Abstract To evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility patterns in URTIs reporting to tertiary hospitals of Lahore. A cross-sectional study employing 259 culture sensitivity reports obtained from tertiary care hospitals of Lahore. Using SPSS, descriptive statistics were used to estimate frequencies and percentages. In URTIs, S. aureus (5%) was the frequent gram-positive isolate followed by MRSA (1.5%) and MSSA (1.5%), while P. aeruginosa (15.8%) was the prevalent gram-negative isolate followed by Klebsiella (13.1%) and E. coli (6.9%). Against P. aeruginosa, ceftazidime (7.7%), cefuroxime/ceftriaxone (4.6%), amoxicillin (4.3%) and ciprofloxacin (4.2%), were tested resistant, while imipenem (11.2%), ciprofloxacin (9.2%), amikacin (9.2%), meropenem/ levofloxacin/gentamicin (8.1%) and piptaz (6.9%) were found sensitive. Against Klebsiella, carbepenems (7.3%), amikacin (6.5%), ciprofloxacin (5.4%) and gentamicin (5%) were tested sensitive, whereas, ceftazidime (8.5%), ceftriaxone (5.8%), cefaclor (5.5%), ampicillin (4.6%), co-amoxiclave (4.2%) and ciftazidime/ciprofloxacin (3.8%) were found resistant. Overall, imipenem (35%), meropenem (30.8%) and amikacin (31.9%) were the three most sensitive antibiotics, while ceftazidime (25.4%), ceftriaxone (19.2%) and ampicillin (18.5%) were the three most resistant antibiotics. Data suggested that P.aeruginosa and Klebsiella, were the most frequent bacterial isolates in URTIs of Lahore. These isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cefuroxime and ceftazidime, but were sensitive to carbapenem and aminoglycosides
Subject(s)Patients/classification , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Pakistan/ethnology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Ciprofloxacin , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/classification
Abstract Up to today, there is no specific treatment against SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 infection; there the necessity to search for alternatives that help patients with COVID-19. The objective of this study was to review the use of ozone therapy as adjunct treatment for SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 infection, highlighting the mechanisms of action, forms of application and current clinical evidence. A systematic review was conducted in electronic databases, searching the terminology Ozone "or" Ozone therapy "and" SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 or Coronavirus. Results: nineteen studies were included; ten were editorials, comments, brief reports or reviews, and nine clinical studies. We found that ozone therapy could be favorable for treating patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19, through a direct antiviral effect, regulation of oxidative stress, immunomodulation and improvement of oxygen metabolism. Patients who were treated with ozone therapy responded favorably; therefore, ozone therapy appears to be a promising treatment for patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19. Its mechanism of action justifies its use as an adjuvant therapy; however, scientific evidence is based on case series and clinical trials are necessary to corroborate its effectiveness and safety.
Subject(s)Coronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/classification , COVID-19/pathology , Ozone Therapy , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Patients/classification , Oxidative Stress , Research Report , Infections/classification
Much the same as other healthcare services, when the COVID-19 pandemic hit, psychiatric hospitals implemented significant and rapid changes in the organization of their services. The aim of this research study is to describe and understand the experience of nurses and nursing supervisors in psychiatric units in the light of the occupational transformations caused by the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the impact of these events on their relationships with patients. A consensual qualitative research study based on Hill's model was implemented. Sixteen individual interviews were conducted with eleven nurses and five nursing supervisors. The themes discussed can be grouped into five areas: aspects of the caregiving relationship, positive aspects of caregivers' experiences, negative aspects of caregivers' experiences, reflections on the post-pandemic era, and the role of supervisors. These five areas can be subdivided into 11 categories and 31 subcategories. Values, attitudes, and behaviors centered around a humanistic caring approach are identified as integral to future development. They appear to be elements of both the transformation process and the desired outcome. In light of these findings, it seems that an immediate rethink of the organization of care is needed.
