Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 25
Filter
1.
Am J Nurs ; 122(7): 62, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901252

ABSTRACT

Preemptive interventions are needed to prevent pressure injuries in patients with COVID-19 who are placed in the prone position.Risk factors for pressure injuries in these patients include severe obesity, a long duration of prone positioning, male sex, a high D-dimer level, and the use of commercial endotracheal tube holders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Prone Position , Risk Factors
2.
Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther ; 54(2): 187-189, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847540

ABSTRACT

Prone positioning recently gain- ed more popularity from its use in COVID-19 management. It is gene--rally considered to improve respiratory mechanics via increased lung compliance. In surgery, prone positioning is typically encountered when it is a necessity to access certain posterior anatomic structures. Though certain post-operative complications from prone positioning are well known (e.g., postoperative vision loss), the potential intraoperative complications that it can have for respiratory com-pliance and O2 saturation, in the setting of general anaesthesia, are perhaps less familiar, as only a few studies showed improved respiratory mechanics in the setting of ge-neral anaesthesia [1-3] and one study showed that prone positioning led to a 30-35% drop in respiratory compliance under general anaesthesia [4]. As the following case illustrates, proning is a critical point in the intraoperative course as it can sometimes lead to negative respiratory sequelae disrupting homeostasis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Humans , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Prone Position , Respiratory Mechanics
3.
Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; 71: 103251, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783406

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 59-year-old, obese woman who underwent prolonged prone position during the medical management of an acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection, complicated by a masseter muscle pressure injury. Such side effect may be underestimate in intensive care units and should be prevent by prophylactic dressings on facial weight-bearing sites. The understanding of facial deep tissue injury is essential to guide clinical detection and management of such a complication in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Masseter Muscle , Middle Aged , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Prone Position , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; 69: 103158, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487736

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate short and long-term complications due to standard (≤24 hours) and extended (>24 hours) prone position in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study conducted in an Italian general intensive care unit. We enrolled patients on invasive mechanical ventilation and treated with prone positioning. We recorded short term complications from the data chart and long-term complications from the scheduled follow-up visit, three months after intensive care discharge. RESULTS: A total of 96 patients were included in the study. Median time for each prone positioning cycle (302 cycles) was equal to 18 (16-32) hours. In 37 (38%) patients at least one cycle of extended pronation was implemented. Patients with at least one pressure sore due to prone position were 38 (40%). Patients with pressure sores showed a statistically significative difference in intensive care length of stay, mechanical ventilation days, numbers of prone position cycles, total time spent in prone position and the use of extended prone position, compared to patients without pressure sores. All lesions were low grade. Cheekbones (18%) and chin (10%) were the most affected sites. Follow-up visit, scheduled three months after intensive care discharge, was possible in 58 patients. All patients were able to have all 12 muscle groups examined using theMedical Research Council scale examination. No patient reported sensory loss or presence of neuropathic pain for upper limbs. CONCLUSIONS: Extended prone position is feasible and might reduce the workload on healthcare workers without significant increase of major prone position related complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Surgeon ; 20(4): e144-e148, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347834

ABSTRACT

The utilisation of prone positioning has been vital during the COVID-19 pandemic, however risks the development of anterior pressure ulcers. An observational study was performed to examine the prevalence of pressure ulcers in this population and define risk factors. Eighty-seven patients admitted to critical care were studied. Of 62 patients with >1 day in prone position, 55 (88.7%) developed anterior pressure ulcers, 91% of which were anterior. The most commonly affected site were the oral commisures (34.6%), related to endotracheal tube placement. Prone positioning (p < .001) and the number of days prone (OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.46-6.62, p = 0.003) were a significant risk factors in development of an anterior ulcer. Prone positioning is therefore a significant cause of anterior pressure ulcers in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pressure Ulcer , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Pressure Ulcer/epidemiology , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Prone Position
7.
Laryngoscope ; 132(2): 287-289, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318728

