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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261590, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598523

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the reliability and factorial validity of General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) in the context of university students in Bangladesh. The research aimed to assess whether the original one-dimensional model or a model containing both somatic and cognitive-emotional factors is appropriate. A repeated cross-sectional survey design based on convenience sampling was used to collect data from 677 university students. The factor structure of the GAD-7 was assessed by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and its convergent validity was determined by investigating its correlations with Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Patient Health Questionnaire Anxiety-Depression Scale (PHQ-ADS). Results showed excellent reliability of GAD-7 as measured by Cronbach's α. CFA suggested that a modified one-factor model is appropriate for the sample. This model provided high values of comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI), and Tucker Lewis Index (TLI), low value of standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) and a non-significant root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Correlation between GAD-7 and PHQ-9 was 0.751 and 0.934 between GAD-7 and PHQ-ADS. Overall, the study provided support for modified unidimensional structure for GAD-7 and showed high internal consistency along with good convergent validity.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychometrics/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Bangladesh , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Reproducibility of Results , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
2.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575182

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the impact of food insecurity and poor nutrient intake on the psychological health of middle-aged and older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. A sub-sample of 535 individuals aged 52 years and above, from the earlier cohort and interventional studies (n = 4) from four selected states in Peninsular Malaysia, were recruited during the COVID-19 outbreak (April to June 2020). Telephone interviews were conducted by trained interviewers with a health sciences background to obtain participants' information on health status, physical activity, food security, and psychological health (General Health Questionnaire-12; normal and psychological distress). Univariate analyses were performed for each variable, followed by a logistic regression analysis using SPSS Statistics version 25.0. Results revealed food insecurity (OR = 17.06, 95% CI: 8.24-35.32, p < 0.001), low protein (OR = 0.981, 95% CI: 0.965-0.998, p < 0.05), and fiber intakes (OR = 0.822, 95% CI: 0.695-0.972, p < 0.05) were found to be significant factors associated with the psychological distress group after adjusting for confounding factors. The findings suggested that food insecurity and insufficiencies of protein and fiber intakes heightened the psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Optimal nutrition is vital to ensure the physical and psychological health of the older population, specifically during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Food Insecurity/economics , Humans , Independent Living/economics , Independent Living/psychology , Independent Living/statistics & numerical data , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/economics , Stress, Psychological/psychology
3.
J Affect Disord ; 299: 517-524, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568801

