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1.
Cell Death Dis ; 13(3): 235, 2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740434

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has gained prominence as a global pandemic. Studies have suggested that systemic alterations persist in a considerable proportion of COVID-19 patients after hospital discharge. We used proteomic and metabolomic approaches to analyze plasma samples obtained from 30 healthy subjects and 54 COVID-19 survivors 6 months after discharge from the hospital, including 30 non-severe and 24 severe patients. Through this analysis, we identified 1019 proteins and 1091 metabolites. The differentially expressed proteins and metabolites were then subjected to Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis. Among the patients evaluated, 41% of COVID-19 survivors reported at least one clinical symptom and 26.5% showed lung imaging abnormalities at 6 months after discharge. Plasma proteomics and metabolomics analysis showed that COVID-19 survivors differed from healthy control subjects in terms of the extracellular matrix, immune response, and hemostasis pathways. COVID-19 survivors also exhibited abnormal lipid metabolism, disordered immune response, and changes in pulmonary fibrosis-related proteins. COVID-19 survivors show persistent proteomic and metabolomic abnormalities 6 months after discharge from the hospital. Hence, the recovery period for COVID-19 survivors may be longer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Metabolomics/methods , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Proteomics/methods , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Survivors , Time Factors
3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 14(2): 557-571, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626785

ABSTRACT

To explore and summarize the association between treatment with tocilizumab and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis (10 RCTs including 3378 patients in the tocilizumab group and 3142 patients in the control group). We systematically searched PubMed and MedRxiv for all RCTs as of June 1, 2021, to assess the benefits and harms of tocilizumab to treat patients with COVID-19. All analyses were carried out using RevMan version 5.4.1. There were nine RCTs published in peer-reviewed journals and one RCTs published as a preprint. The summary RR for all-cause mortality with tocilizumab was 0.89 (95% CI= 0.82-0.96, P= 0.003). There was no significant between-trial heterogeneity (I2= 28%, P= 0.19). However, all peer-reviewed RCTs showed no significant associations between treatment with tocilizumab and reductions in all-cause mortality. We notably found that tocilizumab significantly reduced the rate of intubation or death in patients with COVID-19 with 3 RCTs. Across the 8 RCTs, the summary RR for discharge with tocilizumab was 1.10 (95% CI= 1.03-1.16, P< 0.00001). There was no significant association of tocilizumab with harm on other patient-relevant clinical outcomes, including increasing secondary infection risk, patients of adverse events, or patients of serious adverse events. Tocilizumab significantly increased the rate of hospital discharges in COVID-19 patients. Still, it did not decrease all-cause mortality or increase the risk of secondary infections, patients of adverse events, or patients for serious adverse events. Evidence that tocilizumab affects clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 requires further proof.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Humans , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261142, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom has seen two waves; the first starting in March 2020 and the second in late October 2020. It is not known whether outcomes for those admitted with severe Covid were different in the first and second waves. METHODS: The study population comprised all patients admitted to a 1,500-bed London Hospital Trust between March 2020 and March 2021, who tested positive for Covid-19 by PCR within 3-days of admissions. Primary outcome was death within 28-days of admission. Socio-demographics (age, sex, ethnicity), hypertension, diabetes, obesity, baseline physiological observations, CRP, neutrophil, chest x-ray abnormality, remdesivir and dexamethasone were incorporated as co-variates. Proportional subhazards models compared mortality risk between wave 1 and wave 2. Cox-proportional hazard model with propensity score adjustment were used to compare mortality in patients prescribed remdesivir and dexamethasone. RESULTS: There were 3,949 COVID-19 admissions, 3,195 hospital discharges and 733 deaths. There were notable differences in age, ethnicity, comorbidities, and admission disease severity between wave 1 and wave 2. Twenty-eight-day mortality was higher during wave 1 (26.1% versus 13.1%). Mortality risk adjusted for co-variates was significantly lower in wave 2 compared to wave 1 [adjSHR 0.49 (0.37, 0.65) p<0.001]. Analysis of treatment impact did not show statistically different effects of remdesivir [HR 0.84 (95%CI 0.65, 1.08), p = 0.17] or dexamethasone [HR 0.97 (95%CI 0.70, 1.35) p = 0.87]. CONCLUSION: There has been substantial improvements in COVID-19 mortality in the second wave, even accounting for demographics, comorbidity, and disease severity. Neither dexamethasone nor remdesivir appeared to be key explanatory factors, although there may be unmeasured confounding present.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity/trends , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , London , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Proportional Hazards Models
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 767376, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556073

