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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264633, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In low-income countries, vaccination campaigns are lagging, and evidence on vaccine acceptance, a crucial public health planning input, remains scant. This is the first study that reports willingness to take COVID-19 vaccines and its socio-demographic correlates in Ethiopia, Africa's second most populous country. METHODS: The analysis is based on a nationally representative survey data of 2,317 households conducted in the informal economy in November 2020. It employs two logistic regression models where the two outcome variables are (i) a household head's willingness to take a COVID-19 vaccine or not, and (ii) if yes if they would also hypothetically pay (an unspecified amount) for it or not. Predictors include age, gender, education, marital status, income category, health insurance coverage, sickness due to COVID-19, chronic illness, trust in government, prior participation in voluntary activities, urban residence. RESULTS: Willingness to take the vaccine was high (88%) and significantly associated with COVID-19 cases in the family, trust in government and pro-social behavior. All other predictors such as gender, education, income, health insurance, chronic illness, urban residence did not significantly predict vaccine willingness at the 5% level. Among those willing to take the vaccine, 33% also answered that they would hypothetically pay (an unspecified amount) for it, an answer that is significantly associated with trust in government, health insurance coverage and income. CONCLUSION: The results highlight both opportunities and challenges. There is little evidence of vaccine hesitancy in Ethiopia among household heads operating in the informal economy. The role played by trust in government and pro-social behavior in motivating this outcome suggests that policy makers need to consider these factors in the planning of COVID-19 vaccine campaigns in order to foster vaccine uptake. At the same time, as the willingness to hypothetically pay for a COVID-19 vaccine seems to be small, fairly-priced vaccines along with financial support are also needed to ensure further uptake of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Attitude to Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Income/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Participation/psychology , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Poverty , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination , /statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Young Adult
2.
Vaccine ; 40(26): 3566-3572, 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778489

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors associated with the intention to participate in COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials in the Peruvian population. METHODS: Cross-sectional study and secondary analysis of a database that involved Peruvian population during September 2020. The Poisson regression model was used to estimate the associated factors. RESULTS: Data from 3231 individuals were analyzed, 44.1% of whom intended to participate in COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials. Factors associated with the outcome were being male (RPa: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.15-1.35), being from the highlands region (RPa: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.09-1.28) or jungle (RPa: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.15-1.47), having a relative that is a healthcare professional (PRa: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06-1.28), using a medical source of information (PRa: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.17-1.41), and trusting in the possible effectiveness of vaccines (PRa: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.29-1.51). The main reason for not participating in the trial was the possibility of developing side effects (69.80%). CONCLUSION: There is an urgent need to generate a perception of safety in COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials, to increase the population's intention to participate in these studies, and to provide evidence-based information about the vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Intention , Patient Participation , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Participation/psychology , Peru/epidemiology
3.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 27(10): 1703-1705, 2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740876

ABSTRACT

The recent emergency use authorization of a third COVID-19 vaccine means that most patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) will soon be eligible to be vaccinated. Gastroenterology clinicians should be prepared to address patients' concerns regarding safety and efficacy of vaccines. They should also strongly recommend that all their patients be vaccinated with a COVID-19 vaccine. Additionally, they should be prepared to educate patients about logistics that will result in successful vaccination completion. All these measures will be crucial to ensure high uptake among their patients with IBD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Gastroenterologists , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Vaccination , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/psychology , Patient Participation/methods , Patient Participation/psychology , Physician's Role , Preventive Health Services , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination Coverage/methods
4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(2)2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707264