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to present data on the prevalence of probable depression and anxiety and to determine their correlates during the COVID-19 pandemic in seven European countries using a longitudinal approach. METHODS: Longitudinal data (wave 4 in November 2020: n = 7,115; wave 5 in January 2021: n = 7,068; wave 6 in April 2021: n = 7,204) were taken from the European COvid Survey (ECOS), a representative sample of non-institutionalized inhabitants from Germany, United Kingdom, Denmark, Netherlands, France, Portugal and Italy aged 18+. Probable depression and anxiety were quantified using the established and validated PHQ-4 (2-item depression scale, PHQ-2 / 2-item anxiety scale, GAD-2). RESULTS: In wave 4 (wave 5; wave 6), 26.6% (25.5%; 23.8%) of all respondents had probable depression and 25.7% (23.6%; 22.1%) had probable anxiety. Prevalence rates for probable depression and probable anxiety differed significantly between countries. Among all countries and waves, particularly high prevalence rates were found among individuals aged 18 to 29 years. Longitudinal analysis showed that the likelihood of probable depression was positively associated with increasing age, great income difficulties and lower health-related quality of life. The likelihood of probable anxiety was positively associated with income difficulties, and lower health-related quality of life. LIMITATIONS: Screening tool was used to quantify the outcomes. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of probable depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic in European countries was highlighted. Moreover, determining the factors associated with probable depression or anxiety (e.g., income difficulties, worse health-related quality of life) may assist in identifying individuals at increased risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Health Questionnaire , Prevalence , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
4.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258893, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Explore how previous work during the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak affects the psychological response of clinical and non-clinical healthcare workers (HCWs) to the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multi-centered hospital online survey of HCWs in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada. Mental health outcomes of HCWs who worked during the COVID-19 pandemic and the SARS outbreak were assessed using Impact of Events-Revised scale (IES-R), Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). RESULTS: Among 3852 participants, moderate/severe scores for symptoms of post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (50.2%), anxiety (24.6%), and depression (31.5%) were observed among HCWs. Work during the 2003 SARS outbreak was reported by 1116 respondents (29.1%), who had lower scores for symptoms of PTSD (P = .002), anxiety (P < .001), and depression (P < .001) compared to those who had not worked during the SARS outbreak. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed non-clinical HCWs during this pandemic were at higher risk of anxiety (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.19-2.15, P = .01) and depressive symptoms (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.34-3.07, P < .001). HCWs using sedatives (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.61-4.03, P < .001), those who cared for only 2-5 patients with COVID-19 (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.06-2.38, P = .01), and those who had been in isolation for COVID-19 (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.96-1.93, P = .05), were at higher risk of moderate/severe symptoms of PTSD. In addition, deterioration in sleep was associated with symptoms of PTSD (OR, 4.68, 95% CI, 3.74-6.30, P < .001), anxiety (OR, 3.09, 95% CI, 2.11-4.53, P < .001), and depression (OR 5.07, 95% CI, 3.48-7.39, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Psychological distress was observed in both clinical and non-clinical HCWs, with no impact from previous SARS work experience. As the pandemic continues, increasing psychological and team support may decrease the mental health impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Allied Health Personnel , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/virology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/virology , COVID-19/virology , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Depression/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
5.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256406, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic brought about large increases in mental distress. The uptake of COVID-19 vaccines is expected to significantly reduce health risks, improve economic and social outcomes, with potential benefits to mental health. PURPOSE: To examine short-term changes in mental distress following the receipt of the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: Participants included 8,003 adults from the address-based sampled, nationally representative Understanding America Study (UAS), surveyed at regular intervals between March 10, 2020, and March 31, 2021 who completed at least two waves of the survey. Respondents answered questions about COVID-19 vaccine status and self-reported mental distress as measured with the four-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4). Fixed-effects regression models were used to identify the change in PHQ-4 scores and categorical indicators of mental distress resulting from the application of the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: People who were vaccinated between December 2020 and March 2021 reported decreased mental distress levels in the surveys conducted after receiving the first dose. The fixed-effects estimates show an average effect of receiving the vaccine equivalent to 4% of the standard deviation of PHQ-4 scores (p-value<0.01), a reduction in 1 percentage point (4% reduction from the baseline level) in the probability of being at least mildly depressed, and of 0.7 percentage points (15% reduction from the baseline level) in the probability of being severely depressed (p-value = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Getting the first dose of COVID-19 resulted in significant improvements in mental health, beyond improvements already achieved since mental distress peaked in the spring of 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Health Questionnaire/statistics & numerical data , Psychological Distress , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data
6.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(25): e168, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389140

ABSTRACT

This study explored the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-6 items (SAVE-6) scale for assessing people's anxiety in response to the viral epidemic in Lebanon. The 406 participants responded voluntarily to the online survey that included the SAVE-6, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) tools. The single-structure SAVE-6 model showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.773). The SAVE-6 scale also showed good convergent validity with the GAD-7 (Spearman's ρ = 0.42, P < 0.001) and PHQ-9 (ρ = 0.38, P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed an Arabic SAVE-6 cut-off score of 12 points (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.753; sensitivity = 62.74%; specificity = 78.26%) for an at least mild degree of anxiety (GAD-7 score ≥ 5). The Arabic version of the SAVE-6 was a reliable, valid, and solely usable scale for measuring the anxiety response of the general population to the viral epidemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/etiology , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychometrics , Quarantine/psychology , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Translations , Young Adult
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26828, 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354341

