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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(1)2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605826

ABSTRACT

Prone positioning is a mainstay of management for those presenting to the intensive care unit with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome due to COVID-19. While this is a necessary and life-saving intervention in selected patients, careful positioning and meticulous care are required to prevent compression and traction of the brachial plexus, and resultant brachial plexopathy. We describe two patients who developed a brachial plexus injury while undergoing prone positioning for management of COVID-19 pneumonitis. Both patients were diabetic and underwent prolonged periods in the prone position during which the plexopathy affected arm was abducted for 19 and 55 hours, respectively. We discuss strategies to reduce the risk of this rare but potentially disabling complication of prone positioning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Patient Positioning , Prone Position , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 305, 2021 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582036

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Awake prone position is an emerging rescue therapy applied in patients undergoing noninvasive ventilation (NIV) for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (ARF) related to novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Although applied to stabilize respiratory status, in awake patients, the application of prone position may reduce comfort with a consequent increase in the workload imposed on respiratory muscles. Thus, we primarily ascertained the effect of awake prone position on diaphragmatic thickening fraction, assessed through ultrasound, in COVID-19 patients undergoing NIV. METHODS: We enrolled all COVID-19 adult critically ill patients, admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) for hypoxemic ARF and undergoing NIV, deserving of awake prone positioning as a rescue therapy. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy and any contraindication to awake prone position and NIV. On ICU admission, after NIV onset, in supine position, and at 1 h following awake prone position application, diaphragmatic thickening fraction was obtained on the right side. Across all the study phases, NIV was maintained with the same setting present at study entry. Vital signs were monitored throughout the entire study period. Comfort was assessed through numerical rating scale (0 the worst comfort and 10 the highest comfort level). Data were presented in median and 25th-75th percentile range. RESULTS: From February to May 2021, 20 patients were enrolled and finally analyzed. Despite peripheral oxygen saturation improvement [96 (94-97)% supine vs 98 (96-99)% prone, p = 0.008], turning to prone position induced a worsening in comfort score from 7.0 (6.0-8.0) to 6.0 (5.0-7.0) (p = 0.012) and an increase in diaphragmatic thickening fraction from 33.3 (25.7-40.5)% to 41.5 (29.8-50.0)% (p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: In our COVID-19 patients assisted by NIV in ICU, the application of awake prone position improved the oxygenation at the expense of a greater diaphragmatic thickening fraction compared to supine position. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04904731. Registered on 05/25/2021, retrospectively registered. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04904731 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Patient Positioning , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Wakefulness , Adult , Diaphragm , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/prevention & control , Prospective Studies
4.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 280, 2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can induce acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In patients with congenital heart disease, established treatment strategies are often limited due to their unique cardiovascular anatomy and passive pulmonary perfusion. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the first case of an adult with single-ventricle physiology and bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt who suffered from severe COVID-19 ARDS. Treatment strategies were successfully adopted, and pulmonary vascular resistance was reduced, both medically and through prone positioning, leading to a favorable outcome. CONCLUSION: ARDS treatment strategies including ventilatory settings, prone positioning therapy and cannulation techniques for extracorporeal oxygenation must be adopted carefully considering the passive venous return in patients with single-ventricle physiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomegaly/diagnostic imaging , Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures/methods , Dextrocardia/diagnostic imaging , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/diagnostic imaging , Heterotaxy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Patient Positioning/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiomegaly/complications , Cardiomegaly/therapy , Dextrocardia/complications , Dextrocardia/therapy , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/complications , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/therapy , Heterotaxy Syndrome/complications , Heterotaxy Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Respir Care ; 66(12): 1898-1911, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prone positioning is a therapy utilized globally to improve gas exchange, minimize ventilator-induced lung injury, and reduce mortality in ARDS, particularly during the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Whereas the respiratory benefits of prone positioning in ARDS have been accepted, the concurrent complications could be undervalued. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the adverse events (AEs) related to prone positioning in ARDS and, secondarily, to collect strategies and recommendations to mitigate these AEs. METHODS: In this scoping review, we searched recommendation documents and original studies published between June 2013 and November 2020 from 6 relevant electronic databases and the websites of intensive care societies. RESULTS: We selected 41 documents from 121 eligible documents, comprising 13 recommendation documents and 28 original studies (involving 1,578 subjects and 994 prone maneuvers). We identified > 40 individual AEs, and the highest-pooled occurrence rates were those of severe desaturation (37.9%), barotrauma (30.5%), pressure sores (29.7%), ventilation-associated pneumonia (28.2%), facial edema (16.7%), arrhythmia (15.4%), hypotension (10.2%), and peripheral nerve injuries (8.1%). The reported mitigation strategies during prone positioning included alternate face rotation (18 [43.9%]), repositioning every 2 h (17 [41.5%]), and the use of pillows under the chest and pelvis (14 [34.1%]). The reported mitigation strategies for performing the prone maneuver comprised one person being at the headboard (23 [56.1%]), the use of a pre-maneuver safety checklist (18 [43.9%]), vital sign monitoring (15 [36.6%]), and ensuring appropriate ventilator settings (12 [29.3%]). CONCLUSIONS: We identified > 40 AEs reported in prone positioning ARDS studies, including additional AEs not yet reported by previous systematic reviews. The pooled AE proportions collected in this review could guide research and clinical practice decisions, and the strategies to mitigate AEs could promote future consensus-based recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Humans , Patient Positioning , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Crit Care Med ; 49(10): e1001-e1014, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475867

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Several studies have reported prone positioning of nonintubated patients with coronavirus diseases 2019-related hypoxemic respiratory failure. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the impact of prone positioning on oxygenation and clinical outcomes. DESIGN AND SETTING: We searched PubMed, Embase, and the coronavirus diseases 2019 living systematic review from December 1, 2019, to November 9, 2020. SUBJECTS AND INTERVENTION: Studies reporting prone positioning in hypoxemic, nonintubated adult patients with coronavirus diseases 2019 were included. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Data on prone positioning location (ICU vs non-ICU), prone positioning dose (total minutes/d), frequency (sessions/d), respiratory supports during prone positioning, relative changes in oxygenation variables (peripheral oxygen saturation, Pao2, and ratio of Pao2 to the Fio2), respiratory rate pre and post prone positioning, intubation rate, and mortality were extracted. Twenty-five observational studies reporting prone positioning in 758 patients were included. There was substantial heterogeneity in prone positioning location, dose and frequency, and respiratory supports provided. Significant improvements were seen in ratio of Pao2 to the Fio2 (mean difference, 39; 95% CI, 25-54), Pao2 (mean difference, 20 mm Hg; 95% CI, 14-25), and peripheral oxygen saturation (mean difference, 4.74%; 95% CI, 3-6%). Respiratory rate decreased post prone positioning (mean difference, -3.2 breaths/min; 95% CI, -4.6 to -1.9). Intubation and mortality rates were 24% (95% CI, 17-32%) and 13% (95% CI, 6-19%), respectively. There was no difference in intubation rate in those receiving prone positioning within and outside ICU (32% [69/214] vs 33% [107/320]; p = 0.84). No major adverse events were recorded in small subset of studies that reported them. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the significant variability in frequency and duration of prone positioning and respiratory supports applied, prone positioning was associated with improvement in oxygenation variables without any reported serious adverse events. The results are limited by a lack of controls and adjustments for confounders. Whether this improvement in oxygenation results in meaningful patient-centered outcomes such as reduced intubation or mortality rates requires testing in well-designed randomized clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Prone Position/physiology , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Patient Positioning , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology
9.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 292, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prone positioning (PP) improves oxygenation and respiratory mechanics and is associated with lower mortality in patients with moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Despite this, some patients develop refractory hypoxemia and hypercapnia requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) support and are usually cared for in supine position. The physiologic and outcome benefits of routine PP of patients during VV ECMO remains unclear. Hence, we conducted the systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the outcome benefits of PP for patients with ARDS being treated with VV ECMO. METHODS: After registration with PROSPERO (CRD42020199723), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and Cochrane databases were searched for relevant studies that reported PP in more than 10 adult patients supported with VV ECMO from origin to 1 March 2021. Studies were reviewed for quality using appropriate Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) checklists, and certainty of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. The random-effects model (DerSimonian and Laird) was used. The primary outcome of interest was cumulative survival. Secondary outcomes were intensive care unit length of stay (ICU LOS) and ECMO duration. Changes in arterial blood gas (ABG) values, ventilator mechanics and complication rates were also studied. RESULTS: Of 812 potentially relevant publications, 12 studies (640 patients) met our inclusion criteria. Due to overlapping study populations, 11 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. Cumulative survival in patients that underwent PP was 57% (95% CI 41.9-71.4, high certainty). Patients that underwent PP had longer ICU LOS (+ 14.5 days, 95% CI 3.4-25.7, p = 0.01) and ECMO duration (+ 9.6 days, 95% CI 5.5-13.7, p < 0.0001). After PP, patients had significantly higher PaO2/FiO2 ratio, lower PaCO2 and reduced ventilator driving pressure, and no major complications were reported. CONCLUSIONS: PP during VV ECMO appears safe with a cumulative survival of 57% and may result in longer ECMO runs and ICU LOS. However, evidence from appropriately designed randomized trials is needed prior to widespread adoption of PP on VV ECMO.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Humans , Patient Positioning , Prone Position , Retrospective Studies
10.
Nursing ; 51(7): 44-47, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393335

