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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264644, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793511

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with high-consequence infectious diseases (HCID) are rare in Western Europe. However, high-level isolation units (HLIU) must always be prepared for patient admission. Case fatality rates of HCID can be reduced by providing optimal intensive care management. We here describe a single centre's preparation, its embedding in the national context and the challenges we faced during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. METHODS: Ten team leaders organize monthly whole day trainings for a team of doctors and nurses from the HLIU focusing on intensive care medicine. Impact and relevance of training are assessed by a questionnaire and a perception survey, respectively. Furthermore, yearly exercises with several partner institutions are performed to cover different real-life scenarios. Exercises are evaluated by internal and external observers. Both training sessions and exercises are accompanied by intense feedback. RESULTS: From May 2017 monthly training sessions were held with a two-month and a seven-month break due to the first and second wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, respectively. Agreement with the statements of the questionnaire was higher after training compared to before training indicating a positive effect of training sessions on competence. Participants rated joint trainings for nurses and doctors at regular intervals as important. Numerous issues with potential for improvement were identified during post processing of exercises. Action plans for their improvement were drafted and as of now mostly implemented. The network of the permanent working group of competence and treatment centres for HCID (Ständiger Arbeitskreis der Kompetenz- und Behandlungszentren für Krankheiten durch hochpathogene Erreger (STAKOB)) at the Robert Koch-Institute (RKI) was strengthened throughout the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. DISCUSSION: Adequate preparation for the admission of patients with HCID is challenging. We show that joint regular trainings of doctors and nurses are appreciated and that training sessions may improve perceived skills. We also show that real-life scenario exercises may reveal additional deficits, which cannot be easily disclosed in training sessions. Although the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic interfered with our activities the enhanced cooperation among German HLIU during the pandemic ensured constant readiness for the admission of HCID patients to our or to collaborating HLIU. This is a single centre's experience, which may not be generalized to other centres. However, we believe that our work may address aspects that should be considered when preparing a unit for the admission of patients with HCID. These may then be adapted to the local situations.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/therapy , Critical Care/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Patient Isolation/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Competence , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Education, Medical, Continuing/methods , Education, Medical, Continuing/organization & administration , Education, Nursing, Continuing/methods , Education, Nursing, Continuing/organization & administration , Environment Design , Germany/epidemiology , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Patient Isolation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Simulation Training/organization & administration , Workflow
3.
J Contin Educ Nurs ; 53(2): 70-76, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to implement an educational intervention on an inpatient, behavioral health care unit with the goal of reducing the number of crisis interventions of seclusion or restraint. METHOD: A quasi-experimental pretest and posttest design using De-escalate Anyone, Anywhere, Anytime training was employed with a focus of an increased understanding of a range of de-escalation techniques to use instead of restraint and seclusion. RESULTS: A convenience sample of 21 mental health employees participated in the training. The rates of restraint declined from a mean of 6 preintervention to 2 postintervention. The number of seclusions on the designated unit declined from a mean of 4.33 preintervention to a mean of 1.667 postintervention. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that an educational intervention to increase the knowledge of direct care staff in a broad range of de-escalation techniques resulted in a reduction in the use of restraint and seclusion. Ongoing training for nursing staff may reassure them of the efficacy of alternative methods for dealing with aggressive patients. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2022;53(2):70-76.].


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Patient Isolation , Hospitals, Psychiatric , Humans , Inpatients , Mental Disorders/therapy , Restraint, Physical
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261381, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638694

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has brought forth a major landscape shock in the mobility sector. Due to its recentness, researchers have just started studying and understanding the implications of this crisis on mobility. We contribute by combining mobility data from various sources to bring a novel angle to understanding mobility patterns during Covid-19. The goal is to expose relations between mobility and Covid-19 variables and understand them by using our data. This is crucial information for governments to understand and address the underlying root causes of the impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Marketing/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Isolation/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology
5.
Am J Nurs ; 122(2): 36-43, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625512