ABSTRACT

Evidence supports a role of complement anaphylatoxin C5a in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. However, information about the evolution and impact of C5a levels after hospital discharge is lacking. We analyzed the association between circulating C5a levels and the clinical evolution of hospitalized patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Serum C5a levels were determined in 32 hospitalized and 17 non-hospitalized patients from Clinica Universidad de Navarra. One hundred and eighty eight serial samples were collected during the hospitalization stay and up to three months during the follow-up. Median C5a levels were 27.71 ng/ml (25th to 75th percentile: 19.35-34.96) for samples collected during hospitalization, versus 16.76 ng/ml (12.90-25.08) for samples collected during the follow-up (p<0.001). There was a negative correlation between serum C5a levels and the number of days from symptom onset (p<0.001). C5a levels also correlated with a previously validated clinical risk score (p<0.001), and was associated with the severity of the disease (p<0.001). An overall reduction of C5a levels was observed after hospital discharge. However, elevated C5a levels persisted in those patients with high COVID-19 severity (i.e. those with a longest stay in the hospital), even after months from hospital discharge (p=0.020). Moreover, high C5a levels appeared to be associated with the presence of long-term respiratory symptoms (p=0.004). In conclusion, serum C5a levels remain high in severe cases of COVID-19, and are associated with the presence of respiratory symptoms after hospital discharge. These results may suggest a role for C5a in the long-term effects of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Complement C5a/metabolism , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration Disorders/blood , Respiration Disorders/etiology , Respiration Disorders/immunology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 914: 174615, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549762

ABSTRACT

In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of quercetin in combination with remdesivir and favipiravir, were evaluated in severe hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Our main objective was to assess the ability of quercetin for preventing the progression of the disease into critical phase, and reducing the levels of inflammatory markers related to SARS-Cov-2 pathogenesis. Through an open-label clinical trial, 60 severe cases were randomly divided into control and intervention groups. During a 7-day period, patients in the control group received antivirals, i.e., remdesivir or favipiravir, while the intervention group was treated with 1000 mg of quercetin daily in addition to the antiviral drugs. According to the results, taking quercetin was significantly associated with partial earlier discharge and reduced serum levels of ALP, q-CRP, and LDH in the intervention group. Furthermore, although the values were in normal range, the statistical outputs showed significant increase in hemoglobin level and respiratory rate in patients who were taking quercetin. Based on our observations, quercetin is safe and effective in lowering the serum levels of ALP, q-CRP, and LDH as critical markers involved in COVID-19 severity. However, according to the non-significant borderline results in comparing the mortality, the ICU-admission rate, and the duration of ICU-admission, further studies can be helpful to compensate the limitations of our study and clarify the therapeutic potential of quercetin in COVID-19 treatments.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Amides , COVID-19 , Pyrazines , Quercetin , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/adverse effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Monitoring/methods , Drug Monitoring/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Quercetin/adverse effects , Respiratory Rate/drug effects
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2135397, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527393

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 is associated with a high incidence of thrombotic events; however, the need for extended thromboprophylaxis after hospitalization remains unclear. Objective: To quantify the rate of postdischarge arterial and venous thromboembolism in patients with COVID-19, identify the factors associated with the risk of postdischarge venous thromboembolism, and evaluate the association of postdischarge anticoagulation use with venous thromboembolism incidence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a cohort study of adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 confirmed by a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. Eligible patients were enrolled at 5 hospitals of the Henry Ford Health System from March 1 to November 30, 2020. Data analysis was performed from April to June 2021. Exposures: Anticoagulant therapy after discharge. Main Outcomes and Measures: New onset of symptomatic arterial and venous thromboembolic events within 90 days after discharge from the index admission for COVID-19 infection were identified using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision codes. Results: In this cohort study of 2832 adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19, the mean (SD) age was 63.4 (16.7) years (IQR, 53-75 years), and 1347 patients (47.6%) were men. Thirty-six patients (1.3%) had postdischarge venous thromboembolic events (16 pulmonary embolism, 18 deep vein thrombosis, and 2 portal vein thrombosis). Fifteen (0.5%) postdischarge arterial thromboembolic events were observed (1 transient ischemic attack and 14 acute coronary syndrome). The risk of venous thromboembolism decreased with time (Mann-Kendall trend test, P < .001), with a median (IQR) time to event of 16 (7-43) days. There was no change in the risk of arterial thromboembolism with time (Mann-Kendall trend test, P = .37), with a median (IQR) time to event of 37 (10-63) days. Patients with a history of venous thromboembolism (odds ratio [OR], 3.24; 95% CI, 1.34-7.86), peak dimerized plasmin fragment D (D-dimer) level greater than 3 µg/mL (OR, 3.76; 95% CI, 1.86-7.57), and predischarge C-reactive protein level greater than 10 mg/dL (OR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.45-6.29) were more likely to experience venous thromboembolism after discharge. Prescriptions for therapeutic anticoagulation at discharge were associated with reduced incidence of venous thromboembolism (OR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.04-0.75; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: Although extended thromboprophylaxis in unselected patients with COVID-19 is not supported, these findings suggest that postdischarge anticoagulation may be considered for high-risk patients who have a history of venous thromboembolism, peak D-dimer level greater than 3 µg/mL, and predischarge C-reactive protein level greater than 10 mg/dL, if their bleeding risk is low.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Risk Factors , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
8.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(12): 1109-1114, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526236