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between mental health (posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety disorder, and burnout) and intention to resign, and influencing factors regarding nurses involved with COVID-19 patients in A Prefecture as subjects.The design is a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study.Methods are conducted between August 4 and October 26, 2020. Basic attributes (gender, age, years of experience, etc.) were examined. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Maslach Burnout Inventory, "intent to resign," were used to collect data from nurses working at hospitals treating patients with COVID-19 in Japan.As a result, between 20% and 30% of nurses involved with patients with COVID-19 are in a state of high mental distress. Regarding the associations between psychiatric symptoms and intention to resign, "I want to quit being a nurse" was affected by "cynicism" and "professional efficacy"; "I want to change hospitals/wards" was affected by "cynicism"; and "subthreshold depression," "anxiety disorder," and "burnout" affected "I want to continue working as a nurse." The increase in the number of patients with COVID-19 was a factor affecting mental health and intention to resign. When the number of patients increased, anxiety disorders and intention to resign also increased. Damage from harmful rumors increased the severity of every psychiatric symptom. To prepare for a pandemic such as COVID-19, it is necessary in normal times to construct psychological support systems and community systems to prevent damage from harmful rumors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Intention , Nurses/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan , Job Satisfaction , Male , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychiatric Nursing/methods , Psychiatric Nursing/standards , Psychiatric Nursing/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(7): 491-496, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334305

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 epidemic has both physical and psychosocial consequences for the general population. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social dysfunction during the COVID-19 epidemic in Iran. This cross-sectional web-based study was conducted on 1000 Rafsanjani citizens in southeastern Iran. Data were collected by using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and the General Health Questionnaire from March 15 to March 30, 2020. The prevalence of GAD was 27.8%. The mean score of social functioning was 9.71 ± 2.66, and all participants had social dysfunction. Multivariate logistic regression test showed a significant correlation between anxiety and social functioning (confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.30; p < 0.001), sex (CI, 1.49-3.04; p < 0.001), and concern about COVID-19 (CI, 1.38-2.73; p < 0.001). The COVID-19 epidemic had negative psychosocial consequences in the general population in Iran.


Subject(s)
Anomie , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/ethnology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Young Adult
9.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(29): e214, 2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since its first case confirmed on January 20, 2020, Korea has been through three waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. Fears of the fourth wave persist as new cases continue to emerge. In such unpredictable times, the mental well-being of people is of crucial importance. This study examined the levels of depression and anxiety and their predictors among the Korean general public in Busan, Korea, during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study via a self-reported questionnaire administered to 2,288 adult residents (aged 19-60 years) of Busan, Korea. Participants' depression and anxiety were assessed using the Korean version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4), which consists of PHQ-2 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 (GAD-2), with the cutoff score of 3. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 39.71 years. COVID-19 had several psychosocial impacts on people. It was revealed that 80.3% had restrictions in outside activities, 47.3% reported financial difficulties, and 53.6% had a fear of death or fatal outcome when infected with COVID-19. We performed logistic regression analysis to identify the factors associated with depression and anxiety. A total of 30.7% participants were classified as at risk of depression based on cutoff score of 3 on PHQ-2. Logistic regression analysis revealed that changes in sleep pattern due to COVID-19 were most strongly associated with depression, followed by restrictions in outside activities due to social distancing and increased family conflicts due to COVID-19. Also, 22.6% participants were classified as at risk of anxiety based on a cutoff score of 3 on GAD-2. Analysis revealed that changes in sleep pattern due to COVID-19 were most strongly associated with anxiety, followed by spending a lot of time searching for COVID-19-related information and having a fear of death or fatal outcome when infected with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The results are alarming; 30.7% had a PHQ-2 score of 3 or higher, indicating depression, and 22.6% had a GAD-2 score of 3 or higher, indicating anxiety. Changes in sleep pattern had the strongest association with both depression and anxiety. Our results can be used to formulate mental health policies tailored to the context of the city. Our findings suggest the high prevalence of depression and anxiety in the society during the COVID-19 pandemic, which places growing importance on early intervention for mental health problems during these times.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire , Prevalence
11.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 8(1)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295211