Dans les hôpitaux psychiatriques, des modifications importantes et rapides de l'organisation des services ont été décidées dès le début de la pandémie de COVID-19. Le but de cette recherche est de décrire et comprendre le vécu des infirmières et cadres de santé, en unités intrahospitalières de psychiatrie, confrontés aux bouleversements professionnels occasionnés par la première vague de l'épidémie, ainsi que l'impact de cet événement sur la relation avec les patients. Une recherche qualitative consensuelle selon Hill a été mise en Åuvre. Seize entretiens individuels ont été réalisés auprès de onze infirmières et cinq cadres de santé. Les idées exprimées peuvent être regroupées en cinq domaines : les aspects du vécu se rapportant à la relation de soins, les aspects positifs du vécu des soignants, les aspects négatifs du vécu des soignants, les réflexions sur l'après-crise et le rôle du cadre remis en question. Ces cinq domaines peuvent être subdivisés en 11 catégories et 31 sous-catégories. Des valeurs, attitudes et comportements humanistes caring sont identifiés comme faisant partie d'un futur désirable. Ils semblent être à la fois des éléments du processus de transformation et du résultat souhaité. Il parait indispensable de repenser sans délais l'organisation des soins sur cette base.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Nurses , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Patients , Qualitative Research
BACKGROUND: In ARDS, the PEEP level associated with the best respiratory system compliance is often selected; however, intra-tidal recruitment can increase compliance, falsely suggesting improvement in baseline mechanics. Tidal lung hysteresis increases with intra-tidal recruitment and can help interpreting changes in compliance. This study aims to assess tidal recruitment in ARDS patients and to test a combined approach, based on tidal hysteresis and compliance, to interpret decremental PEEP trials. METHODS: A decremental PEEP trial was performed in 38 COVID-19 moderate to severe ARDS patients. At each step, we performed a low-flow inflation-deflation manoeuvre between PEEP and a constant plateau pressure, to measure tidal hysteresis and compliance. RESULTS: According to changes of tidal hysteresis, three typical patterns were observed: 10 (26%) patients showed consistently high tidal-recruitment, 12 (32%) consistently low tidal-recruitment and 16 (42%) displayed a biphasic pattern moving from low to high tidal-recruitment below a certain PEEP. Compliance increased after 82% of PEEP step decreases and this was associated to a large increase of tidal hysteresis in 44% of cases. Agreement between best compliance and combined approaches was accordingly poor (K = 0.024). The combined approach suggested to increase PEEP in high tidal-recruiters, mainly to keep PEEP constant in biphasic pattern and to decrease PEEP in low tidal-recruiters. PEEP based on the combined approach was associated with lower tidal hysteresis (92.7 ± 20.9 vs. 204.7 ± 110.0 mL; p < 0.001) and lower dissipated energy per breath (0.1 ± 0.1 vs. 0.4 ± 0.2 J; p < 0.001) compared to the best compliance approach. Tidal hysteresis ≥ 100 mL was highly predictive of tidal recruitment at next PEEP step reduction (AUC 0.97; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of tidal hysteresis improves the interpretation of decremental PEEP trials and may help limiting tidal recruitment and energy dissipated into the respiratory system during mechanical ventilation of ARDS patients.
Subject(s)Body Fluids , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Patients , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Lung
Background: Most existing prognostic models of COVID-19 require imaging manifestations and laboratory results as predictors, which are only available in the post-hospitalization period. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a prognostic model to assess the in-hospital death risk in COVID-19 patients using routinely available predictors at hospital admission. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with COVID-19 using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Database in 2020. Patients hospitalized in Eastern United States (Florida, Michigan, Kentucky, and Maryland) were included in the training set, and those hospitalized in Western United States (Nevada) were included in the validation set. Discrimination, calibration, and clinical utility were evaluated to assess the model's performance. Results: A total of 17 954 in-hospital deaths occurred in the training set (n = 168 137), and 1,352 in-hospital deaths occurred in the validation set (n = 12 577). The final prediction model included 15 variables readily available at hospital admission, including age, sex, and 13 comorbidities. This prediction model showed moderate discrimination with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.726 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.722-0.729) and good calibration (Brier score = 0.090, slope = 1, intercept = 0) in the training set; a similar predictive ability was observed in the validation set. Conclusion: An easy-to-use prognostic model based on predictors readily available at hospital admission was developed and validated for the early identification of COVID-19 patients with a high risk of in-hospital death. This model can be a clinical decision-support tool to triage patients and optimize resource allocation.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Humans , Hospital Mortality , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Patients , Comorbidity
Subject(s)Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Myocardial Infarction , Vasculitis , Humans , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Vasculitis/complications , Vasculitis/diagnosis , Patients
Abstract The University Pharmacy Program (FU), from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), was created based on the need to offer a curricular internship to students of the Undergraduate Course at the Faculty of Pharmacy. Currently, it is responsible for the care of about 200 patients/day, offering vacancies for curricular internships for students in the Pharmacy course, it has become a reference in the manipulation of many drugs neglected by the pharmaceutical industry and provides access to medicines for low-income users playing an important social function. Research is one of the pillars of FU-UFRJ and several master and doctoral students use the FU research laboratory in the development of dissertations and theses. As of 2002, the Pharmaceutical Care extension projects started to guarantee a rational and safe pharmacotherapy for the medicine users. From its beginning in 1982 until the current quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic, FU-UFRJ has been adapting to the new reality and continued to provide patient care services, maintaining its teaching, research, and extension activities. The FU plays a relevant social role in guaranteeing the low-income population access to special and neglected medicines, and to pharmaceutical and education services in health promotion.
