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1.
J Gastrointestin Liver Dis ; 31(2): 198-205, 2022 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown has represented an inedited model of increased metabolic risk in all age groups, due to negative changes in dietary habits, physical activity, lifestyle. These effects have been generally explored at a population level in distinct age groups. Potential intra-familial, specific effects in adults and children sharing the same socio-economic, cultural level and living habits have been scarcely explored. We aimed to characterize changes of anthropometric indices in parents and in their children during COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: A cohort of 149 couple parent/children were prospectively enrolled. By a validated questionnaire we explored changes of body mass index (BMI) and individual lifestyle during a 2-month lockdown (May- July 2020). RESULTS: BMI increased in 70.5% of parents and in 67.8% of their children, with a Δ-BMI of 1.44+0.09 kg/ m 2 and 0.36+0.02 Kg/m 2 , respectively. BMI increments, however, were only significant in adults and did not correlate in the couple parents/children. Most adults (80.5%) and children (71.4%) did not perform regular physical activity during the lockdown. Direct correlations between dietary changes and BMI variations became evident in children, mainly in terms of a decreased consumption of fresh fruit, pulses, fish, and an increased consumption of cereals, carbohydrates, dairy products, olive oil. In normal weight, overweight and obese children, but not in adults, the increase in sleep hours increased with BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Despite marked lifestyle changes imposed by the COVID-19 lockdown, BMI variations in parents were independent from those observed in their children, pointing to different outcomes in response to the same external, critical event. Thus, primary prevention measures aimed at maintaining a healthy lifestyle require different approaches according to age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Animals , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Life Style , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control
3.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 35(6): 803-812, 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846974

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate if digital approaches can ameliorate the known consequences of social-distancing restrictions in the context of the global COVID-19 pandemic for adolescent participants originally registered for a face-to-face outpatient weight regulation program and whether video-based multiprofessional outpatient obesity therapy is successful for a group of adolescents with preexisting obesity. METHODS: The certified KiCK outpatient training program for children and adolescents with overweight and obesity was remodeled as a consequence of the lockdown traditional face-to-face program to a completely digital and video-based format on short notice. The virtual approach was compared with the results of the conventional program regarding metabolic parameters, body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS), well-being, and physical fitness. RESULTS: Sixty-nine of 77 enrolled participants for KiCK (age 8 to 17 years, BMI z score >2.0) were able and willing to participate virtually. After the first lockdown significant improvements of BMI SDS (mean 0.18; p=0.02), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index (mean 1.4; p=0.016), triglycerides (mean 0.18 mmol/dL; p=0.021), 6 minute-walk-test (mean 97.0 m; p=0.030, and well-being according to the World Health Organization 5 (WHO-5) questionnaire (mean 2.5; p=0.002) were found after the virtual intervention, which was comparable to the results observed previously in matched pairs data from the program during the pre-COVID period. After the end of the second lockdown weight SDS, BMI SDS, HOMA INDEX, and cholesterol were also measured reduced compared to baseline parameters measured before program initiation. Walking distance in the 6 MWT and improvement in general well-being in the WHO-5 questionnaire also persisted. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate good acceptance and efficacy of the video-intervention for youth with overweight and obesity during the lockdown, supporting the use of virtual modules in future programs after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Outpatients , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/therapy
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1000, 2022 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic has changed children's eating and physical activity behaviours. These changes have been positive for some households and negative for others, revealing health inequalities that have ramifications for childhood obesity. This study investigates the pandemic's impact on families of children aged 2-6 years with overweight or obesity. METHODS: Drawing on interviews conducted as part of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) for childhood obesity, thematic analysis was used to examine how parents of pre-schoolers perceived changes in their eating, screentime and physical activity behaviours between the first and second waves of Covid-19. Parents (n = 70, representing 68 families) were interviewed twice during a period of 6 months in three countries with markedly different pandemic policies - Sweden, Romania, and Spain. The analysis is informed by Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory, which embeds home- and school-based influences within societal and policy contexts. RESULTS: The findings show that, although all participants were recruited from an RCT for families of children with excess weight, they reported different responses to the pandemic's second wave, with some children engaging in healthier eating and physical activity, and others engaging in comfort eating and a more sedentary lifestyle. Differences in children's obesity-related behaviours were closely related to differences in parents' practices, which were, in turn, linked to their emotional and social wellbeing. Notably, across all sites, parents' feeding and physical activity facilitation practices, as well as their emotional and social wellbeing, were embedded in household resilience. In resilient households, where parents had secure housing and employment, they were better able to adapt to the challenges posed by the pandemic, whereas parents who experienced household insecurity found it more difficult to cope. CONCLUSIONS: As the Covid-19 pandemic is turning into a long-term public health challenge, studies that address household resilience are crucial for developing effective prevention and treatment responses to childhood obesity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Rearing , Humans , Overweight/epidemiology , Parents/psychology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology
5.
Nutrients ; 14(9)2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early research showed weight gain in children during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To compare changes in BMI z-score of children with overweight and obesity in a personalised lifestyle intervention before and during the pandemic. METHODS: Changes in BMI z-score half a year (T6) and twelve months (T12) after the first lockdown were included for 71 children in the '2020 during COVID' group and compared to 48 children in the '2019 before COVID' group, using a marginal model for repeated measures (model 1). Model 2 corrected for lifestyle intervention characteristics, and model 3 corrected additionally for family characteristics. RESULTS: The mean difference in BMI z-score change was significantly different at T12 (+0.07 in 2020 versus -0.09 in 2019, p = 0.022). Model 3 showed significant differences in BMI z-score change at both T6 (+0.15, p = 0.024) and T12 (+0.18, p = 0.016). This model also defined 'having a mother with obesity' (+0.13, p = 0.019) and the frequency of no-show consultations (+0.41 per missed consultation per month, p = 0.025) as related factors. CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle intervention in children with overweight and obesity is less successful in decreasing BMI z-score during the COVID-pandemic. Identified risk factors for less success could contribute to identifying children with higher risks for, and possibly prevent, BMI z-score increase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Life Style , Netherlands/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/therapy , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/therapy , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/therapy
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820282