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The need to rapidly identify safe and efficacious drug therapies for COVID-19 has resulted in the implementation of multiple clinical trials investigating potential treatment options. These are being undertaken in an unprecedented research environment and at a higher speed than ever before. It is unclear how West African communities perceive such activities and how such perceptions influence participation in COVID-19 clinical trials. This qualitative study was conducted to assess the level of acceptability of a clinical trial on the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 in The Gambia and identify strategies to better engage communities in participating in such a trial. METHODS: Data were collected using digitally recorded semistructured interviews (SSIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) in Brikama and Kanifing local government areas. These are two of the most densely populated administrative subdivisions in The Gambia, where the clinical trial was to be implemented by the MRC Unit The Gambia. 26 men and 22 women aged between 19 and 70 years, with diverse socioeconomic profiles, participated in 8 FGDs (n=36) and 12 SSIs (n=12). Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. RESULTS: Fear of stigmatisation of patients with COVID-19 was a recurring theme in most FGDs and SSIs, with detrimental effects on willingness to accept COVID-19 testing and home visits to follow up patients with COVID-19 and their household contacts. Preserving the privacy of individuals enrolled in the study was key to potentially increase trial participation. Trust in the implementing institution and its acknowledged expertise were facilitators to accepting the administration of investigational products to sick individuals and their close contacts. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is a stigmatising disease. Developing a research-participant collaboration through an ongoing engagement with community members is crucial to a successful enrolment in COVID-19 clinical trials. Trust and acknowledged expertise of the implementing institution are key facilitators to foster such collaboration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Gambia , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Participation/psychology , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20 Suppl 3: 9-13, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) care programs in the United States rapidly adopted telehealth during the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding factors that promote or impede telehealth will inform planning for future telehealth-enabled care models. METHODS: Adult, pediatric, and affiliate CF care programs in the United States (n = 287) were surveyed twice eight months apart in 2020-2021 about telehealth use. Programs were asked to describe barriers to and promoters of telehealth. RESULTS: Ninety-seven percent of programs provided telehealth services. In the first CF Care Program State of Care Survey (SoC1), programs estimated that 57% of patients exclusively received in-person care, 36% of patients received telehealth by phone/computer with video, and 8% of patients received telephone-only care. In the second CF Care Program State of Care Survey (SoC2), programs estimated that 80% of visits were in-person and 15% were via audio and video telehealth. Pediatric programs (21%) were less likely than adult (37%) or affiliate (41%) programs to recommend telehealth (p = 0.007). All programs ranked lack of internet access as the highest barrier to patient engagement with telehealth. Promoters of telehealth were increased accessibility and avoidance of infection transmission. Top ranked changes to improve telehealth were expanded provision of remote monitoring devices and technology access. Similar proportions of program types anticipated institutional telehealth expansion. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, CF programs in the United States identified factors to improve future care delivery via telehealth. Targeting specific barriers and promoters will improve the use and quality of telehealth throughout the care center network.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication Barriers , Cystic Fibrosis , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility , Patient Participation , Telemedicine , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Cystic Fibrosis/psychology , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Female , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Humans , Internet Access , Male , Needs Assessment , Patient Participation/methods , Patient Participation/psychology , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Quality Improvement , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards , United States/epidemiology
6.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20 Suppl 3: 23-28, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic forced cystic fibrosis (CF) care programs to rapidly shift from in-person care delivery to telehealth. Our objective was to provide a qualitative exploration of facilitators and barriers to: 1) implementing high-quality telehealth and 2) navigating reimbursement for telehealth services. METHODS: We used data from the 2020 State of Care CF Program Survey (n=286 U.S. care programs) administered in August-September to identify two cohorts of programs, with variation in telehealth quality (n=12 programs) and reimbursement (n=8 programs). We conducted focus groups and semi-structured interviews with CF program directors and coordinators in December 2020, approximately 9 months from onset of the pandemic. We used the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to identify facilitators and barriers of implementation, and inductive thematic analysis to identify facilitators and barriers of reimbursement. RESULTS: Factors differentiating programs with greater and lower perceived telehealth quality included telehealth characteristics (perceived advantage over in-person care, cost, platform quality); external influences (needs and resources of those served by the CF program), characteristics of the CF program (compatibility with workflows, relative priority, available resources); characteristics of team members (individual stage of change), and processes for implementation (engaging patients and teams). Reimbursement barriers included documentation to optimize billing; reimbursement of multi-disciplinary team members, remote monitoring, and telephone-only telehealth; and lower volume of patients. CONCLUSIONS: A number of factors are associated with successful implementation and reimbursement of telehealth. Future efforts should provide guidance and incentives that support telehealth delivery and infrastructure, share best practices across CF programs, and remove barriers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication Barriers , Cystic Fibrosis , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility , Patient Participation , Telemedicine , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Cystic Fibrosis/psychology , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Humans , Needs Assessment , Patient Participation/methods , Patient Participation/psychology , Qualitative Research , Quality Improvement , Reimbursement Mechanisms , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/economics , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/standards , United States/epidemiology
7.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20 Suppl 3: 41-46, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, CF centers shifted to a telehealth delivery model. Our study aimed to determine how people with CF (PwCF) and their families experienced telehealth and assessed its quality and acceptability for future CF care. METHODS: The CF Patient and Family State of Care Survey (PFSoC) was fielded from August 31-October 30, 2020. The PFSoC explored themes of overall telehealth quality, ease of use, desirability, and preference for a future mix of in-person and telehealth care. Demographic covariates considered included: gender, age, CFTR modulator status, and region of residence. RESULTS: 424 PwCF and parents of PwCF responded (47% parents). Most (81%) reported a telehealth visit which included a MD/APP and nurse team members. 91% found telehealth easy to use, and 66% reported similar/higher quality than in-person care. One-third (34%) reported the highest desire for future telehealth care, with 45% (n =212) desiring 50% or more of visits conducted via telehealth. Adults were more likely than parents to report highest desire for future telehealth (64% vs. 36%). Respondents who perceived telehealth as similar/higher quality were more likely to desire future telehealth compared to those who perceived telehealth as lower quality (96% vs. 50%). Mixed methods analysis revealed themes affecting perceptions of telehealth. CONCLUSIONS: PwCF desire for future telehealth was influenced by perception of quality and age. Several themes emerged that need to be explored as telehealth is adapted into the CF chronic care model, especially when thinking about integration into pediatric care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication Barriers , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Cystic Fibrosis , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Telemedicine , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Cystic Fibrosis/psychology , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Family Health , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Humans , Models, Organizational , Patient Participation/methods , Patient Participation/psychology , Pediatrics/methods , Pediatrics/trends , Quality Improvement , Quality of Health Care/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards , United States/epidemiology
8.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(1): 102361, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vaccine hesitancy is an ongoing major challenge. We aimed to assess the uptake and hesitancy of the COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: A short online survey was posted between April 12 to July 31, 2021 targeted at health and social care workers (HCWs) across the globe. RESULTS: 275 from 37 countries responded. Most were hospital or primary care physicians or nurses, 59% women, aged 18-60 years, and 21% had chronic conditions with most prevalent being diabetes, hypertension, and asthma. We found that most HCWs (93%) had taken or willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. While 7% were vaccine hesitant (mainly women aged 30-39 years), respondents main concerns was the safety or potential side effects. Vaccine willing respondents raised concerns of unequal access to the COVID-19 vaccination in some countries, and highlighted that the only solution to overcoming COVID-19 infections was the vaccine booster doses given annually and free mass vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the majority of the frontline HCWs are willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Further promotion of the COVID-19 vaccine would reassure and persuade HCWs to become vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel , Social Workers , Adolescent , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , Culture , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Geography , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Participation/psychology , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Social Workers/psychology , Social Workers/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , /statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
9.
Med Care ; 59(12): 1067-1074, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The increase in telehealth in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic highlights the need to understand patients' capacity to utilize this care modality. Patient portals are a tool whose use requires similar resources and skills as those required for telehealth. Patients' capacity to use patient portals may therefore provide insight regarding patients' readiness and capacity to use telehealth. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine factors related to patients' capacity to use a patient portal and test the impact of these factors on patients' portal use. RESEARCH DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Using data from a large-scale pragmatic randomized controlled trial of patient portal use, 1081 hospitalized patients responded to survey items that were then mapped onto the 4 dimensions of the Engagement Capacity Framework: self-efficacy, resources, willingness, and capabilities. MEASURES: The outcome variable was frequency of outpatient portal use. We evaluated associations between Engagement Capacity Framework dimensions and patient portal use, using regression analyses. RESULTS: Patients with fewer resources, fewer capabilities, lower willingness, and lower overall capacity to use patient portals used the portal less; in contrast, those with lower perceived self-efficacy used the portal more. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight differences in patients' capacity to use patient portals, which provide an initial understanding of factors that may influence the use of telehealth and offer important guidance in efforts to support patients' telehealth use. Offering patients training tailored to the use of telehealth tools may be particularly beneficial.


