Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 48
Filter

Main subject
Type of study
Language
Journal
Clinical aspect
Year
Year range
1.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 158, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506686

##### ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the leading chronic rheumatic disease in childhood. To achieve adherence to therapy, in-depth understanding of disease and treatment options are important. OBJECTIVE: Development of specifically designed illustrations and standardised, easy-to-read texts for children and adolescents with JIA. Education materials were tested for comprehensibility and content validity. We hypothesised that children would be able to increase their knowledge about JIA after presentation of materials. METHODS: The illustrations were designed by a graphic artist and the informative texts consecutively transformed to easy-to-read language. The materials appear as a modular system to allow individualized information for each patient. The illustrations and texts were tested for knowledge gain and improvement of self-efficacy in children affected by JIA/ rheumatic diseases and controls. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was tested as an overall assessment of patients' well-being. RESULTS: 46 controls (71% female) and 38 patients (48% female) with a median age of 11 years were tested in a standardised setting. In both groups knowledge gain was significant (controls: t (44) = 11.08, p < 0.001, d = 1.65; patients: t (37) = 7.48, p < 0.001, d = 1.21). The control group had a significantly higher enhancement of disease knowledge compared to patients' group (p = .046) The follow-up testing was only performed in one school class (20 controls) due to Covid-19 pandemic with significant improvement compared to the pre-test results (p = .002). The enhancement of self-efficacy through the teaching session was significantly higher in the patients' group. No impairment of HRQoL was seen. CONCLUSION: Explaining juvenile rheumatic diseases and therapeutic strategies is an important task in paediatric rheumatology. To avoid incomprehensible explanations in medical jargon, illustrations and easy-to-read texts were developed. Standardised presentation of the newly created materials resulted in a significant improvement of disease knowledge in patients and controls in addition to an enhancement of self-efficacy in patients.

##### Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile/therapy , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Patient Compliance , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Adolescent , Art , Child , Comprehension , Female , Humans , Male
2.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 68(5): 1119-1131, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428326

##### ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused severe economic and health impacts in the United States, and the impact is disproportionately more in socially disadvantages areas. The available data, albeit limited in children, suggest that the initial concerns of the potential of serious impact of COVID-19 illness in children with asthma are unproven so far. The reduction in asthma morbidities is due to improved adherence, COVID-19 control measures, school closures, and decreased exposure to allergens and viral infections in children. During the pandemic, asthma guidelines were updated to guide physicians in asthma care. In the face of unprecedented time, it is important to be vigilant, adhere to treatment guidelines, and implement preventive measures to eradicate the virus and improve outcomes in children with asthma.

##### Subject(s)
Asthma/enzymology , Asthma/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Patient Education as Topic/methods , School Health Services/organization & administration , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Humans , Medication Adherence , Schools/organization & administration , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , United States
3.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(8): e85, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360150
4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295893

##### ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic enforced social restrictions with abrupt impacts on mental health and changes to health behaviors. From a randomized clinical trial, we assessed the impact of culinary education on home cooking practices, coping strategies and resiliency during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (March/April 2020). Participants (n = 28) were aged 25-70 years with a BMI of 27.5-35 kg/m2. The intervention consisted of 12 weekly 30-min one-on-one telemedicine culinary coaching sessions. Coping strategies were assessed through the Brief Coping with Problems Experienced Inventory, and resiliency using the Brief Resilient Coping Scale. Home cooking practices were assessed through qualitative analysis. The average use of self-care as a coping strategy by the intervention group was 6.14 (1.66), compared to the control with 4.64 (1.69); p = 0.03. While more intervention participants had high (n = 5) and medium (n = 8) resiliency compared to controls (n = 4, n = 6, respectively), this difference was not significant (p = 0.33). Intervention participants reported using home cooking skills such as meal planning and time saving techniques during the pandemic. The key findings were that culinary coaching via telemedicine may be an effective intervention for teaching home cooking skills and promoting the use of self-care as a coping strategy during times of stress, including the COVID-19 pandemic.

##### Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Cooking , Education, Distance/methods , Emotional Adjustment , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Cooking/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/therapy , Psychological Tests , Resilience, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
J Soc Work End Life Palliat Care ; 17(2-3): 146-157, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276065

##### ABSTRACT

The rise of COVID-19 in March, 2020 led to an urgent and acute need for communication guidelines to help clinicians facing a novel disease, amidst a cacophony of voices and demands, find the words to use in the face of this public health emergency. We identified critical topics that arose at the interface of staff, patient and family to guide the structure and content of a guideline. Organized in an easy to read table, the guide was made available to a wide variety of websites, organizations and schools as a free PDF resource across the country and beyond.

##### Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Palliative Care/methods , Social Workers/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Communication , Humans , Palliative Care/psychology , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Quality of Life/psychology
6.
Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab ; 16(4): 181-189, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233816

##### ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the entire population with the most deleterious effects in elders. Elders, especially those with diabetes, are at the highest risk of COVID-19 related adverse outcomes and mortality. This is usually linked to the comorbidities that accumulate with age, diabetes-related chronic inflammation, and the pandemic's psychosocial effects.Areas covered: We present some approaches to manage these complicated elderly patients with diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the inpatient setting, we suggest similar (pre-pandemic) glycemic targets and emphasize the importance of using IV insulin and possible use of continuous glucose monitoring to reduce exposure and PPE utilization. Outside the hospital, we recommend optimal glycemic control within the limits imposed by considerations of safety. We also describe the advantages and challenges of using various technological platforms in clinical care.Expert opinion: The COVID-19 pandemic has lifted the veil off serious deficiencies in the infrastructures for care at both the individual level and the population level and also highlighted some of the strengths, all of which affect individuals with diabetes and COVID-19. We anticipate that things will not return to 'normal' after the COVID-19 pandemic has run its course, but rather they will be superseded by 'New Normal.'

##### Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Inflammation/complications , Personal Protective Equipment/ethics , Administration, Intravenous , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Disease Management , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin/therapeutic use , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Telemedicine/methods
7.
Muscle Nerve ; 64(3): 270-276, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219308

##### ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Telemedicine may be particularly well-suited for myasthenia gravis (MG) due to the disorder's need for specialized care, its hallmark fluctuating muscle weakness, and the potential for increased risk of virus exposure among patients with MG during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic during in-person clinical visits. A disease-specific telemedicine physical examination to reflect myasthenic weakness does not currently exist. METHODS: This paper outlines step-by-step guidance on the fundamentals of a telemedicine assessment for MG. The Myasthenia Gravis Core Exam (MG-CE) is introduced as a MG-specific, telemedicine, physical examination, which contains eight components (ptosis, diplopia, facial strength, bulbar strength, dysarthria, single breath count, arm strength, and sit to stand) and takes approximately 10 minutes to complete. RESULTS: Pre-visit preparation, remote ascertainment of patient-reported outcome scales and visit documentation are also addressed. DISCUSSION: Additional knowledge gaps in telemedicine specific to MG care are identified for future investigation.

##### Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Myasthenia Gravis/diagnosis , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Physical Examination/methods , Physicians , Telemedicine/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Myasthenia Gravis/therapy , Patient Education as Topic/standards , Physical Examination/standards , Physicians/standards , Telemedicine/standards
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e25773, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197473

##### ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As mental illness continues to affect 1 in 5 individuals, and the need for support has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, the promise of digital mental health tools remains largely unrealized due to a lack of uptake by patients and providers. Currently, most efforts on supporting the uptake of digital mental health tools remain fragmented across organizations and geography. There is a critical need to synthesize these efforts in order to provide a coordinated strategy of supporting the adoption of digital mental health tools. OBJECTIVE: The specific aim of this project is to develop a web-based resource document to support the engagement of mental health providers and patients in the use of digital mental health tools. METHODS: The web-based resource was developed using a multimethod approach. A grey literature review was conducted in 2019 to identify relevant toolkits that are available in the public domain. This was supplemented with an environmental scan where individuals with expertise in the development, acquisition, implementation, and evaluation of digital mental health tools were invited to contribute additional tools or documents not identified in the grey literature search. An engagement workshop was held with stakeholders to explore how the resource document should be developed and delivered. These findings were collectively used to develop the final iteration of the resource document. RESULTS: Based on a gray literature review and environmental scan with 27 experts, 25 resources were identified and included in the resource guide. These resources were developed for patients and providers by organizations from 5 countries. An engagement workshop was held with 14 stakeholders, and barriers related to cultural sensitivity, sustainability, and accessibility of the toolkit were identified. The final iteration of the resource document was developed by the research team using findings from the gray literature review, environmental scan, and engagement workshop. The contents of the 45-page resource guide are directed at mental health care providers, administrators, and patients (inclusive of families and caregivers). CONCLUSIONS: The use of a multimethod approach led to the development of a resource guide that builds on existing evidence on digital mental health tools and was co-designed with stakeholders and end-users. The resource guide is now publicly available online for free and is being promoted through digital health and mental health websites. Future work should explore how this document can be integrated into clinical care delivery and pathways.

##### Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/methods , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Humans , Mental Disorders
9.
J Gerontol Nurs ; 47(4): 7-12, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175623

##### ABSTRACT

This process evaluation of the Rural Elder Awareness of Medication Safety (REAMS) program provided identification of successful and unsuccessful elements along with barriers to and facilitators of this home-based pilot program. The REAMS program was developed to assist rural older adults aged >65 years and community health care organizations with strategies to improve health literacy related to medications. Recruitment of older adults, rurality of the program's setting, time constraints, and the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic were the greatest barriers. The collaborative relationship developed with community health care partners was the greatest facilitator. This relationship promoted shared ideas and adjustments in program design to achieve the outcome goals. The lessons learned from process evaluation may benefit future researchers or community health promotion planners with designing community-based programs for older adults in rural areas. Future research should focus on expanding recruitment opportunities in acute care, primary care, and home health with the inclusion of all established health care providers in the community. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 47(4), 7-12.].

##### Subject(s)
Frail Elderly , Health Literacy , Home Care Services/organization & administration , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Patient Medication Knowledge , Patient Safety , Rural Health Services/organization & administration , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Rural Population , United States
10.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211007026, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159862

##### ABSTRACT

The development of highly efficacious COVID-19 vaccines has brought a feeling of hope to many in the US (United States) and across the globe. However, it is estimated that approximately one-third of the US and international population are hesitant to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. For most Western countries with the economic means to purchase sufficient vaccine for their citizens, the medical community now has the opportunity to lead the vaccination communication campaign. Because frontline clinicians were the first to be vaccinated in the United States (US), they are uniquely positioned to be the most trusted source of vaccine information. Primary care clinicians, more than other groups of clinicians, scientists, government officials, media, etc. have the greatest chance for instilling confidence about the vaccine to their patients, including the most vulnerable and the most distrusting. They are considered credible and trustworthy allies for their patients in the US, however, clinicians receive little to no formal training in communication related to controversial topics, such as vaccine hesitancy. With the increasing worry about highly transmissible COVID-19 viral mutations and possible related vaccine resistance, it becomes even more critical to accelerate vaccination efforts across every community. Educating primary care clinicians regarding the importance of talking to their patients regarding their COVID-19 vaccination plans is essential.

##### Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Communication/methods , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Physicians, Primary Care/education , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccination Refusal
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4342-4350, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141364

##### ABSTRACT

In this paper, we propose a new susceptible-vaccinated-exposed-infected-recovered with unaware-aware (SEIR/V-UA) model to study the mutual effect between the epidemic spreading and information diffusion. We investigate the dynamic processes of the model with a Kinetic equation and derive the expression for epidemic stability by the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix. Then, we validate the model by the Monte Carlo method and numerical simulation on a two-layer scale-free network. With the outbreak of COVID-19, the spread of the epidemic in China prompted drastic measures for transmission containment. We examine the effects of these interventions based on modeling of the information-epidemic and the data of the COVID-19 epidemic case. The results further demonstrate that the epidemic spread can be affected by the effective transmission rate of awareness.

##### Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Patient Education as Topic/methods , COVID-19/pathology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Transplant Proc ; 53(4): 1105-1111, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118702

##### ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus 2019 pandemic we converted our liver transplant waitlist candidate education and support program to a virtual format and expanded it to include ongoing engagement sessions aimed to educate and empower patients to maximize opportunity for live donor liver transplantation. Over a period of 6 months from April 2020 to Sept 2020 we included 21 patients in this pilot quality improvement program. We collected data regarding patient response and potential donor referral activity. Overall, patient response was positive, and some patients saw progress toward live donor liver transplantation by fostering inquiry of potential live liver donors. Optimization of logistical aspects of the program including program flow, technology access, and utilization is required to enhance patient experience. Long-term follow-up is needed to assess impact on the outcome of transplantation rates. Future data collection and analysis should focus on assessment of any potential disparity that may result from utilization of virtual programming. Herein we provide a framework for this type of virtual program and describe our experience.

##### Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Transplantation/education , Living Donors/education , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Program Evaluation , Quality Improvement , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 25(5): 675-678, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107887

##### ABSTRACT

COVID-19 disrupted numerous disciplines which led to widespread misinformation on the virus. Thirteen students from across the USA designed a web-based conference, or "webinar," to minimize the misinformation among student populations. Professionals presented the current and possible future impacts of COVID-19 in their respective fields. Pre- and post-conference surveys were administered to the attendees to gauge the impact of the conference. Survey results demonstrated increased knowledge and a lower degree of feeling overwhelmed by COVID-19 information overall, indicating a niche use for webinars during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.

##### Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Information Dissemination/methods , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Communication , Educational Status , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 34(Suppl): S21-S25, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099983

##### ABSTRACT

Pharmacists' roles and training have evolved to prepare pharmacists to provide clinical patient care services as part of interdisciplinary teams in primary care settings. Especially now, amidst a global health crisis such as COVID-19, patients may become more aware of their health status and be exposed to increased medical information in the media. Additionally, some patients may have delayed routine care, which may result in exacerbations of chronic disease states. Pharmacists can help alleviate the burden on primary care providers by serving as a drug information resource for patients and staff while providing patient education on management of chronic disease states.

##### Subject(s)
Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Patient Education as Topic/organization & administration , Pharmacists/organization & administration , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Professional Role , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Chronic Disease , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Primary Health Care/methods , United States/epidemiology
15.
Cancer Control ; 28: 1073274821989709, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076105

##### Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services , Medical Oncology/methods , Neoplasms/therapy , Patient Education as Topic/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Canada , Comprehension , Health Literacy , Humans , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pandemics , Patient Education as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Patient Education as Topic/trends , Reading , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
16.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 243-247, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065022

##### ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In Colombia, the government established mandatory isolation after the first case of COVID-19 was reported. As a diabetes care center specialized in technology, we developed a virtual training program for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) who were upgrading to hybrid closed loop (HCL) system. The aim of this study is to describe the efficacy and safety outcomes of the virtual training program. METHOD: ology: A prospective observational cohort study was performed, including patients with diagnosis of T1D previously treated with multiple doses of insulin (MDI) or sensor augmented pump therapy (SAP) who were updating to HCL system, from March to July 2020. Virtual training and follow-up were done through the Zoom video conferencing application and Medtronic Carelink System version 3.1 software. CGM data were analyzed to compare the time in range (TIR), time below range (TBR) and glycemic variability, during the first two weeks corresponding to manual mode with the final two weeks of follow-up in automatic mode. RESULTS: 91 patients were included. Mean TIR achieved with manual mode was 77.3 ± 11.3, increasing to 81.6% ± 7.6 (p < 0.001) after two weeks of auto mode use. A significant reduction in TBR <70 mg/dL (2,7% ± 2,28 vs 1,83% ± 1,67, p < 0,001) and in glycemic variability (% coefficient of variation 32.4 vs 29.7, p < 0.001) was evident, independently of baseline therapy. CONCLUSION: HCL systems allows T1D patients to improve TIR, TBR and glycemic variability independently of previous treatment. Virtual training can be used during situations that limit the access of patients to follow-up centers.

##### Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Insulin Infusion Systems , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
17.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 23(6): 467-470, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029729

##### ABSTRACT

Insulin pump training has traditionally been performed in-person. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic necessitated vast increases in the number of virtual pump trainings for Tandem t:slim X2 insulin pump starts. A customized structured pump training curriculum specifically tailored to virtual learning was deployed in early 2020, and included (1) preparation for training with use of the t:simulator app, (2) use of the teach-back method during video training, and (3) automating data uploads for follow-up. Retrospective analysis from >23,000 pump training sessions performed from January 1, 2020 to July 28, 2020 showed sensor time-in-range for up to 6 months after training was 72% (60%-81%) for virtual training versus 67% (54%-78%) for in-person training. Higher user satisfaction (4.78 ± 0.52 vs. 4.64 ± 0.68; P < 0.01) and higher user confidence (4.61 ± 0.75 vs. 4.47 ± 0.0.85; P < 0.01) were reported after the virtual sessions. Virtual pump training was well received and proved safe and effective with the new virtual training curriculum.

##### Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin Infusion Systems , Insulin/administration & dosage , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , Curriculum , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Educational Measurement , Feasibility Studies , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Infusion Pumps, Implantable , Insulin/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
18.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 120(12): 1953-1957, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023630
19.
J Addict Med ; 14(6): e362-e365, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1020283

##### ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify how best to provide smoking cessation advice and support during the Covid-19 pandemic. Preferences were assessed in relation to: (i) specific forms of tobacco cessation support (eg, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and various counseling formats); (ii) information sources (eg, government officials, doctors); and (iii) channels via which to receive relevant information (eg, television, social media). METHODS: An online survey was administered to adults who smoke tobacco in Australia (nâ=â604) and the UK (nâ=â600). Descriptive analyses were conducted to identify levels of interest in cessation support and information provision. Differences in responses according to demographic characteristics and smoking history were assessed. RESULTS: Around half of the respondents were interested in receiving personal counseling and/or participating in a text support program over the next month. By far the most popular delivery mechanism for personal counseling was email. Three-quarters of the sample expressed an interest in receiving free, home-delivered NRT. The most popular information sources nominated by respondents seeking more information about smokers' Covid-related risks were government departments and their doctor/general practitioner. Television and online news sources were the most preferred information dissemination channels. CONCLUSIONS: The substantial levels of interest expressed in accessing various forms of cessation assistance within the next month suggest that Covid-19 may be increasing receptiveness to quitting. The strong interest in free, home-delivered NRT indicates that this may be a useful mechanism for facilitating quit attempts during the pandemic.

##### Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Patient Preference , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Adult , Australia , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Counseling , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Smoking/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tobacco Use Cessation/psychology , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices
20.
Math Biosci Eng ; 17(6): 7428-7441, 2020 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004821

##### ABSTRACT

Since the initial identification of a COVID-19 case in Wuhan, China, the novel disease quickly becomes a global pandemic emergency. In this paper, we propose a dynamic model that incorporates individuals' behavior change in social interactions at different stages of the epidemics. We fit our model to the data in Ontario, Canada and calculate the effective reproduction number $\mathcal{R}_t$ within each stage. Results show that $\mathcal{R}_t$ > 1 if the public's awareness to practice physical distancing is rela-tively low and $\mathcal{R}_t$ < 1 otherwise. Simulations show that a reduced contact rate between the susceptible and asymptomatic/unreported symptomatic individuals is effective in mitigating the disease spread. Moreover, sensitivity analysis indicates that an increasing contact rate may lead to a second wave of disease outbreak. We also investigate the effectiveness of disease intervention strategies. Simulations demonstrate that enlarging the testing capacity and motivating infected individuals to test for an early diagnosis may facilitate mitigating the disease spread in a relatively short time. Results also indicate a significantly faster decline of confirmed positive cases if individuals practice strict physical distancing even if restricted measures are lifted.

##### Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Physical Distancing , Social Behavior , Algorithms , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Computer Simulation , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
...