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics and functional outcomes of patients undergoing acute inpatient rehabilitation after hospitalization for COVID-19. DESIGN: Using a retrospective chart review, patients were identified who were admitted to inpatient rehabilitation after COVID-19. Patient information collected included sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, length of stay, discharge disposition, self-care, mobility, and cognitive functioning. These patients were compared with patients (controls) without COVID-19 with similar impairment codes treated at the same facility before the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: There were 43 patients who were admitted to the inpatient rehabilitation hospital after COVID-19 infection and 247 controls. Patients who had COVID-19 were significantly more likely to be African American and to have been admitted to a long-term acute care hospital. They also had a longer length of rehabilitation stay. The groups did not differ by age, sex, or insurance. Functionally, although presenting with significantly worse mobility, self-care, and motor scores, the patients previously infected with COVID-19 had similar functional outcomes at time of discharge to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with a history of COVID-19 had worse function at time of admission to acute rehabilitation, inpatient rehabilitation significantly improved their function to comparable levels as patients who did not have COVID-19. TO CLAIM CME CREDITS: Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME. CME OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) Identify how characteristics of patients with COVID-19 admitted to acute rehabilitation differ from those with similar admission codes but without COVID-19; (2) Describe changes in functional measures at admission and discharge of COVID-19 patients compared with patients without COVID-19; and (3) Recognize how inpatient rehabilitation may help reduce inequities in outcomes after severe COVID-19 infection. LEVEL: Advanced. ACCREDITATION: The Association of Academic Physiatrists is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.The Association of Academic Physiatrists designates this Journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Functional Status , Hospitals, Rehabilitation/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Disability Evaluation , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
9.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(12): 1115-1123, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522398

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to present: (1) physiatric care delivery amid the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, (2) challenges, (3) data from the first cohort of post-COVID-19 inpatient rehabilitation facility patients, and (4) lessons learned by a research consortium of New York and New Jersey rehabilitation institutions. DESIGN: For this clinical descriptive retrospective study, data were extracted from post-COVID-19 patient records treated at a research consortium of New York and New Jersey rehabilitation inpatient rehabilitation facilities (May 1-June 30, 2020) to characterize admission criteria, physical space, precautions, bed numbers, staffing, employee wellness, leadership, and family communication. For comparison, data from the Uniform Data System and eRehabData databases were analyzed. The research consortium of New York and New Jersey rehabilitation members discussed experiences and lessons learned. RESULTS: The COVID-19 patients (N = 320) were treated during the study period. Most patients were male, average age of 61.9 yrs, and 40.9% were White. The average acute care length of stay before inpatient rehabilitation facility admission was 24.5 days; mean length of stay at inpatient rehabilitation facilities was 15.2 days. The rehabilitation research consortium of New York and New Jersey rehabilitation institutions reported a greater proportion of COVID-19 patients discharged to home compared with prepandemic data. Some institutions reported higher changes in functional scores during rehabilitation admission, compared with prepandemic data. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic acutely affected patient care and overall institutional operations. The research consortium of New York and New Jersey rehabilitation institutions responded dynamically to bed expansions/contractions, staff deployment, and innovations that facilitated safe and effective patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Facilities and Services Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Needs and Demand/statistics & numerical data , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Subacute Care/statistics & numerical data , Acute Disease , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Databases, Factual , Female , Functional Status , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , New Jersey , New York , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Subacute Care/methods , Treatment Outcome
10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 102: 108384, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521088