Subject(s)
Patient Participation/psychology , Patient Portals , Telemedicine , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Psychological , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Self Efficacy , Self-Assessment , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
11.
Med Care ; 59(12): 1067-1074, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The increase in telehealth in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic highlights the need to understand patients' capacity to utilize this care modality. Patient portals are a tool whose use requires similar resources and skills as those required for telehealth. Patients' capacity to use patient portals may therefore provide insight regarding patients' readiness and capacity to use telehealth. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine factors related to patients' capacity to use a patient portal and test the impact of these factors on patients' portal use. RESEARCH DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Using data from a large-scale pragmatic randomized controlled trial of patient portal use, 1081 hospitalized patients responded to survey items that were then mapped onto the 4 dimensions of the Engagement Capacity Framework: self-efficacy, resources, willingness, and capabilities. MEASURES: The outcome variable was frequency of outpatient portal use. We evaluated associations between Engagement Capacity Framework dimensions and patient portal use, using regression analyses. RESULTS: Patients with fewer resources, fewer capabilities, lower willingness, and lower overall capacity to use patient portals used the portal less; in contrast, those with lower perceived self-efficacy used the portal more. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight differences in patients' capacity to use patient portals, which provide an initial understanding of factors that may influence the use of telehealth and offer important guidance in efforts to support patients' telehealth use. Offering patients training tailored to the use of telehealth tools may be particularly beneficial.