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Prone positioning is a recommended therapy for patients with COVID-19 who develop acute respiratory distress syndrome. This article describes the creation, operation, and evolution of the pronation therapy team at the author's Veterans Affairs facility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitals, Veterans/organization & administration , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Patient Positioning/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , New Jersey/epidemiology , Prone Position , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology
11.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 315, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383659

ABSTRACT

This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2021. Other selected articles can be found online at  https://www.biomedcentral.com/collections/annualupdate2021 . Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from  https://link.springer.com/bookseries/8901 .


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Patient Positioning/standards , Prone Position/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/trends , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Patient Positioning/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Survival Analysis
13.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 20(6): e280, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384012
16.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 109: 106541, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356158

ABSTRACT

While benefits of prone position in mechanically-ventilated patients have been well-described, a randomized-control trial to determine the effects of prone positioning in awake, spontaneously-breathing patients with an acute pneumonia has not been previously conducted. Prone Position and Respiratory Outcomes in Non-Intubated COVID-19 PatiEnts: the "PRONE" Study (PRONE) was conducted in non-intubated hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia as defined by respiratory rate ≥ 20/min or an oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) ≤ 93% without supplemental oxygen [1]. The PRONE trial was designed to investigate the effects of prone positioning on need for escalation in respiratory support, as defined by need for transition to a higher acuity level of care, increased fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), or the initiation of invasive mechanical ventilation. Secondary objectives were to assess the duration of effect of prone positioning on respiratory parameters such as respiratory rate and SpO2, as well as other outcomes such as time to discharge or transition in level of care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Patient Positioning , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Anaesthesist ; 70(8): 649-654, 2021 Aug.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345098

ABSTRACT

If noninvasive ventilation (NIV or high-flow CPAP) fails in severe cases of COVID-19, escalation of treatment with orotracheal intubation and intermitted prone positioning is provided as standard care. The present case reports show two COVID-19 patients with severe refractory hypoxemia despite NIV treatment during the first wave (first half year 2020) and the resulting influence on the treatment regimen during the second wave (since October 2020) of the pandemic. Both patients (aged 63 years and 77 years) voluntarily positioned themselves on the side or in a prone position without prior sedation and oral intubation. Positional treatment promptly improved the arterial oxygenation level. The oxygenation index improved in the following days with continued NIV and intermittent prone and side position. The recovered patients were transferred from the intensive care unit at days 5 and 14, respectively after admission. The case reports, along with other reports, show that prone or lateral positioning may be important in the treatment of SARS-CoV­2 pneumonia in awake and not yet intubated patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Patient Positioning , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Middle Aged , Prone Position
18.
Crit Care Nurse ; 41(4): 76-79, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339646
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