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 has put a strain on regular healthcare worldwide. For inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), gastrointestinal surgeries were postponed and changes in treatment and diagnostic procedures were made. As abrupt changes in treatment regimens may result in an increased morbidity and consequent well-being of patients with IBD, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with IBD. DESIGN: All patients with IBD who completed both Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire between 31 August and 13 September 2020 were included in our cohort study. The primary end point was to determine the HRQoL in patients with IBD, measured by the IBDQ and SF-36 questionnaire. The secondary end point was determining which factors influence the HRQoL in patients with IBD. RESULTS: 582 patients with IBD filled in the IBDQ and SF-36 questionnaire. The HRQoL in our study population was low according to the questionnaires on both physical and mental subscales. In addition, multivariate analysis showed that increased age, female sex and patients who underwent surgery had a significantly lower HRQoL, most frequently on the physical domains in both questionnaires. CONCLUSION: Patients with IBD had an overall low HRQoL during the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, older patients, women and patients who underwent surgical procedures had the lowest physical HRQoL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/psychology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/physiopathology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Patient Health Questionnaire , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Time-to-Treatment , Young Adult
12.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(25): e168, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286068

ABSTRACT

This study explored the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-6 items (SAVE-6) scale for assessing people's anxiety in response to the viral epidemic in Lebanon. The 406 participants responded voluntarily to the online survey that included the SAVE-6, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) tools. The single-structure SAVE-6 model showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.773). The SAVE-6 scale also showed good convergent validity with the GAD-7 (Spearman's ρ = 0.42, P < 0.001) and PHQ-9 (ρ = 0.38, P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed an Arabic SAVE-6 cut-off score of 12 points (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.753; sensitivity = 62.74%; specificity = 78.26%) for an at least mild degree of anxiety (GAD-7 score ≥ 5). The Arabic version of the SAVE-6 was a reliable, valid, and solely usable scale for measuring the anxiety response of the general population to the viral epidemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/etiology , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychometrics , Quarantine/psychology , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Translations , Young Adult
14.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 224, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270926

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global status of the COVID-19 pandemic is not optimistic. This is a particularly vulnerable time for patients with pre-existing headache disorders. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on headache patients in China. METHODS: A survey was conducted through an online survey platform on June 6, 2020. Demographic characteristics, the PHQ-9, the ISI, a COVID-19 questionnaire and a headache profile survey were included in the online questionnaire. RESULTS: Eventually, a total of 15,000 participants from China completed the online questionnaire. Among them, 2806 participants had pre-existing headache disorders. Our analysis showed reductions in the duration of headaches (3.414 ± 6.859 vs 4.033 ± 7.325 h, P<0.001), number of headache days per month (1.788 ± 2.989 vs 2.092 ± 3.694, P<0.001), and headache intensity (4.110 ± 1.609 vs 4.290 ± 1.680, P<0.001) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Smoking (OR = 1.397, 95% CI 1.090 to 1.790, P = 0.008) and getting support from family members during social isolation (OR = 1.656, 95% CI 1.075 to 2.550, P = 0.022) were independent factors affecting the reduction in the duration of headaches. Education level (OR = 1.478, 95% CI 1.103 to 1.980, P = 0.009) and having a relative or acquaintance who contracted COVID-19 (OR = 0.643, 95% CI 0.458 to 0.902, P = 0.011) were the independent factors affecting the reduction in headache severity. Living in the Wuhan area, having symptoms or a diagnosis of COVID-19 and having relatives or acquaintances who had contracted COVID-19 were associated with the worsening of headaches. CONCLUSIONS: Participants experienced an overall trend towards the improvement of headaches during the COVID-19 pandemic. Family support might play an important role in the improvement of headaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Headache/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Health Questionnaire , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(7): e2469-e2479, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247625