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Prone positioning is frequently used in patients intubated for COVID-19-related lung injury to improve oxygenation. At our institution, we observed severe tongue edema develop in some of these patients. Hence, we sought to determine the incidence of tongue edema in this cohort and whether prone positioning was a risk factor associated with this complication. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: A single-system retrospective cohort study of patients intubated for respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 who subsequently developed clinically notable tongue edema from March 13 to July 5, 2020. RESULTS: 260 patients were intubated for COVID-19-related respiratory failure during the study period. 158 patients (60.8%) underwent at least one episode of proning. Twelve patients in total (4.6%) developed clinically significant tongue edema. Eleven of the twelve patients (91.7%) who developed tongue edema underwent proning prior to the development of edema. Prone positioning was associated with an increased incidence of tongue edema (odds ratio [OR] 7.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-59.46, P = .027). In all proned patients who developed edema, this complication was noted during proning or shortly after supination (range, 0-4 days). Tongue edema was primarily managed with conservative measures; one patient required tracheostomy for definitive management. CONCLUSIONS: Tongue edema appears to develop in a subset of patients with COVID-19 who are intubated. It appears to be associated with prone positioning but is likely multifactorial in nature. Further investigation into its incidence and pathophysiology is warranted. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 132:287-289, 2022.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Glossitis/etiology , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Prone Position , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tongue/pathology
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 534, 2021 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prone positioning (PP) is a standard of care for patients with moderate-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). While adverse events associated with PP are well-documented in the literature, research examining the effect of PP on the risk of infectious complications of intravascular catheters is lacking. METHOD: All consecutive ARDS patients treated with PP were recruited retrospectively over a two-year period and formed the exposed group. Intensive care unit (ICU) patients during the same period without ARDS for whom PP was not conducted but who had an equivalent disease severity were matched 1:1 to the exposed group based on age, sex, centre, length of ICU stay and SAPS II (unexposed group). Infection-related catheter complications were defined by a composite criterion, including catheter tip colonization or intravascular catheter-related infection. RESULTS: A total of 101 exposed patients were included in the study. Most had direct ARDS (pneumonia). The median [Q1-Q3] PP session number was 2 [1-4]. These patients were matched with 101 unexposed patients. The mortality rates of the exposed and unexposed groups were 31 and 30%, respectively. The incidence of the composite criterion was 14.2/1000 in the exposed group compared with 8.2/1000 days in the control group (p = 0.09). Multivariate analysis identified PP as a factor related to catheter colonization or infection (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that PP is associated with a higher risk of CVC infectious complications.


Subject(s)
Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Aged , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prone Position , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 34(8): 1-3, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201587

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Prone positioning is recognized for its efficacy in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome related to COVID-19. Here the authors present a case of a facial pressure injury and buried dentition that occurred as a result of prolonged prone positioning in a patient who was COVID-19 positive. The patient was treated with primary closure of the injury and pressure offloading.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Facial Injuries/surgery , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Pressure Ulcer/surgery , Prone Position , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Dentition , Facial Injuries/diagnosis , Facial Injuries/etiology , Humans , Male , Pressure Ulcer/diagnosis , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153656

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 affects a wide spectrum of organ systems. We report a 52-year-old man with hypertension and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus who presented with hypoxic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 and developed severe brachial plexopathy. He was not treated with prone positioning respiratory therapy. Associated with the flaccid, painfully numb left upper extremity was a livedoid, purpuric rash on his left hand and forearm consistent with COVID-19-induced microangiopathy. Neuroimaging and electrophysiological data were consistent with near diffuse left brachial plexitis with selective sparing of axillary, suprascapular and pectoral fascicles. Given his microangiopathic rash, elevated D-dimers and paucifascicular plexopathy, we postulate a patchy microvascular thrombotic plexopathy. Providers should be aware of this significant and potentially under-recognised neurologic complication of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus Neuropathies/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Arm/pathology , Brachial Plexus Neuropathies/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus , Exanthema/complications , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Neuralgia/complications , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 164(2): 300-301, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125161

ABSTRACT

In the setting of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019)-associated moderate and severe acute respiratory distress, persistently hypoxemic patients often require prone positioning for >16 hours. We report facial pressure wounds and ear necrosis as a consequence of prone positioning in patients undergoing ventilation in the intensive care unit in a tertiary medical center in New York City.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Facial Injuries/etiology , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Critical Care , Ear/pathology , Facial Injuries/pathology , Humans , Necrosis , Pressure Ulcer/pathology
13.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 102(3): 359-362, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064811