ABSTRACT

Tocilizumab decreases inflammatory response in the cytokine storm which is one of the mechanisms behind the development of ARDS in COVID-19 patients. The objective of our study was to determine response of tocilizumab in patients suffering from COVID-19 by analyzing clinical parameters and inflammatory markers. A single-arm observational retrospective study was conducted from March 15, 2020 to March 15, 2021. Clinical outcomes in terms of mortality, weaning from mechanical ventilator, improvement in laboratory parameters including inflammatory cytokines, and length of hospital stay were documented. Reduction in values of inflammatory markers, and patients discharged home in stable condition were defined as an improvement after tocilizumab administration. A total of 514 patients received tocilizumab, majority of whom were critically sick 333 (64.8%). Out of the total sample 363 (70.6%) patients were discharged home in stable condition. Overall mean length of stay was 11.50 ± 8.4 days. There was significant difference in length of stay of patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation as compared to those who were kept only on supplemental oxygen (p < 0.05). Patients who were discharged home showed significant improvement in inflammatory markers and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio as compared to those who expired (p < 0.05). A total of 21 (4.1%) patients had positive blood culture while 57 (11.1%) had positive culture of tracheal aspirate. Hence, tocilizumab is found to be a reasonable therapeutic option for worsening COVID-19 pneumonia by decreasing the need for mechanical ventilation. However, it is associated with adverse events including bacterial and fungal infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Mycoses/epidemiology , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Bacterial Infections/chemically induced , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/chemically induced , Mycoses/immunology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
11.
Crit Care Med ; 49(11): e1157-e1162, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467424

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Joblessness is common in survivors from critical care. Our aim was to describe rates of return to work versus unemployment following coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring intensive care admission. DESIGN: Single-center, prospective case series. SETTING: Critical Care Follow-Up Clinic, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center-IRCCS, Rozzano, Italy. PATIENTS: One hundred and one consecutive laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 patients were discharged from our hospital following an ICU stay between March 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020. Twenty-five died in the ICU. Seventy-six were discharged alive from hospital. Two patients refused participation, while three were unreachable. The remaining 71 were alive at 6 months and interviewed. INTERVENTIONS: Baseline and outcome healthcare data were extracted from the electronic patient records. Employment data were collected using a previously published structured interview instrument that included current and previous employment status, hours worked per week, and timing of return to work. Health-related quality of life status was assessed using the Italian EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 71 interviewed patients, 45 (63%) were employed prior to coronavirus disease 2019, of which 40 (89%) of them worked full-time. Thirty-three (73%) of the previously employed survivors had returned to work by 6 months, 10 (22%) were unemployed, and 2 (5%) were newly retired. Among those who returned to work, 20 (85%) of them reported reduced effectiveness at work. Those who did not return to work were either still on sick leave or lost their job as a consequence of coronavirus disease 2019. Reported quality of life of survivors not returning to work was worse than of those returning to work. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of coronavirus disease 2019 survivors following ICU in our cohort had returned to work by 6 months of follow-up. However, most of them reported reduced work effectiveness. Prolonged sick leave and unemployment were common findings in those not returning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Return to Work/statistics & numerical data , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life , Retirement/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
12.
Am J Emerg Med ; 51: 64-68, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458554

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A decline in OHCA performance metrics during the pandemic has been reported in the literature but the cause is still not known. The Montgomery County Fire and Rescue Service (MCFRS) observed a decline in both the rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and the proportion of resuscitations that resulted in cerebral performance category (CPC) 1 or 2 discharge of the patient beginning in March of 2020. This study examines whether the decline in these performance metrics persists when known COVID positive patients are excluded from the analysis. METHODS: Two samples of OHCA patients for similar time periods (one year apart) before and after the start of the COVID pandemic were developed. A database of known COVID positive patients among EMS encounters was used to identify and exclude COVID positive patients. OHCA outcomes in these two groups were then compared using a Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test for difference in proportions and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for difference in means. A two-stage multivariable logistic regression model was used to develop odds ratios for achieving ROSC and CPC 1 or 2 discharge in each period. RESULTS: After excluding known COVID patients, 32.5% of the patients in the pre-COVID period achieved ROSC compared to 25.1% in the COVID period (p = 0.007). 6% of patients in the pre-COVID period were discharged with CPC 1 or 2 compared to 3.2% from the COVID era (p = 0.026). Controlling for all available patient characteristics, patients undergoing OHCA resuscitation prior to be beginning of the pandemic were 1.2 times more likely to achieve ROSC and 1.6 times more likely to be discharged with CPC 1 or 2 than non-COVID patients in the pandemic era sample. CONCLUSIONS: When known COVID patients are excluded, pre-pandemic OHCA resuscitation patients were more likely to achieve ROSC and CPC 1 or 2 discharge. The prevalence of known COVID positive patients among all OHCA resuscitations during the pandemic was not sufficient to fully account for the marked decrease in both ROSC and CPC 1 or 2 discharges. Other causative factors must be sought.