Subject(s)Pharmacy/classification , Education, Pharmacy , COVID-19/classification , Patients/classification , Pharmaceutical Services/history , Teaching/ethics , Pharmaceutical Preparations/supply & distribution , Patient Care/ethics
BACKGROUND: Symptom networks can provide empirical evidence for the development of personalized and precise symptom management strategies. However, few studies have established networks of symptoms experienced by older patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Our goal was to examine the type of symptom clusters of older maintenance hemodialysis patients during dialysis and construct a symptom network to understand the symptom characteristics of this population. METHODS: The modified Dialysis Symptom Index was used for a cross-sectional survey. Network analysis was used to analyze the symptom network and node characteristics, and factor analysis was used to examine symptom clusters. RESULTS: A total of 167 participants were included in this study. The participants included 111 men and 56 women with a mean age of 70.05 ± 7.40. The symptom burdens with the highest scores were dry skin, dry mouth, itching, and trouble staying asleep. Five symptom clusters were obtained from exploratory factor analysis, of which the clusters with the most severe symptom burdens were the gastrointestinal discomfort symptom cluster, sleep disorder symptom cluster, skin discomfort symptom cluster, and mood symptom cluster. Based on centrality markers, it could be seen that feeling nervous and trouble staying asleep had the highest strength, and feeling nervous and feeling irritable had the highest closeness and betweenness. CONCLUSIONS: Hemodialysis patients have a severe symptom burden and multiple symptom clusters. Dry skin, itching, and dry mouth are sentinel symptoms in the network model; feeling nervous and trouble staying asleep are core symptoms of patients; feeling nervous and feeling irritable are bridge symptoms in this symptom network model. Clinical staff can formulate precise and efficient symptom management protocols for patients by using the synergistic effects of symptoms in the symptom clusters based on sentinel symptoms, core symptoms, and bridge symptoms.
Subject(s)Anxiety , Renal Dialysis , Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Syndrome , Patients
Evidence suggests that changes in online psychotherapy adherence factors occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, this study aimed to review the perception of patients and psychotherapists regarding factors associated with adherence to online psychotherapy during the pandemic. Thus, 18 articles remained for analysis after searches in five databases and 25 factors associated with adherence to online psychotherapy were identified. The main factors for psychotherapists were confidence in professional skills and connection stability. For the patients, basic informatics skills and finding an adequate setting to participate in sessions. Furthermore, the factors fear of contagion, tiredness and the impossibility of face-to-face meetings emerged during the pandemic. Modifications of factors associated with pre-pandemic adherence were identified and strategies to overcome barriers related to online sessions were presented and discussed. The pandemic has increased adherence to online psychotherapy, although not everyone intends to follow this modality in the post-pandemic. (AU)
Evidências sugerem que ocorreram modificações nos fatores de adesão a psicoterapia online durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Assim, este estudo objetivou revisar a percepção dos pacientes e psicoterapeutas sobre fatores associados a adesão à psicoterapia online durante a pandemia. Restaram 18 artigos para análise após as buscas em cinco bases de dados. Foram identificados 25 fatores associados a adesão a psicoterapia on-line. Para os psicoterapeutas, os principais fatores foram a confiança nas habilidades profissionais e estabilidade da conexão. Para os pacientes, foram o conhecimento básico de informática e encontrar setting adequado para participar das sessões. Ademais, os fatores medo do contágio, cansaço e a impossibilidade de reuniões presenciais surgiram durante a pandemia. Modificações em fatores associados a adesão pré-pandemia foram identificadas e estratégias para contornar barreiras relacionadas aos atendimentos on-line foram apresentadas e discutidas. A pandemia aumentou a adesão a psicoterapia on-line, mas nem todos pretendem seguir nessa modalidade no pós-pandemia. (AU)
Evidencias sugieren que se produjeron cambios en los factores de adherencia a la psicoterapia en línea durante la pandemia del COVID-19. Por lo tanto, este estudio busca revisar las percepciones de pacientes y psicoterapeutas sobre los factores asociados a la adherencia a la psicoterapia en línea durante la pandemia. Se analizaron 18 artículos seleccionados tras una búsqueda en cinco bases de datos. Se identificaron 25 factores de la adherencia a la psicoterapia en línea. Para los psicoterapeutas, los principales factores fueron la confianza en las competencias profesionales y la estabilidad de la conexión. Ya para los pacientes, los factores básicos fueron las habilidades informáticas básicas y la búsqueda del entorno adecuado para participar en las sesiones. Además, durante la pandemia surgieron los factores miedo al contagio, cansancio y la imposibilidad de encuentros físicos. Se identificaron modificaciones en los factores asociados a adherencia prepandémica y se presentaron y discutieron estrategias para superar las barreras relacionadas con las sesiones en línea. La pandemia aumentó la adhesión a la psicoterapia en línea, aunque no todos tengan la intención de seguir esta modalidad en la pospandemia. (AU)
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Psychotherapy , Remote Consultation , COVID-19 , Patients , Database , Psychotherapeutic Processes , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Psychotherapists
Clinical and economic burdens exist within the coronary artery disease (CAD) care pathway despite advances in diagnosis and treatment and the increasing utilization of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, research presenting a comprehensive assessment of the challenges across this pathway is scarce. This contemporary review identifies relevant studies related to inefficiencies in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of CAD, including clinician, patient, and economic burdens. Studies demonstrating the benefits of integration and automation within the catheterization laboratory and across the CAD care pathway were also included. Most studies were published in the last 5-10 years and focused on North America and Europe. The review demonstrated multiple potentially avoidable inefficiencies, with a focus on access, appropriate use, conduct, and follow-up related to PCI. Inefficiencies included misdiagnosis, delays in emergency care, suboptimal testing, longer procedure times, risk of recurrent cardiac events, incomplete treatment, and challenges accessing and adhering to post-acute care. Across the CAD pathway, this review revealed that high clinician burnout, complex technologies, radiation, and contrast media exposure, amongst others, negatively impact workflow and patient care. Potential solutions include greater integration and interoperability between technologies and systems, improved standardization, and increased automation to reduce burdens in CAD and improve patient outcomes.
Subject(s)Coronary Artery Disease , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Critical Pathways , Treatment Outcome , Patients , Risk Factors
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Evidence shows that CT-derived sarcopenia can predict adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients. However, discrepancies exist as to which vertebral level can be used to calculate sarcopenia which can effectively serve as a prognostic tool. Thus, we aim to investigate the difference in sarcopenia calculated at the Thoracic and Lumbar vertebral levels. METHODS: An online literature search was conducted on Electronic databases such as PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Google scholar. Meta-analysis was performed by using Revman 5.3 software. RESULTS: A total of 14 articles were selected for meta-analysis. The prevalence of sarcopenia calculated at the Thoracic level was 31% (95%CI 24%-37%; p < 0.00001; I2 = 86%), while sarcopenia calculated at the Lumbar vertebral level was 63% (95%CI 51%-75%; p < 0.00001; I2 = 88%). Meanwhile, sarcopenia calculated at the Upper thoracic level was a significant predictor of mortality OR 3.47 (95%CI 1.74-6.91; p = 0.0004; I2 = 56%)as compared to sarcopenia calculated at the lower thoracic OR 1.74 (95%Cl 0.91-3.33; p = 0.10; I2 = 60%)or lumbar level OR 2.49 (95%CI 0.45-13.72; p = 0.30; I2 = 57%). In addition to this sarcopenia calculated at the Upper thoracic level was also a significant predictor of severe illness OR 3.92 (95%CI 2.33-6.58; p < 0.00001; I2 = 0%) as compared to lower thoracic OR 1.40 (95%CI 0.78-2.53; p = 0.26; I2 = 67%) or lumbar level OR 1.64 (95%CI 0.26-10.50; p = 0.60; I2 = 81%) CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia calculated at the thoracic vertebrae and lumber level has different prognostic values. Sarcopenia is prevalent at the lumbar level. Sarcopenia at the thoracic level has a higher mortality and severity rate.