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic has created unique challenges for health care workers, who have demonstrated dedication, collaboration, and innovation in response. In this article, the authors describe an important nursing innovation they employed at Montefiore Medical Center in the Bronx, New York, during the spring 2020 COVID-19 surge: the relocation of smart IV infusion pumps outside of patient rooms. The goals of this innovation were to improve delivery of care, conserve personal protective equipment, limit the spread of the virus, and protect staff from exposure. The authors discuss the initial concerns that arose regarding the safety and efficacy of this practice; the research they conducted with other colleagues in nursing, pharmacy, infection control, and patient safety in the face of scant clinical literature relevant to the difficult circumstances the pandemic created; and the strategies they ultimately employed to ensure that this practice maintained safety and efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infusion Pumps , Patient Isolation/methods , Patients' Rooms/organization & administration , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(47): e27948, 2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605804

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: South Korean studies on coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) treatment have described the use of community treatment centers (CTCs), which combine elements of the home and hospital, to isolate and treat mild COVID-19 patients. While the number of South Koreans diagnosed with COVID-19 cases has varied greatly by season, the number of confirmed cases in foreign nationals has shown no seasonality, with an average of around 25 to 30 per day. For foreign patients, accommodation arrangements and travel routes may be difficult; they may also have difficulty accessing medical care, so require careful management.We discuss our experience in operating and managing a CTC for foreign COVID-19 patients arriving in South Korea with mild symptoms. We also propose guidelines for efficient use of resources with respect to treating these patients in CTCs.We present the clinical findings of patients treated at the CTC between 7 October and 22 November 2020, and make some recommendations. We quarantined and treated foreign patients with mild symptoms of COVID-19 at the Ansan CTC. Discharge is determined based on clinical symptoms rather than polymerase chain reaction results. Medical and administrative staff use building A, while building B is used for isolating patients. Medical rounds are in the form of twice-daily video calls. Three kinds of foods with medication are served according to the patient's country of origin.In total, 315 patients were admitted to the Ansan CTC between 7 October and 22 November 2020; 145 of them were discharged from the CTC and 26 were transferred to other hospitals.To utilize medical resources efficiently during the pandemic, it is desirable to reserve CTCs exclusively for foreign patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Health Centers/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Isolation/methods , Patient Transfer , Telemedicine/methods , Humans , Quarantine/methods , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2
7.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247949, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575332

ABSTRACT

AIM: In spring 2020, the first Covid-19-related lockdown included the closing of kindergartens and schools. Home schooling, the lack of social contacts with peers and the care of the children at home posed an enormous challenge for many families. METHODS: The present study investigated the leisure behavior of 285 one- to 10-year-old German children at two time points (t1 and t2) during the Covid-19-related lockdown in spring 2020. In the subsample of primary school children (n = 102), we also explored children's attitudes towards schoolwork at home. Analyses focused on the change of behavior from t1 to t2, on differences in these changes depending on socio-economic status (SES), and on associations of behavior with SES, the number of children at home, and the frequency of receiving learning materials from school. RESULTS: While the frequency of playing outside increased significantly from t1 to t2, the frequency of handicrafts, playing board games, indoor sports, and motivation to do schoolwork decreased. The observed changes between t1 and t2 did not differ depending on SES. However, a lower SES was associated with higher media use, less outdoor activity, and (though only marginally significant) a reduced time doing schoolwork and a reduced ability to concentrate on schoolwork at t1. In households with more children, children played outside more often, but were read to less frequently and (though only marginally significant) watched movies and series less frequently. Children receiving learning materials from school on a regular basis spent significantly more time doing schoolwork at home than children receiving materials only irregularly. CONCLUSIONS: A continuing loss of childcare in day-care facilities and schools entails the danger of declining education in the form of (inter)active indoor activities and schoolwork.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Learning , Leisure Activities , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child Care , Child Day Care Centers , Child Health/statistics & numerical data , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Behavior/classification , Humans , Infant , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Isolation , Schools , Social Class , Social Isolation , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Sports/statistics & numerical data
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25518, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has necessitated the implementation of innovative health care models in preparation for an influx of patients. A virtual ward model delivers clinical care remotely to patients in isolation. We report on an Australian cohort of patients with COVID-19 treated in a virtual ward. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate the safety and efficacy of a virtual ward model of care for an Australian cohort of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Retrospective clinical assessment was performed for 223 patients with confirmed COVID-19 treated in a virtual ward in Brisbane, Australia, from March 25 to May 15, 2020. Statistical analysis was performed for variables associated with the length of stay and hospitalization. RESULTS: Of 223 patients, 205 (92%) recovered without the need for escalation to hospital care. The median length of stay in the virtual ward was 8 days (range 1-44 days). In total, 18 (8%) patients were referred to hospital, of which 6 (33.3%) were discharged after assessment at the emergency department. Furthermore, 12 (5.4%) patients were admitted to hospital, of which 4 (33.3%) required supplemental oxygen and 2 (16.7%) required mechanical ventilation. No deaths were recorded. Factors associated with escalation to hospital care were the following: hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% CI 1.28-9.87; P=.01), sputum production (OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.74-15.49; P=.001), and arthralgia (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.21-11.71; P=.02) at illness onset and a polymerase chain reaction cycle threshold of ≤20 on a diagnostic nasopharyngeal swab (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.25-19.63; P=.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that a virtual ward model of care to treat patients with COVID-19 is safe and efficacious, and only a small number of patients would potentially require escalation to hospital care. Further studies are required to validate this model of care.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Patient Isolation , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Australia , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Disease Management , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Nursing Assessment , Patient Discharge , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Telephone , Young Adult
9.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E1114-E1119, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547694