Subject(s)
Patient Participation/psychology , Patient Portals , Telemedicine , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Psychological , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Self Efficacy , Self-Assessment , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
13.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257880, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating impact on healthcare systems and care delivery, changing the context for patient and family engagement activities. Given the critical contribution of such activities in achieving health system quality goals, we undertook to address the question: What is known about work that has been done on patient engagement activities during the pandemic? OBJECTIVE: To examine peer-reviewed and grey literature to identify the range of patient engagement activities, broadly defined (inclusive of engagement to support clinical care to partnerships in decision-making), occurring within health systems internationally during the first six months of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as key barriers and facilitators for sustaining patient engagement activities during the pandemic. METHODS: The following databases were searched: Medline, Embase and LitCOVID; a search for grey literature focused on the websites of professional organizations. Articles were required to be specific to COVID-19, describe patient engagement activities, involve a healthcare organization and be published from March 2020 to September 2020. Data were extracted and managed using Microsoft Excel. A content analysis of findings was conducted. RESULTS: Twenty-nine articles were included. Few examples of more genuine partnership with patients were identified (such as co-design and organizational level decision making); most activities related to clinical level interactions (e.g. virtual consultations, remote appointments, family visits using technology and community outreach). Technology was leveraged in almost all reported studies to interact or connect with patients and families. Five main descriptive categories were identified: (1) Engagement through Virtual Care; (2) Engagement through Other Technology; (3) Engagement for Service Improvements/ Recommendations; (4) Factors Impacting Patient Engagement; and (5) Lessons Learned though Patient Engagement. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of how healthcare systems and organizations stayed connected to patients and families during the pandemic was identified; the majority of activities involved direct care consultations via technology. Since this review was conducted over the first six months of the pandemic, more work is needed to unpack the spectrum of patient engagement activities, including how they may evolve over time and to explore the barriers and facilitators for sustaining activities during major disruptions like pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Patient Participation/trends , Advertising/trends , Decision Making , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Participation/psychology , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2127582, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441918

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has had disproportionate effects on racial and ethnic minority communities, where preexisting clinical and social conditions amplify health and social disparities. Many of these communities report lower vaccine confidence and lower receipt of the COVID-19 vaccine. Understanding factors that influence the multifaceted decision-making process for vaccine uptake is critical for narrowing COVID-19-related disparities. Objective: To examine factors that members of multiethnic communities at high risk for COVID-19 infection and morbidity report as contributing to vaccine decision-making. Design, Setting, and Participants: This qualitative study used community-engaged methods to conduct virtual focus groups from November 16, 2020, to January 28, 2021, with Los Angeles County residents. Potential participants were recruited through email, video, and telephone outreach to community partner networks. Focus groups were stratified by self-identified race and ethnicity as well as age. Transcripts were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Themes were categorized by contextual, individual, and vaccine-specific influences using the World Health Organization's Vaccine Hesitancy Matrix categories. Results: A total of 13 focus groups were conducted with 70 participants (50 [71.4%] female) who self-identified as American Indian (n = 17 [24.3%]), Black/African American (n = 17 [24.3%]), Filipino/Filipina (n = 11 [15.7%]), Latino/Latina (n = 15 [21.4%]), or Pacific Islander (n = 10 [14.3%]). A total of 39 participants (55.7%) were residents from high-poverty zip codes, and 34 (48.6%) were essential workers. The resulting themes included policy implications for equitable vaccine distribution: contextual influences (unclear and unreliable information, concern for inequitable access or differential treatment, references to mistrust from unethical research studies, accessibility and accommodation barriers, eligibility uncertainty, and fears of politicization or pharmaceutical industry influence); social and group influences (inadequate exposure to trusted messengers or information, altruistic motivations, medical mistrust, and desire for autonomy); and vaccination-specific influences (need for vaccine evidence by subpopulation, misconceptions on vaccine development, allocation ambiguity, vaccination safety preferences, the importance of perceiving vaccine equity, burden of vaccine scheduling, cost uncertainty, and desire for practitioner recommendation). Conclusions and Relevance: In this qualitative study, participants reported a number of factors that affected their vaccine decision-making, including concern for inequitable vaccine access. Participants endorsed policy recommendations and strategies to promote vaccine confidence. These results suggest that support of informed deliberation and attainment of vaccine equity will require multifaceted, multilevel policy approaches that improve COVID-19 vaccine knowledge, enhance trust, and address the complex interplay of sociocultural and structural barriers to vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Trust/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Los Angeles , Male , Minority Groups/psychology , Motivation , Patient Participation/psychology
15.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(8): e25741, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336004

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Adolescents and young people comprise a growing proportion of new HIV infections globally, yet current approaches do not effectively engage this group, and adolescent HIV-related outcomes are the poorest among all age groups. Providing psychosocial interventions incorporating psychological, social, and/or behavioural approaches offer a potential pathway to improve engagement in care and health and behavioural outcomes among adolescents and young people living with HIV (AYPLHIV). METHODS: A systematic search of all peer-reviewed papers published between January 2000 and July 2020 was conducted through four electronic databases (Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, PubMed and Scopus). We included randomized controlled trials evaluating psychosocial interventions aimed at improving engagement in care and health and behavioural outcomes of AYPLHIV aged 10 to 24 years. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Thirty relevant studies were identified. Studies took place in the United States (n = 18, 60%), sub-Saharan Africa (Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe) and Southeast Asia (Thailand). Outcomes of interest included adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), ART knowledge, viral load data, sexual risk behaviours, sexual risk knowledge, retention in care and linkage to care. Overall, psychosocial interventions for AYPLHIV showed important, small-to-moderate effects on adherence to ART (SMD = 0.3907, 95% CI: 0.1059 to 0.6754, 21 studies, n = 2647) and viral load (SMD = -0.2607, 95% CI -04518 to -0.0696, 12 studies, n = 1566). The psychosocial interventions reviewed did not demonstrate significant impacts on retention in care (n = 8), sexual risk behaviours and knowledge (n = 13), viral suppression (n = 4), undetectable viral load (n = 5) or linkage to care (n = 1) among AYPLHIV. No studies measured transition to adult services. Effective interventions employed various approaches, including digital and lay health worker delivery, which hold promise for scaling interventions in the context of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights the potential of psychosocial interventions in improving health outcomes in AYPLHIV. However, more research needs to be conducted on interventions that can effectively reduce sexual risk behaviours of AYPLHIV, as well as those that can strengthen engagement in care. Further investment is needed to ensure that these interventions are cost-effective, sustainable and resilient in the face of resource constraints and global challenges such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/psychology , Patient Participation/psychology , Psychosocial Intervention , Treatment Adherence and Compliance/psychology , Adolescent , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , COVID-19 , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Risk-Taking , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , South Africa , Viral Load , Young Adult
17.
Can Assoc Radiol J ; 73(1): 121-124, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295348