ABSTRACT

Two years into this pandemic, mental health symptoms are more prevalent in children and adolescents, routine wellness visits have decreased, individuals and families are experiencing increased stress, and food and nutrition insecurity are on the rise. Pediatric overweight and obesity are yet another health condition that has been impacted by the pandemic. The current commentary aims to (a) summarize a variety of factors contributing to worsening obesity and healthy lifestyle choices in youth throughout the pandemic and to (b) provide recommendations for healthcare providers on navigating this challenge. Specific health behaviors, such as increased sedentary behavior, decreased physical activity, a change to families' home-food environments, and an increase in sleep dysregulation have contributed to increased weight gain in children and adolescents. As uncertainty continues with the advent of various COVID-19 variants, it remains important to consider how the pandemic has impacted pediatric overweight and obesity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Gain
7.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267601, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817502

ABSTRACT

The aim of this analysis was to assess the effectiveness of a juvenile outpatient weight management program during the coronavirus pandemic in Germany, which was implemented digitally during the initial lockdown and thereafter under strict hygiene rules (e.g., adapted exercise sessions). Changes in body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI SDS), physical fitness, media consumption, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and social self-concept of 28 children and adolescents were compared to data of 30 participants before the pandemic. Adjusted mean changes from baseline to follow-up in BMI SDS (M = -0.07 ± 0.30), relative physical fitness (M = 0.0 ± 0.3 W/kg), media use (M = 0.5 ± 2.6 hours/day), HRQOL (M = -1.6 ± 15.3), and social self-concept (M = -3.8 ± 13.2) during the pandemic were not significantly different from those of the pre-pandemic participants (all p > 0.05). Therefore, the results suggest that an adjusted approach to weight management, which combined digital and adapted in-person components to meet hygiene requirements during the pandemic, was as effective as the pre-pandemic program. It could thus be a potential solution to ensure continuity of care for vulnerable children with obesity during the pandemic and the associated restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life
8.
East Mediterr Health J ; 28(3): 242-243, 2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1812016
9.
Acta Paediatr ; 111(7): 1341-1353, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807017

