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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 644, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To explore the clinical features and CT findings of clinically cured coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with viral RNA positive anal swab results after discharge. METHODS: Forty-two patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to Yongzhou Central Hospital, Hunan, China, between January 20, 2020, and March 2, 2020, were tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using anal swab viral RT-PCR. In this report, we present the clinical characteristics and chest CT features of six patients with positive anal swab results and compare the clinical, laboratory, and CT findings between the positive and negative groups. RESULTS: The anal swab positivity rate for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in discharged patients was 14.3% (6/42). All six patients were male. In the positive group, 40% of the patients (2/5) had a positive stool occult blood test (OBT), but none had diarrhea. The median duration of fever and major symptoms (except fever) in the positive patients was shorter than that of the negative patients (1 day vs. 6 days, 4.5 days vs. 10.5 days, respectively). The incidence of asymptomatic cases in the positive group (33.3%) was also higher than that of the negative group (5.6%). There were no significant differences in the CT manifestation or evolution of the pulmonary lesions between the two groups. CONCLUSION: In our case series, patients with viral RNA positive anal swabs did not exhibit gastrointestinal symptoms, and their main symptoms disappeared early. They had similar CT features to the negative patients, which may be easier to be ignored. A positive OBT may indicate gastrointestinal damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , RNA, Viral/analysis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anal Canal/virology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fever , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(7)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-659487

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of conducting three versus two reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) tests for diagnosing and discharging people with COVID-19 with regard to public health and clinical impacts by incorporating asymptomatic and presymptomatic infection and to compare the medical costs associated with the two strategies. METHODS: A model that consisted of six compartments was built. The compartments were the susceptible (S), the asymptomatic infective (A), the presymptomatic infective (L), the symptomatic infective (I), the recovered (R), and the deceased (D). The A, L and I classes were infective states. To construct the model, several parameters were set as fixed using existing evidence and the rest of the parameters were estimated by fitting the model to a smoothed curve of the cumulative confirmed cases in Wuhan from 24 January 2020 to 6 March 2020. Input data about the cost-effectiveness analysis were retrieved from the literature. RESULTS: Conducting RT-PCR tests three times for diagnosing and discharging people with COVID-19 reduced the estimated total number of symptomatic cases to 45| 013 from 51 144 in the two-test strategy over 43 days. The former strategy also led to 850.1 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of health gain and a net healthcare expenditure saving of CN¥49.1 million. About 100.7 QALYs of the health gain were attributable to quality-adjusted life day difference between the strategies during the analytic period and 749.4 QALYs were attributable to years of life saved. CONCLUSIONS: More accurate strategies and methods of testing for the control of COVID-19 may reduce both the number of infections and the total medical costs. Increasing the number of tests should be considered in regions with relatively severe epidemics when existing tests have moderate sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/economics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
5.
CMAJ ; 192(28): E791-E798, 2020 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury is common in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with poor outcomes. We aimed to study predictors of in-hospital death, characteristics of arrhythmias and the effects of QT-prolonging therapy in patients with cardiac injury. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving patients with severe COVID-19 who were admitted to Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China, between Jan. 29 and Mar. 8, 2020. Among patients who had cardiac injury, which we defined as an elevated level of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), we identified demographic and clinical characteristics associated with mortality and need for invasive ventilation. RESULTS: Among 1284 patients with severe COVID-19, 1159 had a cTnI level measured on admission to hospital, of whom 170 (14.7%) had results that showed cardiac injury. We found that mortality was markedly higher in patients with cardiac injury (71.2% v. 6.6%, p < 0.001). We determined that initial cTnI (per 10-fold increase, hazard ratio [HR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.66) and peak cTnI level during illness (per 10-fold increase, HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.38-2.10) were associated with poor survival. Peak cTnI was also associated with the need for invasive ventilation (odds ratio 3.02, 95% CI 1.92-4.98). We found arrhythmias in 44 of the 170 patients with cardiac injury (25.9%), including 6 patients with ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation, all of whom died. We determined that patients who received QT-prolonging drugs had longer QTc intervals than those who did not receive them (difference in medians, 45 ms, p = 0.01), but such treatment was not independently associated with mortality (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.69-1.57). INTERPRETATION: We found that in patients with COVID-19 and cardiac injury, initial and peak cTnI levels were associated with poor survival, and peak cTnI was a predictor of need for invasive ventilation. Patients with COVID-19 warrant assessment for cardiac injury and monitoring, especially if therapy that can prolong repolarization is started. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, No. ChiCTR2000031301.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Heart Injuries/mortality , Heart Injuries/virology , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/blood , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Heart Injuries/blood , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Logistic Models , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Troponin I/blood
8.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(2): 270-274, 2020 May 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-238993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical outcome of patients with moderate type of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after discharge by retesting viral nucleic acid. METHODS: Seven patients with moderate COVID-19 met the discharge criteria enacted by National Health Commission were quarantined in hospital for 7 days, then continuously quarantined at home for 4 weeks after discharged. During the quarantined period, the symptoms and signs were documented, and sputum or nasal swab and feces samples were collected to test SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid by RT-PCR method. RESULTS: There was no symptoms and signs during the quarantine period in all 7 patients. However, respiratory swabs from 3 patients were confirmed positive of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid at 5 to 7 days after they met the discharge criteria. CONCLUSIONS: There is a relatively high incidence of positive viral nucleic acid in patients met the discharge criteria, and it is suggested that patients met the current discharge criteria should be quarantined in hospital for another 7 days and the follow-up viral testing is necessary.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , RNA, Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Feces/chemistry , Feces/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Time Factors
9.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 Apr 02.
Article in Dutch | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-237423