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted healthcare environment. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of the pandemic on self-reported outcomes in patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI). DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective longitudinal survey study at 2 tertiary centers. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with AI. INTERVENTION: Patient-centered questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21, Short Form-36, and AI self-management. RESULTS: Of 342 patients, 157 (46%) had primary AI, 109 (32%) had secondary AI, and 76 (22%) had glucocorticoid-induced AI. When compared to prepandemic, daily glucocorticoid dose and number of adrenal crises did not change. However, patients reported a higher financial impact from AI (34% vs 23%, P = 0.006) and difficulty accessing medical care (31% vs 7%, P < 0.0001) during the pandemic. A third of patients reported difficulty managing AI during the pandemic. After adjusting for duration and subtypes of AI, younger patients [odds ratio (OR) 2.3, CI 95% 1.3-4.1], women (OR 3.7, CI 95% 1.9-7.1), poor healthcare access(OR 4.2, CI 95% 2.3-7.7), lack of good insurance support (OR 2.8, CI 95% 1.3-5.9), and those with a higher financial impact (OR 2.3, CI 95% 1.3-4.3) reported greater difficulties managing AI. Patients were more likely to report a higher anxiety score (≥8) if they found managing AI challenging during the pandemic (OR 3.0, CI 95% 1.3-6.9), and had lower Physical Component Summary (OR 4.9, CI 95% 2.2-11.0) and Mental Component Summary (OR 4.1, CI 95% 1.8-9.5) scores prior to the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: A third of patients with AI reported difficulties with management of AI during the pandemic, particularly in younger patients, women, and those with poor healthcare access.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Insufficiency/drug therapy , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Self-Management/statistics & numerical data , Adrenal Insufficiency/economics , Adrenal Insufficiency/psychology , Age Factors , Aged , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Female , Financial Stress/diagnosis , Financial Stress/epidemiology , Financial Stress/psychology , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/economics , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Health Questionnaire/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Self-Management/economics , Sex Factors , United States/epidemiology
17.
Nutr J ; 20(1): 45, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has impacted mental health globally, however, associations between anxiety and appetitive traits during the pandemic are unreported. This study evaluated anxiety symptom severity and associations with appetitive traits in students at a large public University in the U.S. during the pandemic. METHODS: Current undergraduate and graduate/professional students completed a cross-sectional survey in fall 2020. Demographic information, anxiety symptoms in the past 2 weeks assessed by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), and appetitive traits assessed by the Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire (AEBQ) were evaluated. Mean scores for eight AEBQ scales (four food approach and four food avoidance traits) were calculated. Differences in mean scores were examined between participants with moderate to severe anxiety symptoms (GAD-7 score ≥ 10) and those with mild to no anxiety symptoms (GAD-7 score < 10) via independent samples t-tests and effect sizes. Associations between GAD-7 score and individual appetitive traits were also examined, adjusting for age and gender. RESULTS: Of the 1243 students who completed the survey (57% undergraduates; mean age = 26.5 years), 51.9% reported moderate to severe anxiety symptoms. Groups experiencing the highest degree of moderate to severe anxiety symptoms included transgender, gender fluid, and other-gendered participants (73.6%); the youngest age group [18-20 years (62%)]; undergraduate students (60.7%); and Hispanic/Latinx participants (57.7%). Participants with moderate to severe anxiety symptoms had higher scores for most food approach and avoidance traits but lower scores for enjoyment of food than those with mild to no anxiety symptoms. Effect sizes were largest for hunger and emotional over-eating (Cohen's d = 0.31 and 0.30, respectively). Adjusting for age and gender, GAD-7 score was significantly and positively associated with hunger, emotional over-eating, food and satiety responsiveness, and food fussiness and negatively associated with enjoyment of food. CONCLUSIONS: Over half of students at a U.S. University reported moderate to severe anxiety symptoms during COVID-19. More severe anxiety symptoms were associated with increased hunger, emotional over-eating, and food and satiety responsiveness and decreased enjoyment of food. Universities must consider strategies to address anxiety, particularly in younger students; transgender, gender fluid, and students of other genders; and across race/ethnicities keeping in mind associations with appetitive traits.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Appetite , COVID-19/psychology , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Health Questionnaire , SARS-CoV-2 , Students/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Universities , Young Adult
18.
Sci Prog ; 104(2): 368504211014696, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216863