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prone positioning improves oxygenation in adult respiratory distress syndrome. This procedure has been widely used during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. However, this procedure can also be responsible for nerve damage and plexopathy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a series of 7 infectious patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who underwent prone positioning ventilation at the San Raffaele Hospital of Milan, Italy, during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. RESULTS: Clinical and neurophysiological data of 7 patients with nerve compression injuries have been reported. CONCLUSIONS: Health care workers should take into consideration the risk factors for prone positioning-related plexopathy and nerve damage, especially in patients with coronavirus disease 2019, to prevent this type of complication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Nerve Compression Syndromes/etiology , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 102(3): 359-362, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prone positioning improves oxygenation in adult respiratory distress syndrome. This procedure has been widely used during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. However, this procedure can also be responsible for nerve damage and plexopathy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a series of 7 infectious patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who underwent prone positioning ventilation at the San Raffaele Hospital of Milan, Italy, during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. RESULTS: Clinical and neurophysiological data of 7 patients with nerve compression injuries have been reported. CONCLUSIONS: Health care workers should take into consideration the risk factors for prone positioning-related plexopathy and nerve damage, especially in patients with coronavirus disease 2019, to prevent this type of complication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Nerve Compression Syndromes/etiology , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Perit Dial Int ; 41(3): 328-332, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013120

ABSTRACT

Patients with kidney failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring prone position have not been candidates for peritoneal dialysis (PD) due to concern with increased intra-abdominal pressure, reduction in respiratory system compliance and risks of peritoneal fluid leaks. We describe our experience in delivering acute PD during the surge in Covid-19 acute kidney injury (AKI) in the subset of patients requiring prone positioning. All seven patients included in this report were admitted to the intensive care unit with SARS-CoV-2 infection leading to ARDS, AKI and multisystem organ failure. All required renal replacement therapy, and prone positioning to improve ventilation/perfusion mismatch. All seven were able to continue PD despite prone positioning without any detrimental effects on respiratory mechanics or the need to switch to a different modality. Fluid leakage was noted in 71% of patients, but mild and readily resolved. We were able to successfully implement acute PD in ventilator-dependent prone patients suffering from Covid-19-related AKI. This required a team effort and some modifications in the conventional PD prescription and delivery.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Patient Positioning , Peritoneal Dialysis/methods , Prone Position , Adult , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
16.
Laryngoscope ; 131(7): E2139-E2142, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1001948

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to determine the incidence of facial pressure injuries associated with prone positioning for COVID-19 patients as well as to characterize the location of injuries and treatments provided. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of 263 COVID-19 positive patients requiring intubation in the intensive care units at MedStar Georgetown University Hospital and MedStar Washington Hospital Center between March 1st and July 26th, 2020. Information regarding proning status, duration of proning, presence, or absence of facial pressure injuries and interventions were collected. Paired two-tailed t-test was used to evaluate differences between proned patients who developed pressure injuries with those who did not. RESULTS: Overall, 143 COVID-19 positive patients required proning while intubated with the average duration of proning being 5.15 days. Of those proned, 68 (47.6%) developed a facial pressure injury. The most common site involved was the cheek with a total of 57 (84%) followed by ears (50%). The average duration of proning for patients who developed a pressure injury was significantly longer when compared to those who did not develop pressure injuries (6.79 days vs. 3.64 days, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Facial pressure injuries occur with high incidence in patients with COVID-19 who undergo prone positioning. Longer duration of proning appears to confer greater risk for developing these pressure injuries. Hence, improved preventative measures and early interventions are needed. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:E2139-E2142, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Facial Dermatoses/etiology , Facial Injuries/etiology , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Prone Position , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
17.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 74(9): 2141-2148, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, prone position (PP) has been frequently used in the intensive care units to improve the prognosis in patients with respiratory distress. However, turning patients to prone imply important complications such as pressure ulcers. The aim of this paper is to describe the prevalence and characteristics of prone-positioning pressure sores (PPPS) and analyze the related risk factors. METHODS: A case-control study was performed in Gregorio Maranon hospital in Madrid during the COVID-19 pandemic between April and May 2020. We enrolled 74 confirmed COVID-19 patients in critical care units with invasive mechanical ventilation who were treated with pronation therapy. There were 57 cases and 17 controls. Demographic data, pronation maneuver characteristics and PPPS features were analyzed. RESULTS: In the case group, a total number of 136 PPPS were recorded. The face was the most affected region (69%). Regarding the severity, stage II was the most frequent. The main variables associated with an increased risk of PPPS were the total number of days under pronation cycles, and PP maintained for more than 24 h. The prealbumin level at admission was significantly lower in the case group. All of the ulcers were treated with dressings. The most frequent acute complication was bleeding (5%). CONCLUSIONS: According to our study, PPPS are related to the characteristics of the maneuver and the previous nutritional state. The implementation of improved positioning protocols may enhance results in critical patient caring, to avoid the scars and social stigma that these injuries entail.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Positioning/methods , Pressure Ulcer/diagnosis , Pressure Ulcer/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Spain
18.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(1): 109-112, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932398