Subject(s)
Benchmarking , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Analysis of Variance , COVID-19 , Chi-Square Distribution , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Maryland , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Resuscitation , Retrospective Studies , Return of Spontaneous Circulation
13.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(12): 1124-1132, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447683

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to describe an interdisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation program for patients recovering from COVID-19 and to evaluate functional outcomes. DESIGN: This is an analysis of retrospective data captured from the electronic health record of COVID-19 patients admitted to the rehabilitation unit (N = 106). Rehabilitation approaches are described narratively. Functional gain was evaluated using the Activity Measure for Postacute Care 6 Clicks, basic mobility and daily activities. RESULTS: Interdisciplinary approaches were implemented to address the medical, physical, communication, cognitive, and psychosocial needs of COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients exhibited significant improvements in basic mobility (Activity Measure for Postacute Care for basic mobility, P < 0.001, Cohen d = 1.35) and daily activities (Activity Measure for Postacute Care for daily activities, P < 0.001, Cohen d = 1.06) from admission to discharge. There was an increase in ambulatory distance as well as the percentage of the patients who were able to breathe on room air. At discharge, fewer patients required supplemental oxygen on exertion. Eighty percent of the patients were discharged home after an average length of stay of 17 days. Greater functional improvement was associated with younger age, longer intubation duration, and participation in psychotherapy, but not a history of delirium during hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Early rehabilitation is associated with improved mobility and independence in activities of daily living after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Patient Care Team , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Subacute Care/methods , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Program Evaluation , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
14.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241149, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388891

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Early reports described decreased admissions for acute cardiovascular events during the SarsCoV-2 pandemic. We aimed to explore whether the lockdown enforced during the SARSCoV-2 pandemic in Israel impacted the characteristics of presentation, reperfusion times, and early outcomes of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. METHODS: A multicenter prospective cohort comprising all STEMI patients treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention admitted to four high-volume cardiac centers in Israel during lockdown (20/3/2020-30/4/2020). STEMI patients treated during the same period in 2019 served as controls. RESULTS: The study comprised 243 patients, 107 during the lockdown period of 2020 and 136 during the same period in 2019, with no difference in demographics and clinical characteristics. Patients admitted in 2020 had higher admission and peak troponin levels, had a 2.4 fold greater likelihood of Door-to-balloon times> 90 min (95%CI: 1.2-4.9, p = 0.01) and 3.3 fold greater likelihood of pain-to-balloon times> 12 hours (OR 3.3, 95%CI: 1.3-8.1, p<0.01). They experienced higher rates hemodynamic instability (25.2% vs 14.7%, p = 0.04), longer hospital stay (median, IQR [4, 3-6 Vs 5, 4-6, p = 0.03]), and fewer early (<72 hours) discharge (12.4% Vs 32.4%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The lockdown imposed during the SARSCoV-2 pandemic was associated with a significant lag in the time to reperfusion of STEMI patients. Measures to improves this metric should be implemented during future lockdowns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Admission/standards , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Registries/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 17: 17455065211042177, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381245

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Postnatal hospital stay is decreased by 30% during COVID-19 in developed countries. However, there is paucity of data in developing countries. Hence, this study aims to assess the prevalence of early postnatal discharge during COVID-19 in Jimma Health Centers. METHODS: Facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 February to 30 March 2021. Sample was calculated using single population proportion formula and allocated proportionally to the health centers. Data were interred into Epidata version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 22.0 for analysis. Multivariable regression was done to identify associating factors at p < 0.05. RESULT: Three hundred ninety women were included into study making a response rate of 96.8%. Early discharge prevalence was 316 (81.0%). Attending elementary school adjusted odds ratio = 0.26 (confidence interval = 0.087-0.798), plan for postnatal care within a week adjusted odds ratio = 0.410 (confidence interval = 0.221-0.760), knowing postnatal maternal danger sign adjusted odds ratio = 0.258 (confidence interval = 0.141-0.473), women adjusted odds ratio = 0.421 (confidence interval = 0.211-0.838), or husband adjusted odds ratio = 0.051 (confidence interval = 0.014-0.186) made decision of discharge were negatively and distance on foot <30 min adjusted odds ratio = 3 (confidence interval = 1.121-8.058) was positively associated with early discharge significantly. CONCLUSION: This study has identified early postnatal discharge is high which can contribute to reduce the risk of acquiring COVID-19. However, the authors recommend further study to differentiate whether early discharge is due to COVID-19 or other reasons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Postnatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Employment , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
J Xray Sci Technol ; 29(5): 741-762, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359155

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Monitoring recovery process of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients released from hospital is crucial for exploring residual effects of COVID-19 and beneficial for clinical care. In this study, a comprehensive analysis was carried out to clarify residual effects of COVID-19 on hospital discharged patients. METHODS: Two hundred sixty-eight cases with laboratory measured data at hospital discharge record and five follow-up visits were retrospectively collected to carry out statistical data analysis comprehensively, which includes multiple statistical methods (e.g., chi-square, T-test and regression) used in this study. RESULTS: Study found that 13 of 21 hematologic parameters in laboratory measured dataset and volume ratio of right lung lesions on CT images highly associated with COVID-19. Moderate patients had statistically significant lower neutrophils than mild and severe patients after hospital discharge, which is probably caused by more efforts on severe patients and slightly neglection of moderate patients. COVID-19 has residual effects on neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) of patients who have hypertension or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). After released from hospital, female showed better performance in T lymphocytes subset cells, especially T helper lymphocyte% (16% higher than male). According to this sex-based differentiation of COVID-19, male should be recommended to take clinical test more frequently to monitor recovery of immune system. Patients over 60 years old showed unstable recovery process of immune cells (e.g., CD45 + lymphocyte) within 75 days after discharge requiring longer clinical care. Additionally, right lung was vulnerable to COVID-19 and required more time to recover than left lung. CONCLUSIONS: Criterion of hospital discharge and strategy of clinical care should be flexible in different cases due to residual effects of COVID-19, which depend on several impact factors. Revealing remaining effects of COVID-19 is an effective way to eliminate disorder of mental health caused by COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , China , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
18.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 104(3): 165-173, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331976