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a sudden, infectious disease that can be life-threatening and may cause people to feel panic and anxiety. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and psychological status of a specific population using an internet consultation platform during the outbreak of COVID-19. The questionnaire survey included questions regarding basic information (e.g. area, sex, age, occupation, and education level), clinical characteristics, and cognitive and psychological status concerning COVID-19 from January 31, 2020 to March 31, 2020. There were 277 patients (43.49%) with three or more symptoms, 121 (12.11%) with a clinical questionnaire score ≥8, and 6.81% who lived in Hubei in the previous 14 days. Of the respondents, 4.9% had contact fever or were confirmed to have COVID-19 in the previous 14 days. The respondents were mostly aware that COVID-19 can be transmitted from person to person and via the respiratory tract, but awareness of general susceptibility and specific symptoms of COVID-19 was low. Multivariate analysis showed that urban residents, clerk/students and higher education groups were well aware of COVID-19. Regarding mental health, the anxiety score of the respondents was 7.12 ± 2.32, and the proportion of anxiety was 54.15%. Younger women were more likely to have anxiety when they experienced positive symptoms. Individuals with a Hubei residence history and those who had contact with an individual with a fever or were confirmed patients in the previous 14 days were more likely to have moderate or severe anxiety. The COVID-19-related knowledge of the respondents was generally good but still could have been improved. Their psychological status was also affected by the pandemic. The internet consultation platform played a positive role in spreading pandemic-related information, providing medical help and psychological counseling, and strengthening early warning to the potential high-risk population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Health Questionnaire , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
19.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(1): 95-100, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are reports from countries and in the scientific literature that COVID-19 affect also mental health worldwide. The aim of this study was to understand the level of depression as a result of the COVID-19 situation and possible associations with sociodemographic variables. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: It's a cross-sectional study. The participants were 155 respondents recruited online in the period 27.04.2020 until 05.06.2020, who completed the Albanian version of PHQ-9. RESULTS: Mean score of depression resulted 10.94 (SD=9.22). 63% of participants agreed that the situation has worsened their psychological state; 35.6% had a mild to severe form of depression and 18.7% had minimal symptoms. 13.4% of participants saw iCBT as helpful, 16.8% a little while 65.8% wanted to try it. Significantly higher depression resulted for females and age-group 18 to 24 years. No significant differences by levels of education, marital status, employment, socio-economic status and by expectations regarding iCBT. Gender and perception of worsened psychological state showed predictive abilities for depression. CONCLUSION: The situation with Covid-19 has increased depression levels especially among females and 18 to 24 years old and thus expectations for e-psychotherapy. Online treatments seem feasible solutions for outbreak times. Studies in future are needed to better scientifically elaborate these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Health Questionnaire , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Kosovo , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
Trials ; 21(1): 1019, 2020 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Burnout is an occupational syndrome that leads to mental health problems, job turnover, and patient safety events. Those caring for critically ill patients are especially susceptible due to high patient mortality, long hours, and regular encounters with trauma and ethical issues. Interventions to prevent burnout in this population are needed. Preliminary studies suggest debriefing sessions may reduce burnout. This study aims to assess whether participation in regular debriefing can prevent burnout in intensive care unit (ICU) clinicians. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial will be conducted in two large academic medical centers. Two hundred ICU clinicians will be recruited with target enrollment of 100 physicians and 100 non-physicians (nurses, pharmacists, therapists). Participants must have worked in the ICU for the equivalent of at least 1 full time work week in the preceding 4 weeks. Enrolled subjects will be randomized to virtually attend biweekly debriefing sessions facilitated by a psychotherapist for 3 months or to a control arm without sessions. Our debriefs are modeled after Death Cafés, which are informal discussions focusing on death, dying, loss, grief, and illness. These sessions allow for reflection on distressing events and offer community and collaboration among hospital employees outside of work. The primary outcome is clinician burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) Score. Secondary outcomes include depression and anxiety, as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire 8 (PHQ-8) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7), respectively. Questionnaires will be administered prior to the intervention, at 1 month, at 3 months, and at 6 months after enrollment. These values will be compared between groups temporally. Qualitative feedback will also be collected and analyzed. DISCUSSION: With ICU clinician burnout rates exceeding 50%, Death Café debriefing sessions may prove to be an effective tool to avert this debilitating syndrome. With COVID-19 limiting social interactions and overloading ICUs worldwide, the virtual administration of the Death Café for ICU clinicians provides an innovative strategy to potentially mitigate burnout in this vulnerable population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04347811 . Registered on 15 April 2020.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Stress/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Terminal Care/psychology , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Awareness/physiology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Communication , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Patient Health Questionnaire/statistics & numerical data , Patient Safety/statistics & numerical data , Personnel Turnover/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , User-Computer Interface
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