ABSTRACT

Here we describe the characteristics of the first 100 laboratory confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to the Elisabeth-Tweesteden Hospital (Tilburg, The Netherlands). The median age was 72 years, 67% was male, approximately 80% had co-morbidity, approximately 50% of which consisted of hypertension, cardiac and or pulmonary conditions and 25% diabetes. At admission 61% of patients had fever and about 50% presented at day 6 or more after onset of symptoms. At the time of writing 38 patients were discharged, 19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and 20 patients had died. The median age of ICU patients was 67 years and 63% had co-morbidity. The median time to discharge or to death was 6 and 5.5 days, respectively.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Critical Care , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis
10.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(6): E19-E23, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have reported that older patients may experience worse outcome(s) after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 than younger individuals. This study aimed to identify potential risk factors for mortality in older patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on admission, which may help identify those with poor prognosis at an early stage. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control. SETTING: Fever ward of Sino-French New City Branch of Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 60 years or older with COVID-19 (n = 244) were included, of whom 123 were discharged and 121 died in hospital. MEASUREMENTS: Data retrieved from electronic medical records regarding symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings on admission, and final outcomes of all older patients with COVID-19, were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore risk factors for death. RESULTS: Univariate analysis revealed that several clinical characteristics and laboratory variables were significantly different (ie, P < .05) between discharged and deceased patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that lymphocyte (LYM) count (odds ratio [OR] = 0.009; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.001-0.138; P = .001) and older age (OR = 1.122; 95% CI = 1.007-1.249; P = .037) were independently associated with hospital mortality. White blood cell count was also an important risk factor (P = .052). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve in the logistic regression model was 0.913. Risk factors for in-hospital death were similar between older men and women. CONCLUSION: Older age and lower LYM count on admission were associated with death in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Stringent monitoring and early intervention are needed to reduce mortality in these patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 68:E19-E23, 2020.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
J Med Virol ; 92(6): 577-583, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-32888

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical data, discharge rate, and fatality rate of COVID-19 patients for clinical help. The clinical data of COVID-19 patients from December 2019 to February 2020 were retrieved from four databases. We statistically analyzed the clinical symptoms and laboratory results of COVID-19 patients and explained the discharge rate and fatality rate with a single-arm meta-analysis. The available data of 1994 patients in 10 literatures were included in our study. The main clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients were fever (88.5%), cough (68.6%), myalgia or fatigue (35.8%), expectoration (28.2%), and dyspnea (21.9%). Minor symptoms include headache or dizziness (12.1%), diarrhea (4.8%), nausea and vomiting (3.9%). The results of the laboratory showed that the lymphocytopenia (64.5%), increase of C-reactive protein (44.3%), increase of lactic dehydrogenase (28.3%), and leukocytopenia (29.4%) were more common. The results of single-arm meta-analysis showed that the male took a larger percentage in the gender distribution of COVID-19 patients 60% (95% CI [0.54, 0.65]), the discharge rate of COVID-19 patients was 52% (95% CI [0.34,0.70]), and the fatality rate was 5% (95% CI [0.01,0.11]).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pandemics , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Cough/blood , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/physiopathology , Dyspnea/blood , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Incidence , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/physiopathology , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Sex Factors , Survival Analysis
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