cancelled their scheduled consultation at the hospital. The hospital changed physical consultation to telephone consultation for 15% of the patients. The preferred follow-up was physical consultation. A higher proportion of the patients <50 years preferred telephone consultation compared to those ≥50 years. Four out of five IBD patients were satisfied with the information about their IBD and COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 pandemic affects the daily lives for patients with IBD. It is important to develop evidence-base guidelines in follow-up and treatment, as well as patient information about COVID-19and IBD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Patient Compliance , Patient Preference , Adult , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative/epidemiology , Colitis, Ulcerative/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Continuity of Patient Care/standards , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , Crohn Disease/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Norway/epidemiology , Patient Compliance/psychology , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Remote Consultation/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
20.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 54(2): 600-617, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151914

ABSTRACT

Healthcare professionals and government officials have advised the use of personal protective equipment, such as face masks and face shields, to assist with limiting the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Due to the prevalence of challenging behavior associated with other medical routines, the present study evaluated a treatment package composed of graduated exposure, prompts, reinforcement, and escape extinction on tolerance of wearing a face covering for up to 5 min for 12 children with ASD in a systematic replication of Cox et al. (2017) and Sivaraman et al. (2020). We also extended previous research by measuring generalization of face covering type (i.e., face shield) and the efficacy of a treatment extension for tolerating a face covering for up to 15 min during the participants' trial-based instruction and play periods.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , Masks , Patient Compliance/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male
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