ABSTRACT

The Covid pandemic has taught many lessons, including the importance of mental health. The value of the radiologist in holistic patient care may be underestimated and underresearched. Barriers to the acceptance of imaging as an important component in reassurance may be rooted in old ideas minimizing the importance of mental health.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/psychology , Mammography/psychology , Paternalism , Patient Participation/methods , Patient Participation/psychology , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Female , Humans , Mammography/methods
18.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251963, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The success of vaccination efforts to curb the COVID-19 pandemic will require broad public uptake of immunization and highlights the importance of understanding factors associated with willingness to receive a vaccine. METHODS: U.S. adults aged 65 and older enrolled in the HeartlineTM clinical study were invited to complete a COVID-19 vaccine assessment through the HeartlineTM mobile application between November 6-20, 2020. Factors associated with willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine were evaluated using an ordered logistic regression as well as a Random Forest classification algorithm. RESULTS: Among 9,106 study participants, 81.3% (n = 7402) responded and had available demographic data. The majority (91.3%) reported a willingness to be vaccinated. Factors most strongly associated with vaccine willingness were beliefs about the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines and vaccines in general. Women and Black or African American respondents reported lower willingness to vaccinate. Among those less willing to get vaccinated, 66.2% said that they would talk with their health provider before making a decision. During the study, positive results from the first COVID-19 vaccine outcome study were released; vaccine willingness increased after this report. CONCLUSIONS: Even among older adults at high-risk for COVID-19 complications who are participating in a longitudinal clinical study, 1 in 11 reported lack of willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccine in November 2020. Variability in vaccine willingness by gender, race, education, and income suggests the potential for uneven vaccine uptake. Education by health providers directed toward assuaging concerns about vaccine safety and efficacy can help improve vaccine acceptance among those less willing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04276441.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination/psychology , Patient Participation/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , United States , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data
19.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 27(10): 1703-1705, 2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236236

ABSTRACT

The recent emergency use authorization of a third COVID-19 vaccine means that most patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) will soon be eligible to be vaccinated. Gastroenterology clinicians should be prepared to address patients' concerns regarding safety and efficacy of vaccines. They should also strongly recommend that all their patients be vaccinated with a COVID-19 vaccine. Additionally, they should be prepared to educate patients about logistics that will result in successful vaccination completion. All these measures will be crucial to ensure high uptake among their patients with IBD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Gastroenterologists , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Vaccination , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/psychology , Patient Participation/methods , Patient Participation/psychology , Physician's Role , Preventive Health Services , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination Coverage/methods
20.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(6): 1607-1611, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216567

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has taken an unprecedented global toll and vaccination is needed to restore healthy living. Timely inclusion of children in vaccination trials is critical. We surveyed caregivers of children seeking care in 17 Emergency Departments (ED) across 6 countries during the peak of the pandemic to identify factors associated with intent to participate in COVID-19 vaccine trials. Questions about child and parent characteristics, COVID-19 expressed concerns and parental attitudes toward participation in a trial were asked.Of 2768 completed surveys, 18.4% parents stated they would enroll their child in a clinical trial for a COVID-19 vaccine and 14.4% would agree to a randomized placebo-controlled study. Factors associated with willingness to participate were parents agreeing to enroll in a COVID-19 vaccine trial themselves (Odds Ratio (OR) 32.9, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (21.9-51.2)) having an older child (OR 1.0 (1.0-1.01)), having children who received all vaccinations based on their country schedule (OR 2.67 (1.35-5.71)) and parents with high school education or lower (OR 1.79 (1.18-2.74)). Mothers were less likely to enroll their child in a trial (OR 0.68 (0.47-0.97)). Only one fifth of families surveyed will consider enrolling their child in a vaccine trial. Parental interest in participation, history of vaccinating their child, and the child being older all are associated with parents allowing their child to participate in a COVID vaccine trial. This information may help decision-makers and researchers shape their strategies for trial design and participation engagement in upcoming COVID19 vaccination trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Parents , Patient Participation/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Child , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
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