ABSTRACT

AIM: Millions of Ukrainian children have been internally displaced or fled to other countries because of the Russian war. This systematic review focused on their health needs and future challenges for clinicians. METHODS: A systematic literature search of the Medline, Embase and MedRxiv databases from 1 January 2010 to 31 March 2022 identified 1628 papers on the health of Ukrainian children and 112 were relevant to this review. RESULTS: In 2019, under-5 mortality was 8 per 1000 live births in Ukraine. Underweight and adverse childhood experiences, including child abuse, were frequent compared to other European countries, while childhood obesity seemed less common. Alcohol consumption was common in women of reproductive age, including during pregnancy, risking foetal alcohol syndrome. Neonatal screening programmes provided low coverage. Vaccine hesitancy was common and vaccination rates were low. Other concerns were measles, HIV, antibiotic resistance and multi-resistant tuberculosis. Many children are expected to suffer from psychological and physical trauma due to the war. Other healthcare challenges include low COVID-19 vaccination rates and a preference for secondary and tertiary care, rather than primary care. Many people cannot afford medication. CONCLUSION: Ukrainian children often have poor health and host countries need to be aware of their needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Refugees , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child Health , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn
10.
Child Obes ; 18(3): 206-212, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806220

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study examines changes in the Yale Food Addiction Scale symptom count over a 24-week, weight-loss mobile Health (mHealth) intervention incorporating elements of addiction medicine. Methods: Adolescents (n = 117) with obesity (15.5 ± 1.3 years; 66% Hispanic) were randomized to the following: (1) mHealth intervention (AppAlone), (2) mHealth intervention+coaching (AppCoach), or (3) in-person intervention (Control). A multivariate mixed Poisson regression model was used to evaluate changes in symptom counts across intervention arms after adjusting for sex, age, depressive symptomatology, stress, and executive function. Results: After the intervention, 57% of adolescents showed a decrease in symptom count (median change: -0.3 [0 to -1.5]), with a significant change by intervention arm in the intention-to-treat analysis (p = 0.045). There was a positive linear relationship between change in symptom count and change in depressive symptomatology (p < 0.01) and stress (p < 0.01), with no association with change in weight (p = 0.3). Discussion: Both mHealth and in-person obesity interventions seemed to confer benefits in food addiction symptomatology associated with change in mood and stress. Clinical Trial Registration number: NCT035008353.


Subject(s)
Food Addiction , Pediatric Obesity , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Behavior Therapy , Food Addiction/complications , Food Addiction/therapy , Humans , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Weight Loss
11.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 117: 106771, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803647

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity prevention efforts are needed in the United States, especially for families with low income. The purpose of this study is to determine whether HomeStyles-2, a nutrition education and childhood obesity prevention program for families with children in middle childhood (ages 6 to 11 years), motivates parents to re-shape their home environments and weight-related lifestyle practices to be more supportive of meeting national nutrition and physical activity recommendations and weight status of their children more so than those in the control condition. METHODS: A research-practice partnership with Florida's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) program was formed to conduct a cluster randomized trial to evaluate the HomeStyles-2 intervention. SNAP-Ed-eligible individuals who are parents/caregivers of children aged 6-11 living in the study catchment area will be invited to enroll in the study and participate in a six-lesson series using the HomeStyles-2 program or an attention control program. The primary outcome measures related to parent weight-related behaviors will be assessed on the individual level. Linear mixed models with a hierarchical design will be used to assess outcomes of interest. DISCUSSION: This study has the potential to demonstrate the effectiveness of a new curriculum implemented in a federal nutrition education program. Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, adjustments were made to the intervention design to allow for virtual delivery of the intervention through SNAP-Ed. This unanticipated change will offer much-needed research on the effectiveness of virtual nutrition education, which may help to expand SNAP-Ed's reach across the country. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT05019339.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Assistance , Pediatric Obesity , Child , Health Education , Humans , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , United States
12.
Child Obes ; 18(3): 168-177, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806219

ABSTRACT

Background: Parent mentors are a potential community-based mechanism for delivering behavioral interventions. For communities at a higher risk of obesity and challenges with access to care, such as migrant and seasonal farm workers, this may be an effective intervention for obesity. This study examined the effect of parent mentors on weight outcomes. Methods: This randomized clinical trial assigned parents of 2- to 5 year-old children enrolled in Head Start 1:1:1 to control, a parent mentor teaching We Can!, or a parent mentor teaching an intervention derived from positive deviance methods. The parent mentor arms were designed to have weekly interactions and monthly community meetings over 6 months. The primary outcome was change in adiposity, as measured by body mass indices. Results: We randomized 188 parents, and 155 completed the 6-month visit. Most parents, 107 (58%), had less than a high school education, and 170 (90%) reported Latino ethnicity. In the intention-to-treat analysis, no difference between the groups was observed for change in percent distance from the median or BMI z-score. The median number of interactions was 14 (IQR 10-20) over 6 months for those who did engage, though 24 of 118 (20%) had no interaction. Those with no interactions in We Can! had a mean increase in change from median of 6.7 [standard deviation (SD) = 8.2]; those with higher participation experienced a 0.4 (SD = 9.2) change, p = 0.04. Conclusions: Parent mentors were not effective in changing the adiposity indices in this study overall, with some evidence of efficacy after accounting for participation. Clinicaltrials.gov registration number: NCT03330743.


Subject(s)
Mentors , Pediatric Obesity , Body Mass Index , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Parents/education , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control
13.
Child Obes ; 18(3): 160-167, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806218

ABSTRACT

Background: Few studies have examined the associations of pediatric weight management interventions (PWMIs) with reduction in parental stress. We sought to examine the extent to which a PWMI reduces parental stress and whether changes in parental healthful feeding practices and support for physical activity are associated with reduction in parental stress. Methods: We analyzed data from the Clinic and Community Approaches to Healthy Weight randomized controlled trial (RCT). Parental stress change over 12 months was analyzed using a multivariate mixed linear model. We then examined associations of changes in healthful feeding practices and support for physical activity over 12 months with changes in stress using a multivariate linear model. Results: In multivariate-adjusted models, participation in a PWMI was associated with decrease in parental stress at 12 months, with a mean difference (MD) of -0.24 U [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.45, -0.04]. Increases in scores for exercising regularly [MD = -0.27 (95% CI: -0.52, -0.03)] and keeping healthy food at home [MD = -0.38 (95% CI: -0.66, -0.10)] were associated with decrease in stress. Conclusions: Participation in a PWMI was associated with decrease in parental stress. Encouraging parents of children with overweight and obesity to keep healthy food in the house and exercise regularly may represent important strategies to improve parental stress. PWMI effectiveness studies should consider parental stress as an outcome while addressing social determinants of health that may influence parental stress. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT03012126.


Subject(s)
Pediatric Obesity , Child , Exercise , Humans , Overweight , Parents , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control
14.
Nutrients ; 14(9)2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792585

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, there has been much discussion about the role of diet and antiviral immunity in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Intake levels of vitamins D, C, B12, and iron have been demonstrated to be correlated with lower COVID-19 incidence and mortality. Obesity has been demonstrated to be an independent risk for the severity of COVID-19 infection in adults and also in children. This may be due to different mechanisms, mainly including the gut dysbiosis status observed in obese children. Moreover, the existence of a gut-lung axis added new knowledge to on the potential mechanisms by which diet and dietary substances may affect immune function. The aim of this narrative review is to address the intricate inter-relationship between COVID-19, immune function, and obesity-related inflammation and to describe the role of nutrients and dietary patterns in enhancing the immune system. Two ways to fight against COVID-19 disease exist: one with an antiviral response through immune system boosting and another with antioxidants with an anti-inflammatory effect. In the current pandemic situation, the intake of a varied and balanced diet, rich in micronutrients and bioactive compounds including fibers, should be recommended. However, clinical studies conducted on children affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection and comorbidity are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Adult , Antiviral Agents , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/complications , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 66(2): 256-260, 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789789

ABSTRACT

Objective: The primary goal of the study was to evaluate weight gain in children and adolescents with obesity during the COVID-19 pandemic period, and compare it with the period before the pandemic. Methods: The sample comprised 68 children with obesity aged between 7 and 18 years, 30 (44.1%) boys and 38 (55.9%) girls, who were attended at the pediatric endocrinology clinic of the Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Weight gain in the sample in the pre-lockdown period (December 2, 2018 to March 11, 2020) was compared with that in the lockdown period (March 11, 2020 to February 21, 2021). Results: Approximately one year before the start of the pandemic period, the mean (SD) chronological age was 10.1 years old (± 2.4), and an average weight gain of 4.4 kg (± 4.8) was observed during the pre-lockdown period described. One year after the start of the pandemic, mean (SD) chronological age was 11.8 years old (± 2.4), and an average weight gain of 8.5 kg (± 7.6) was observed in the lockdown period described. When we compared the weight gain in the two periods, it was higher in the pandemic period, both in girls and boys (p = 0.013 and 0.035, respectively). Conclusion: The results of the study show that the period of social isolation adopted to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with increased weight gain in the studied population, probably due to a reduction in physical activities and an increase in energy consumption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Gain
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between demographics, family exercise participation, family discouragement of exercise, and the children's physical and sedentary behaviors to identify specific areas of physical activity intervention for children with parents engaged in medical weight management (MWM). METHODS: Parents (n = 294) of children aged 2-18 years old were recruited from two university MWM programs to complete a one-time survey. Bivariate analyses tested associations. RESULTS: Parents reported that sedentary activity was higher for children who identified as racial minorities (t(141) = -2.05, p < 0.05). Mobile phone and tablet use was higher for adolescents compared to school age and young children (H(2) = 10.96, p < 01) Exercise game use was higher for racial minority children compared to white children (U = 9440.5, z = 2.47, p ≤ 0.03). Male children (t(284) = 1.83, p < 0.07), children perceived to have a healthy weight status (t(120) = 4.68, p < 0.00), and younger children (t(289) = 1.79, p < 0.08) all engaged in more strenuous physical activity. Family exercise participation (t(162) = -2.93, p < 0.01) and family discouragement of exercise (U = 7813.50, z = -2.06, p ≤ 0.04) were significantly higher for children in racial minority families. CONCLUSIONS: Future work should determine methods to engage children and their parents participating in MWM in physical activities together to ensure that the changes the parents are making with MWM are sustainable.


Subject(s)
Pediatric Obesity , Sedentary Behavior , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Exercise , Humans , Male , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Schools , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 49: 114-120, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Concomitantly to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in the child population there was already another pandemic wave in progress: childhood obesity. Numerous studies in adults have been carried out and describe obesity as an independent risk and prognostic factor for the severity of COVID-19. This study aims to systematically review the literature on the relation between weight excess and the severity of COVID-19 in children and adolescents. METHODS: This systematic review was developed following the PRISMA standards (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis). The literature search was performed in September 2020, in the following databases: MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, Scopus, The Cochrane Library (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL)), Web of Science, BVS/LILACS and SciELO. Registration on the PROSPERO platform (International Prospective Registry of Systematic Reviews) can be found under the registration number: CRD42021230686. RESULTS: Of the 667 selected articles, 11 were included according to all agreed criteria, most of them being unicentric and American. In assessing the risk of bias and quality, following the criteria of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, eight studies achieved scores higher than 7. Only 5 studies sought to assess obesity and its relation with worse outcomes (such as need for pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), mechanical ventilation (MV), tracheostomy, hospital readmission and mortality), and out of these, only one article demonstrated this comorbidity as a prognostic factor for worse evolution of the COVID picture. CONCLUSIONS: Few studies in the literature seek to assess excess weight and its relation with worse outcomes of COVID-19 in children and adolescents. Taking into account that there is already scientific evidence on this subject in adult patients, it is necessary to carry out more research in the pediatric age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(3)2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760486

ABSTRACT

Childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are multifactorial diseases influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The Mediterranean Diet (MD) seems to modulate the genetic predisposition to obesity or MetS in European adults. The FTO gene has also been shown to have an impact on the MD benefits to avoid obesity or MetS. Since these interaction effects have been scarcely analyzed in European youth, the aim was to describe the gene-MD interplay, analyzing the impact of the genetic factors to reduce the obesity and MetS risk through MD adherence, and the MD impact in the obesity and MetS genetic profile. From the limited evidence on gene-MD interaction studies in European youth, a study showed that the influence of high MD adherence on adiposity and MetS was only observed with a limited number of risk alleles; the gene-MD interplay showed sex-specific differences, being higher in females. Most results analyzed in European adults elucidate that, the relationship between MD adherence and both obesity and MetS risk, could be modulated by obesity genetic variants and vice versa. Further research is needed, to better understand the inter-individual differences in the association between MD and body composition, and the integration of omics and personalized nutrition considering MD.


Subject(s)
Diet, Mediterranean , Metabolic Syndrome , Pediatric Obesity , Adiposity/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/genetics , Child , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/genetics
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736898

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Childhood obesity is an important public health problem. Children with overweight or obesity often tend to show the pediatric inactivity triad components; these involve exercise deficit disorder, pediatric dynapenia, and physical illiteracy. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of an active video games (AVG) intervention combined with multicomponent exercise on muscular fitness, physical activity (PA), and motor skills in children with overweight or obesity. (2) Methods: A total of 29 (13 girls) children (10.07 ± 0.84 years) with overweight or obesity were randomly allocated in the intervention group (AVG group; n = 21) or in the control group (CG; n = 8). The intervention group performed a 5-month AVG training using the Xbox 360® with the Kinect, the Nintendo Wii®, dance mats, and the BKOOL® interactive cycling simulator, combined with multicomponent exercise, performing three sessions per week. The control group continued their daily activities without modification. Weight, PA using accelerometers, and motor competence using the Test of Gross Motor Development 3rd edition were measured. Muscular fitness was evaluated through the Counter Movement Jump height, maximal isometric strength of knee extension and handgrip strength, and lean mass using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were performed. The biserial correlation coefficients (r) were calculated. Spearman's correlation coefficients among PA, muscular fitness, and motor competence variables were also calculated. (3) Results: The AVG group significantly increased their knee extension maximal isometric strength (4.22 kg; p < 0.01), handgrip strength (1.93 kg; p < 0.01), and jump height (1.60 cm; p < 0.01), while the control group only increased the knee extension maximal isometric strength (3.15 kg; p < 0.01). The AVG group improved motor competence and light physical activity (p < 0.05) and decreased sedentary time (p < 0.05). Lean mass improved in both AVG group and CG (p < 0.05). Lastly, the percentage of improvement of motor skills positively correlated with the percentage of improvement in vigorous PA (r = 0.673; p = 0.003) and the percentage of improvement in CMJ (r = 0.466; p = 0.039). (4) Conclusions: A 5-month intervention combining AVG with multicomponent training seems to have positive effects on muscle fitness, motor competence, and PA in children with overweight or obesity.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Motor Skills/physiology , Pediatric Obesity , Physical Fitness , Video Games , Body Mass Index , Child , Female , Hand Strength/physiology , Humans , Isometric Contraction/physiology , Knee/physiology , Male , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Physical Fitness/physiology , Video Games/classification
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5152): 1766-1772, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727019

ABSTRACT

During June 2021, the highly transmissible† B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, became the predominant circulating strain in the United States. U.S. pediatric COVID-19-related hospitalizations increased during July-August 2021 following emergence of the Delta variant and peaked in September 2021.§ As of May 12, 2021, CDC recommended COVID-19 vaccinations for persons aged ≥12 years,¶ and on November 2, 2021, COVID-19 vaccinations were recommended for persons aged 5-11 years.** To date, clinical signs and symptoms, illness course, and factors contributing to hospitalizations during the period of Delta predominance have not been well described in pediatric patients. CDC partnered with six children's hospitals to review medical record data for patients aged <18 years with COVID-19-related hospitalizations during July-August 2021.†† Among 915 patients identified, 713 (77.9%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 (acute COVID-19 as the primary or contributing reason for hospitalization), 177 (19.3%) had incidental positive SARS-CoV-2 test results (asymptomatic or mild infection unrelated to the reason for hospitalization), and 25 (2.7%) had multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a rare but serious inflammatory condition associated with COVID-19.§§ Among the 713 patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 24.7% were aged <1 year, 17.1% were aged 1-4 years, 20.1% were aged 5-11 years, and 38.1% were aged 12-17 years. Approximately two thirds of patients (67.5%) had one or more underlying medical conditions, with obesity being the most common (32.4%); among patients aged 12-17 years, 61.4% had obesity. Among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 15.8% had a viral coinfection¶¶ (66.4% of whom had respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] infection). Approximately one third (33.9%) of patients aged <5 years hospitalized for COVID-19 had a viral coinfection. Among 272 vaccine-eligible (aged 12-17 years) patients hospitalized for COVID-19, one (0.4%) was fully vaccinated.*** Approximately one half (54.0%) of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 received oxygen support, 29.5% were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and 1.5% died; of those requiring respiratory support, 14.5% required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Among pediatric patients with COVID-19-related hospitalizations, many had severe illness and viral coinfections, and few vaccine-eligible patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were vaccinated, highlighting the importance of vaccination for those aged ≥5 years and other prevention strategies to protect children and adolescents from COVID-19, particularly those with underlying medical conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Male , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
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