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The detailed extent of neuroinvasion or deleterious brain changes resulting from COVID-19 and their time courses remain to be determined in relation to "long-haul" COVID-19 symptoms. Our objective is to determine whether there are alterations in functional brain imaging measures among people with COVID-19 after hospital discharge or self-isolation. METHODS: This paper describes a protocol for NeuroCOVID-19, a longitudinal observational study of adults aged 20-75 years at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto, Ontario, that began in April 2020. We aim to recruit 240 adults, 60 per group: people who contracted COVID-19 and were admitted to hospital (group 1), people who contracted COVID-19 and self-isolated (group 2), people who experienced influenza-like symptoms at acute presentation but tested negative for COVID-19 and self-isolated (group 3, control) and healthy people (group 4, control). Participants are excluded based on premorbid neurologic or severe psychiatric illness, unstable cardiovascular disease, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contraindications. Initial and 3-month follow-up assessments include multiparametric brain MRI and electroencephalography. Sensation and cognition are assessed alongside neuropsychiatric assessments and symptom self-reports. We will test the data from the initial and follow-up assessments for group differences based on 3 outcome measures: MRI cerebral blood flow, MRI resting state fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation and electroencephalography spectral power. INTERPRETATION: If neurophysiologic alterations are detected in the COVID-19 groups in our NeuroCOVID-19 study, this information could inform future research regarding interventions for long-haul COVID-19. The study results will be disseminated to scientists, clinicians and COVID-19 survivors, as well as the public and private sectors to provide context on how brain measures relate to lingering symptoms.


Subject(s)
Brain/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Patient Discharge , Adult , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Electroencephalography/methods , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario , Patient Isolation/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
10.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 164, 2021 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538091

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Few studies have investigated the contamination of personal protective equipment (PPE) during the management of patients with severe-to-critical coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This study aimed to determine the necessity of coveralls and foot covers for body protection during the management of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: PPE samples were collected from the coveralls of physicians exiting a room after the management of a patient with severe-to-critical COVID-19 within 14 days after the patient's symptom onset. The surface of coveralls was categorized into coverall-only parts (frontal surface of the head, anterior neck, dorsal surface of the foot cover, and back and hip) and gown-covered parts (the anterior side of the forearm and the abdomen). Sampling of the high-contact surfaces in the patient's environment was performed. We attempted to identify significant differences in contamination with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) between the coverall-only and gown-covered parts. RESULTS: A total of 105 swabs from PPEs and 28 swabs from patient rooms were collected. Of the PPE swabs, only three (2.8%) swabs from the gown-covered parts were contaminated with SARS-CoV-2. However, 23 of the 28 sites (82.1%) from patient rooms were contaminated. There was a significant difference in the contamination of PPE between the coverall-only and gown-covered parts (0.0 vs 10.0%, p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: Coverall contamination rarely occurred while managing severe-to-critical COVID-19 patients housed in negative pressure rooms in the early stages of the illness. Long-sleeved gowns may be used in the management of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Protective Clothing , Humans , Patient Isolation , Patients' Rooms , Physicians
11.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0085521, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522920

ABSTRACT

Current guidelines for patient isolation in COVID-19 cases recommend a symptom-based approach, averting the use of control real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) testing. However, we hypothesized that patients with persistently positive results by RT-PCR for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) could be potentially infectious for a prolonged time, even if immunocompetent and asymptomatic, which would demand a longer social isolation period than presently recommended. To test this hypothesis, 72 samples from 51 mildly symptomatic immunocompetent patients with long-lasting positive rRT-PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 were tested for their infectiousness in cell culture. The serological response of samples from those patients and virus genomic integrity were also analyzed. Infectious viruses were successfully isolated from 34.38% (22/64) of nasopharynx samples obtained 14 days or longer after symptom onset. Indeed, we observed successful virus isolation up to 128 days. Complete SARS-COV-2 genome integrity was demonstrated, suggesting the presence of replication-competent viruses. No correlation was found between the isolation of infectious viruses and rRT-PCR cycle threshold values or the humoral immune response. These findings call attention to the need to review current isolation guidelines, particularly in scenarios involving high-risk individuals. IMPORTANCE In this study, we evaluated mildly symptomatic immunocompetent patients with long-lasting positive rRT-PCR results for SARS-CoV-2. Infectious viruses were successfully isolated in cell cultures from nasopharynx samples obtained 14 days or longer after symptom onset. Indeed, we observed successful virus isolation for up to 128 days. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 genome integrity was demonstrated by sequencing, suggesting the presence of replication-competent viruses. These data point out the risk of continuous SARS-CoV-2 transmission from patients with prolonged detection of SARS-CoV-2 in the upper respiratory tract, which has important implications for current precaution guidelines, particularly in settings where vulnerable individuals may be exposed (e.g., nursing homes and hospitals).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Patient Isolation , Viral Load , Viral Proteins/isolation & purification , Virus Shedding
12.
Australas Psychiatry ; 30(1): 23-25, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506206

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Managing mental health patients during the COVID-19 pandemic has been a global challenge. Current workforce arrangements tend to separate those skilled in caring for highly infectious medical patients from those whose specialism is in managing co-morbid mental health, substance misuse and/or behaviours of concern, including potential non-compliance with community or health care directives. This paper reports an innovative service development through the emergency establishment of a temporary COVID-positive mental health ward in response to a local outbreak in Melbourne. METHOD: A case study of service reorientation is presented, examining barriers and enablers to effective care of co-morbid mental illness, addiction and COVID-19. RESULTS: Establishing a skilled multidisciplinary workforce across mental health and infectious disease is the most important consideration in optimising care. Other issues included suitable physical space, security arrangements and inter-disciplinary communication. CONCLUSIONS: The paper holds insights for managing mental health care during potential future infectious disease outbreaks across the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders/complications , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Comorbidity , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Patient Isolation , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(28): e26634, 2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494087

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Emergency departments (EDs) are on the frontline of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. To resolve the abrupt overloading of COVID-19-suspected patients in a community, each ED needs to respond in various ways. In our hospital, we increased the isolation beds through temporary remodeling and by performing in-hospital COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction testing rather than outsourcing them. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of our response to the newly developed viral outbreak.The medical records of patients who presented to an ED were analyzed retrospectively. We divided the study period into 3: pre-COVID-19, transition period of response (the period before fully implementing the response measures), and post-response (the period after complete response). We compared the parameters of the National Emergency Department Information System and information about isolation and COVID-19.The number of daily ED patients was 86.8 ±â€Š15.4 in the pre-COVID-19, 36.3 ±â€Š13.6 in the transition period, and 67.2 ±â€Š10.0 in the post-response period (P < .001). The lengths of stay in the ED were significantly higher in transition period than in the other periods [pre-COVID-19 period, 219.0 (121.0-378.0) min; transition period, 301 (150.0-766.5) min; post-response period, 281.0 (114.0-575.0) min; P < .001]. The ratios of use of an isolation room and fever (≥37.5°C) were highest in the post-response period [use of isolation room: pre-COVID-19 period, 0.6 (0.7%); transition period, 1.2 (3.3%); post-response period, 16.1 (24.0%); P < .001; fever: pre-COVID-19 period, 14.8(17.3%); transition period, 6.8 (19.1%); post-response period, 14.5 (21.9%), P < .001].During an outbreak of a novel infectious disease, increasing the number of isolation rooms in the ED and applying a rapid confirmation test would enable the accommodation of more suspected patients, which could help reduce the risk posed to the community and thus prevent strain on the local emergency medical system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Continuity of Patient Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Isolation/statistics & numerical data , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int J Hematol ; 114(6): 709-718, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474138

ABSTRACT

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests cannot always detect the SARS-CoV-2 virus, possibly due to differences in sensitivity between sample types. Under these circumstances, immunochromatography may serve as an alternative method to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies that indicate a history of infection. In our analysis of patients with severe COVID-19 infection, we found that 14 of 19 serum samples were positive for IgG antibodies, whereas 6 of 10 samples from patients with asymptomatic or mild cases were negative. Two patients with immune thrombocytopenia who were treated with prednisolone experienced aggressive COVID-19-related respiratory failure and eventually died. Patients not in remission and those who received steroid-based chemotherapy had a higher risk of death, and patients with lymphoid malignancies including lymphoma and myeloma died in larger numbers than those with myeloid malignancies. A stricter cohorting strategy based on repeat PCR tests or isolation to a private room should be adopted in routine care in hematology departments to prevent viral spread to the environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hematologic Diseases/therapy , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Hematologic Diseases/mortality , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infection Control/methods , Japan , Male , Patient Isolation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
17.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(10): 2791-2792, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467579
19.
BMJ Mil Health ; 166(1): 37-41, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452951

ABSTRACT

Major disease outbreaks continue to be a significant risk to public health, with pandemic influenza or an emerging infectious disease outbreak at the top of the UK National Risk Register. The risk of deliberate release of a biological agent is lower but remains possible and may only be recognised after casualties seek medical attention. In this context the emergency preparedness, resilience and response (EPRR) process protects the public from high consequence infectious diseases, other infectious disease outbreaks and biological agent release. The core elements of the EPRR response are recognition of an outbreak, isolation of patients, appropriate personal protective equipment for medical staff and actions to minimise further disease spread. The paper discusses how high-threat agents may be recognised by clinicians, the initial actions to be taken on presentation and how the public health system is notified and responds. It draws on the national pandemic influenza plans to describe the wider response to a major disease outbreak and discusses training requirements and the potential role of the military.


Subject(s)
Biohazard Release , Civil Defense , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Military Personnel , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health Practice , Biohazard Release/prevention & control , Civil Defense/education , Communicable Disease Control , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Disaster Planning , Disease Notification , Humans , Influenza, Human/therapy , Interinstitutional Relations , Patient Isolation , Personal Protective Equipment , United Kingdom
20.
Saudi Med J ; 42(10): 1095-1102, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456562

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of home isolation on feelings and behaviors of children aged 6-14 years during COVID-19 pandemic in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between June and August 2020 in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. A snowball sampling was applied, parents with children aged 6-14 years participated in this survey (N=361). questionnaires were distributed electronically. RESULTS: Four out of ten children reported severe psychological impact on feelings (41.3%), while a majority of the children demonstrated mild psychological impact on behavior (74.8%). Age was associated with risk of psychological impact on behavior (OR: 7.24, 95% CI: 1.35-16.18). Being male was associated with risk of psychological impact on feelings (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 0.67-6.43), and behavior (OR: 3.50, 95% CI: 0.42-6.00). Living in a small house or without an outside play area was associated with risk of psychological impact on feelings and behaviors. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that children experienced mild-to-severe psychological impact on behaviors and feelings during home isolation during COVID-19 pandemic. Priority should be given to boys, older age, children of low-income families, living in small houses and those without outside play areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Patient Isolation , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
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