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We have seen unparalleled changes in our healthcare systems globally as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. As we strive to regenerate our full capacity elective services in order to contest the increasing demand for lower limb arthroplasty, this pandemic has allowed us a rare opportunity to revise and develop novel elective arthroplasty pathways intended to improve patient care and advance healthcare efficiency. We present an extensive evidence-based review of the approaches used to achieve day-case unicompartmental arthroplasty (UKA) as well as the development of a day-case UKA care pathway in a UK NHS institution based on the evidence provided in the literature. METHODS: An extensive search of the literature was performed for articles that reported on readmission or complication rates ≥30 days postoperatively following day-case UKA. FINDINGS: Fifteen manuscripts reporting the results of day-case UKA, defined as discharged on the same calendar day of surgery, were included in our review. Mean reported complication rates for day-case and inpatient UKA within the follow-up periods were 4.05% and 6.52%, respectively. Mean readmission rates were 2.71% and 4.36% for day-case and inpatient UKA, respectively. The mean rate of successful same-day discharge was 92.45%. CONCLUSION: We introduce our institutional Elective Day Surgery Arthroplasty Pathway (EDSAP) founded upon the evidence presented in the literature. Stringent patient selection complimented by a well-defined day-case arthroplasty pathway is fundamental for successful commencement of day-case UKA in the NHS.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Surgical Procedures , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Aged , Ambulatory Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Ambulatory Surgical Procedures/methods , Ambulatory Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/methods , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Humans , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology
19.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(8): 559-568, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is usually less severe and has lower case fatality in children than in adults. We aimed to characterise the clinical features of children and adolescents hospitalised with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and to evaluate the risk factors for COVID-19-related death in this population. METHODS: We did an analysis of all patients younger than 20 years who had quantitative RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 and were registered in the Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance Information System (SIVEP-Gripe, a nationwide surveillance database of patients admitted to hospital with severe acute respiratory disease in Brazil), between Feb 16, 2020, and Jan 9, 2021. The primary outcome was time to recovery (discharge) or in-hospital death, evaluated by competing risks analysis using the cumulative incidence function. FINDINGS: Of the 82 055 patients younger than 20 years reported to SIVEP-Gripe during the study period, 11 613 (14·2%) had available data showing laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and were included in the sample. Among these patients, 886 (7·6%) died in hospital (at a median 6 days [IQR 3-15] after hospital admission), 10 041 (86·5%) patients were discharged from the hospital, 369 (3·2%) were in hospital at the time of analysis, and 317 (2·7%) were missing information on outcome. The estimated probability of death was 4·8% during the first 10 days after hospital admission, 6·7% during the first 20 days, and 8·1% at the end of follow-up. Probability of discharge was 54·1% during the first 10 days, 78·4% during the first 20 days, and 92·0% at the end of follow-up. Our competing risks multivariate survival analysis showed that risk of death was increased in infants younger than 2 years (hazard ratio 2·36 [95% CI 1·94-2·88]) or adolescents aged 12-19 years (2·23 [1·84-2·71]) relative to children aged 2-11 years; those of Indigenous ethnicity (3·36 [2·15-5·24]) relative to those of White ethnicity; those living in the Northeast region (2·06 [1·68-2·52]) or North region (1·55 [1·22-1·98]) relative to those in the Southeast region; and those with one (2·96 [2·52-3·47]), two (4·96 [3·80-6·48]), or three or more (7·28 [4·56-11·6]) pre-existing medical conditions relative to those with none. INTERPRETATION: Death from COVID-19 was associated with age, Indigenous ethnicity, poor geopolitical region, and pre-existing medical conditions. Disparities in health care, poverty, and comorbidities can contribute to magnifying the burden of COVID-19 in more vulnerable and socioeconomically disadvantaged children and adolescents in Brazil. FUNDING: National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, Research Support Foundation of Minas Gerais.


Subject(s)
Adolescent, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Databases, Factual , Hospital Mortality , Adolescent , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
20.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 163, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies had described the health consequences of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) especially in those with severe infections after discharge from hospital. Moreover, no research had reported the health consequences in health care workers (HCWs) with COVID-19 after discharge. We aimed to investigate the health consequences in HCWs with severe COVID-19 after discharge from hospital in Hubei Province, China. METHODS: We conducted an ambidirectional cohort study in "Rehabilitation Care Project for Medical Staff Infected with COVID-19" in China. The participants were asked to complete three physical examinations (including the tests of functional fitness, antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and immunological indicators) at 153.4 (143.3, 164.8), 244.3 (232.4, 259.1), and 329.4 (319.4, 339.3) days after discharge, respectively. Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, t test, one-way ANOVA, χ2, and Fisher's exact test were used to assess the variance between two or more groups where appropriate. RESULTS: Of 333 HCWs with severe COVID-19, the HCWs' median age was 36.0 (31.0, 43.0) years, 257 (77%) were female, and 191 (57%) were nurses. Our research found that 70.4% (114/162), 48.9% (67/137), and 29.6% (37/125) of the HCWs with severe COVID-19 were considered to have not recovered their functional fitness in the first, second, and third functional fitness tests, respectively. The HCWs showed improvement in muscle strength, flexibility, and agility/dynamic balance after discharge in follow-up visits. The seropositivity of IgM (17.0% vs. 6.6%) and median titres of IgM (3.0 vs. 1.4) and IgG (60.3 vs. 45.3) in the third physical examination was higher than that in the first physical examination. In the third physical examination, there still were 42.1% and 45.9% of the HCWs had elevated levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, and 11.9% and 6.3% of the HCWs had decreased relative numbers of CD3+ T cells and CD4+ T cells. CONCLUSION: The HCWs with severe COVID-19 showed improvement in functional fitness within 1 year after discharge, active intervention should be applied to help their recovery if necessary. It is of vital significance to continue monitoring the functional fitness, antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and immunological indicators after 1 year of discharge from hospital in HCWs with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 , Exercise Test , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/rehabilitation , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , China/epidemiology , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Test/statistics & numerical data , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Functional Status , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
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