ABSTRACT

Importance: Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who are unresponsive to maximum optimal ventilator settings may be in a prone position for at least 16 hours per day to improve oxygenation. This extended duration of prone positioning puts patients at risk of developing orbital compartment syndrome if direct pressure to the orbit and the globe occurs and concomitant protection of the eyes is not undertaken. Objective: To report 2 cases of orbital compartment syndrome, as well as optic disc edema and retinal hemorrhages, in the setting of prolonged prone positioning of patients in the intensive care unit during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: The cases took place from April 27, 2020, to May 4, 2020, at a COVID-19 intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital. Four of 16 patients in the intensive care unit required prolonged prone-position ventilation. A bedside eye examination was performed on 4 selected patients due to the observed presence of substantial periorbital edema. Main Outcomes and Measures: Intraocular pressures and fundus findings of 4 patients with periorbital edema. Results: Two of 4 patients who were in the prone position for extended periods of time had bilateral fundoscopic findings of optic disc edema and retinal hemorrhages, possibly consistent with a papillophlebitis. Additionally, both patients had a substantial increase in intraocular pressure of 2- to 3-fold in the prone position compared with the supine position. Conclusions and Relevance: Prolonged prone positioning of patients with COVID-19 can be associated with elevated intraocular pressure from periorbital edema, direct compression on the eye, and increased orbital venous pressure. Orbital compartment syndrome can be avoided by the use of protective cushioning around the eyes and maintaining the patient's head position above heart level during prone positioning. Patients with COVID-19 may also develop papillophlebitis with optic disc edema and retinal hemorrhages, which may be associated with a hypercoagulable state caused by COVID-19. These observations suggest awareness for the possible presence of these ophthalmic findings while treating severely ill patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Compartment Syndromes/prevention & control , Eye Protective Devices , Intraocular Pressure , Orbital Diseases/prevention & control , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Compartment Syndromes/diagnosis , Compartment Syndromes/etiology , Compartment Syndromes/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/etiology , Orbital Diseases/physiopathology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
19.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 99(10): 870-872, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-860314

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus 2019 pandemic has resulted in a surge of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Prone positioning may be used in such patients to optimize oxygenation. Severe infections may leave survivors with significant functional impairment necessitating rehabilitation. Those who have experienced prolonged prone positioning are at increased risk for complications not typically associated with critical illness. This case report describes the course and clinical findings of a survivor of acute respiratory distress syndrome due to coronavirus 2019 who was prone positioned while in intensive care and subsequently admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation facility. Her related complications, as well as those described in the literature, are reviewed. Critical elements of a comprehensive rehabilitation treatment plan for those who have been prone positioned, including implementation of preventive strategies, as well as early recognition and treatment of related injuries, will be described.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Critical Care/methods , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prone Position , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(3): 361-372, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799819

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Ocular complications are common in the critical care setting but are frequently missed due to the focus on life-saving organ support. The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a surge in critical care capacity and prone positioning practices which may increase the risk of ocular complications. This article aims to review all ocular complications associated with prone positioning, with a focus on challenges posed by COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature review using keywords of "intensive care", "critical care", "eye care", "ocular disorders", "ophthalmic complications," "coronavirus", "COVID-19," "prone" and "proning" was performed using the electronic databases of PUBMED, EMBASE and CINAHL. RESULTS: The effects of prone positioning on improving respiratory outcomes in critically unwell patients are well established; however, there is a lack of literature regarding the effects of prone positioning on ocular complications in the critical care setting. Sight-threatening ophthalmic disorders potentiated by proning include ocular surface disease, acute angle closure, ischemic optic neuropathy, orbital compartment syndrome and vascular occlusions. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients may be more susceptible to ocular complications with increased proning practices and increasing demand on critical care staff. This review outlines these ocular complications with a focus on preventative and treatment measures to avoid devastating visual outcomes for the patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Eye Diseases/etiology , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Prone Position , Acute Disease , Administration, Ophthalmic , Compartment Syndromes/etiology , Conjunctival Diseases/etiology , Critical Care , Glaucoma, Angle-Closure/etiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Keratitis/etiology , Keratitis/prevention & control , Ointments/therapeutic use , Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic/etiology , Orbital Diseases/etiology , Retinal Artery Occlusion/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL