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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5152): 1766-1772, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727019

ABSTRACT

During June 2021, the highly transmissible† B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, became the predominant circulating strain in the United States. U.S. pediatric COVID-19-related hospitalizations increased during July-August 2021 following emergence of the Delta variant and peaked in September 2021.§ As of May 12, 2021, CDC recommended COVID-19 vaccinations for persons aged ≥12 years,¶ and on November 2, 2021, COVID-19 vaccinations were recommended for persons aged 5-11 years.** To date, clinical signs and symptoms, illness course, and factors contributing to hospitalizations during the period of Delta predominance have not been well described in pediatric patients. CDC partnered with six children's hospitals to review medical record data for patients aged <18 years with COVID-19-related hospitalizations during July-August 2021.†† Among 915 patients identified, 713 (77.9%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 (acute COVID-19 as the primary or contributing reason for hospitalization), 177 (19.3%) had incidental positive SARS-CoV-2 test results (asymptomatic or mild infection unrelated to the reason for hospitalization), and 25 (2.7%) had multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a rare but serious inflammatory condition associated with COVID-19.§§ Among the 713 patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 24.7% were aged <1 year, 17.1% were aged 1-4 years, 20.1% were aged 5-11 years, and 38.1% were aged 12-17 years. Approximately two thirds of patients (67.5%) had one or more underlying medical conditions, with obesity being the most common (32.4%); among patients aged 12-17 years, 61.4% had obesity. Among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 15.8% had a viral coinfection¶¶ (66.4% of whom had respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] infection). Approximately one third (33.9%) of patients aged <5 years hospitalized for COVID-19 had a viral coinfection. Among 272 vaccine-eligible (aged 12-17 years) patients hospitalized for COVID-19, one (0.4%) was fully vaccinated.*** Approximately one half (54.0%) of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 received oxygen support, 29.5% were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and 1.5% died; of those requiring respiratory support, 14.5% required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Among pediatric patients with COVID-19-related hospitalizations, many had severe illness and viral coinfections, and few vaccine-eligible patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were vaccinated, highlighting the importance of vaccination for those aged ≥5 years and other prevention strategies to protect children and adolescents from COVID-19, particularly those with underlying medical conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Male , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
3.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Home isolation during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown strongly impacted everyday life, affecting, in particular, eating habits and everyday activity. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the pandemic on behaviors and subsequent changes in body mass index (BMI) in children from Southern Poland. METHODS: The study included 206 participants (104 females and 102 males) with a complete analysis of 177 participants (96 females and 81 males) with a mean age of 12.8 ± 2.6 years admitted to three pediatric endocrinology clinics (Rzeszów, Kraków, and Katowice) due to simple obesity, type 1 diabetes mellitus, somatotropin pituitary deficiency on growth hormone replacement therapy, and other endocrine and metabolic disorders between June and September 2020. The study used a self-prepared questionnaire regarding eating habits, physical activity, screen time, and sleep before and during the lockdown. Anthropometric measurements were performed under clinical settings twice (before the pandemic in January-March 2020, and in June-September 2020). RESULTS: During the lockdown, BMI z-scores increased over the whole group, especially in obese children (0.073 ± 0.18, p = 0.002). The number of children who declared low and high physical activity of more than 60 min per day declined from 41.2% and 18.6% to 31.1% and 6.2% (p = 0.03 and p < 0.001), respectively; sleep times over 8 h increased (46.9% vs. 60.4% p = 0.007); screen times over 5 h daily increased (14.7% to 46.9%, p < 0.001). Eating habits did not change significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Daily physical activity and sleep levels were affected by the pandemic leading to the increase of BMI, especially in obese patients with endocrine disorders. During the COVID-19 pandemic, forward-thinking strategies must be developed to prevent childhood obesity.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/methods , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Life Style , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Social Isolation , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Pediatr Obes ; 17(5): e12874, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583542

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. Currently, the COVID-19 pandemic is still ongoing. What changes have taken place in the obesity and obesity-related lifestyle behaviours of adolescents during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic? OBJECTIVE: This study aims at analysing the changes in obesity and lifestyle behaviours of Chinese adolescents before and 1 year after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, providing evidence for the global strategies to respond to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent obesity. METHODS: Physical examinations and student health and influencing factors questionnaires were conducted among 6047 adolescents aged 11-16 years by health professionals in Shanghai, China, before the COVID-19 pandemic (September-November of 2019) and 1 year after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic (September-November of 2020). Paired χ 2 tests, paired t-tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to evaluate the changes in the obesity prevalence, BMI and lifestyle behaviours from 2019 to 2020. RESULTS: 1 year after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the obesity prevalence of Chinese adolescents rose from 14.2% to 15.4% (p < 0.01), mainly because of the increase in boys. And the average BMI increased from 20.3 to 21.2 kg/m2 (p < 0.01). Their lifestyle behaviours have also significantly changed. The mobile screen time increased from 0.25-1.50 h/day to 0.33-2.00 h/day (p < 0.01). The proportion of adolescents who participated in MVPA for ≥60 min/day on all 7 days during the past week dropped from 14.4% to 11.7% (p < 0.01). The generalized estimation equation analysis indicated that adolescents who participated in MVPA for ≥60 min/day on all 7 days had a lower likelihood of having obesity. Boys with computer time ≥2 h/day and girls with mobile screen time ≥2 h/day or TV time ≥2 h/day had a higher likelihood of having obesity. CONCLUSION: This study found that 1 year after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the BMI and obesity prevalence of Chinese adolescents increased and obesity-related lifestyle behaviours have also changed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control
5.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575167

ABSTRACT

Childhood obesity is a worldwide health emergency. In many cases, it is directly linked to inappropriate eating habits and a sedentary lifestyle. During lockdown aimed at containing the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) spread, children have been forced to stay at home. The present study aimed at investigating the lifestyles of outpatients (aged 5-17 years) with complicated obesity enrolled in the day-hospital food education program at the Children's Hospital Bambino Gesù in Rome. A survey was performed based on a structured questionnaire, investigating dietary habits and lifestyles. The questionnaire answers were rated as "yes/no/sometimes" or "often/never/sometimes". Eighty-eight families correctly completed the questionnaire between March and May 2020. The results highlighted that 85.2% (N = 75) of the patients ate breakfast regularly, and 64.3% (N = 72) consumed fruit as an afternoon snack. However, 21.6% (N = 19) did just "often" home workouts, and 50.0% (N = 44) reported an increase of feeling hungry with "sometimes" frequency. There is a significant relationship of feeling hungry with gender (p < 0.0001) and age (p = 0.048) and, also, between gender with having breakfast (p = 0.020) and cooking (p = 0.006). Living a healthy lifestyle during lockdown was difficult for the outpatients, mainly due to the increase in a sedentary lifestyle and the increase in feeling hungry, but some healthy eating habits were maintained, as advised during the food education program provided before lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet, Healthy , Feeding Behavior , Patient Education as Topic , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology
7.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 35(3): 297-302, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561349

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed everyday life. The Korean government urged schools to close as a measure of social distancing, and children and adolescents seemed to gain weight due to home confinement. We aimed to investigate the trends in weight changes in children during the pandemic period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 139 children aged between 6 and 12 years who visited the pediatric endocrine clinic for regular growth follow-up for 1 year during the COVID-19 pandemic. We analyzed changes in the body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, and proportion of children who were overweight or obese over a period of 1 year. RESULTS: The BMI and BMI z-scores of the 139 children increased significantly over the year. The increase was maximum during the first three months of the COVID-19 pandemic, with little change between the third and sixth month of the pandemic. The proportion of children who were overweight or obese increased over time, from 24.5% at the COVID-19 pandemic baseline to 38.1% 1 year later (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19-related lockdown resulted in significant weight gain in Korean children. Changes in BMI showed different trends depending on the degree of school closure. An overall shift from normal weight to overweight or obesity was observed during the pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Body Mass Index , Child , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Overweight/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Schools , Weight Gain
8.
Obes Rev ; 22 Suppl 6: e13215, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553950

ABSTRACT

Establishment of the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) has resulted in a surveillance system which provides regular, reliable, timely, and accurate data on children's weight status-through standardized measurement of bodyweight and height-in the WHO European Region. Additional data on dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary behavior, family background, and school environments are collected in several countries. In total, 45 countries in the European Region have participated in COSI. The first five data collection rounds, between 2007 and 2021, yielded measured anthropometric data on over 1.3 million children. In COSI, data are collected according to a common protocol, using standardized instruments and procedures. The systematic collection and analysis of these data enables intercountry comparisons and reveals differences in the prevalence of childhood thinness, overweight, normal weight, and obesity between and within populations. Furthermore, it facilitates investigation of the relationship between overweight, obesity, and potential risk or protective factors and improves the understanding of the development of overweight and obesity in European primary-school children in order to support appropriate and effective policy responses.


Subject(s)
Pediatric Obesity , Child , Exercise , Humans , Overweight , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Schools , World Health Organization
9.
Obes Rev ; 22 Suppl 6: e13222, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546396

ABSTRACT

Childhood obesity is a public health concern globally, with generally higher prevalence rates in boys compared to girls. Although biological sex is an important determinant, gender roles and norms influence the exposure and vulnerability to risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. Norms and roles might be reinforced or change due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related measures as well as the exposure to risk factors for childhood obesity. COVID-19 related changes, such as home confinement, influence a child's risk of obesity. Using Dahlgren and Whitehead's model of the main determinants of health, this paper aims to provide a roadmap for future research on sex, gender, and childhood obesity during the time of COVID-19. It examines how COVID-19 has led to important changes in children's general socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental conditions, social and community networks, and individual lifestyle factors and how these may affect a child's risk for obesity. It focuses on the influence of gender and sex and outlines key considerations and indicators to examine in future studies concerned with promoting health and gender equity and equality. We need to understand the differential impact of COVID-19 related measures on girls' and boys' risk for obesity to adequately react with preventive measures, policies, and programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics , Sex Factors
10.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542684

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, social isolation, semi-lockdown, and "stay at home" orders were imposed upon the population in the interest of infection control. This dramatically changes the daily routine of children and adolescents, with a large impact on lifestyle and wellbeing. Children with obesity have been shown to be at a higher risk of negative lifestyle changes and weight gain during lockdown. Obesity and COVID-19 negatively affect children and adolescents' wellbeing, with adverse effects on psychophysical health, due in large part to food choices, snacking between meals, and comfort eating. Moreover, a markable decrease in physical activity levels and an increase in sedentary behavior is associated with weight gain, especially in children with excessive weight. In addition, obesity is the most common comorbidity in severe cases of COVID-19, suggesting that immune dysregulation, metabolic unbalance, inadequate nutritional status, and dysbiosis are key factors in the complex mechanistic and clinical interplay between obesity and COVID-19. This narrative review aims to describe the most up-to-date evidence on the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in children and adolescents, focusing on the role of excessive weight and weight gain in pediatrics. The COVID-19 pandemic has taught us that nutrition education interventions, access to healthy food, as well as family nutrition counselling should be covered by pediatric services to prevent obesity, which worsens disease outcomes related to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Snacks
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2067, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to investigate the association between content-based problematic smartphone use and obesity in school-age children and adolescents, including variations in the association by educational stage and sex. METHODS: Two-stage non-probability sampling was used to recruit 8419 participants from nineteen primary schools, five middle schools, and thirteen high schools in Shanghai in December 2017. Obesity was identified by body mass index (BMI), which was obtained from the school physical examination record, while problematic smartphone use was measured by the Revised Problematic Smartphone Use Classification Scale as the independent variable. RESULTS: The rates of obesity varied with educational stages, while problematic smartphone use increased with educational stages. Male students reported higher obesity rates (37.1%vs19.4%, P < 0.001) and greater problematic smartphone use scores (25.65 ± 10.37 vs 22.88 ± 8.94, P < 0.001) than female students. Problematic smartphone use for entertainment (smartphone users addicted to entertainment games, music, videos, novels and other applications) was positively associated to obesity status for primary school [odds ratio (OR), 1.030; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.005-1.057] and high school students (OR, 1.031; 95% CI, 1.004-1.059). For female students, problematic smartphone use for entertainment was positively associated with obesity status (OR, 1.046; 95% CI, 1.018-1.075). CONCLUSIONS: Problematic smartphone use may be associated with obesity in children and adolescents. The association differed based on the educational stage and sex, and the difference possessed dimensional specificity.


Subject(s)
Pediatric Obesity , Smartphone , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Schools
13.
J Pediatr Nurs ; 63: 111-116, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Since the end of 2019, the world has been dealing with a new crisis caused by the widespread and global outbreak of the coronavirus that has affected various aspects of life. The stay-at-home orders issued to prevent the virus from spreading have caused many problems for families, such as obesity and overweight, particularly among children. As parents play a key role in the prevention of childhood obesity, the present qualitative study aimed to examine the experiences of parents regarding the obesity or overweight of their children during the outbreak of coronavirus. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was performed using a qualitative descriptive approach. The sampling method was purposeful, and the required data were collected through in-depth, unstructured, and face-to-face interviews with 16 parents of children with obesity or overweight. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using Graneheim and Lundman conventional content analysis approach. RESULTS: The findings were divided into five main themes, including overeating while stuck at home, leading to the sedentary life, disturbed sleep-wake rhythm of the children, indifference of the children towards their appearance, and the inability of parents to control the obesity of their children. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected families of children with obesity in various ways. The experiences of such parents provide new insight into parental struggles around managing their child's obesity particularly during such stressful times. IMPLICATIONS: An in-depth study of the experiences of the parents and perception of their challenges and concerns about childhood obesity during the COVID-19 pandemic can lead to the development of useful and effective strategies for the control of childhood obesity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Parents , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Qualitative Research
14.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(11): 1760-1769, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513918

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Beyond sleep duration, other facets of sleep such as variability and timing may be associated with obesity risk in youth. However, data are limited. Using a longitudinal design, this study tested whether multiple facets of sleep were associated with fat mass gain over 1 year. METHODS: A convenience sample of non-treatment-seeking youth (age 8-17 years) wore actigraphy monitors for 14 days. Average weekly sleep duration, within-person sleep duration variability, weekend catch-up sleep, bedtime and wake time shift, social jet lag, bedtime, wake time, and sleep midpoint were calculated. The association of each facet of baseline sleep with 1-year fat mass, adjusting for baseline fat mass and height, was examined. RESULTS: A total of 137 youths (54.0% female; mean [SD], age 12.5 [2.6] years; 28.4% non-Hispanic Black or African American; baseline fat mass = 15.3 [8.9] kg; 1-year fat mass = 17.0 [10.0] kg; 28.5% with baseline overweight or obesity) were studied. Wake time (p = 0.03) and sleep midpoint (p = 0.02) were inversely associated with 1-year fat mass, such that earlier wake time and midpoint were associated with higher 1-year fat mass. No other facet of sleep was significantly associated with 1-year fat mass (p > 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Using objective measures, youth with earlier wake times and sleep midpoints had greater gains in fat mass. Additional research is needed to determine whether sleep timing may be a modifiable target to prevent pediatric obesity.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , Pediatric Obesity , Actigraphy , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Sleep
15.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 30(1): 45-49, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499306

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether the efficacy of a standard-of-care pediatric obesity treatment was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Analyses leveraged data from an ongoing pediatric obesity treatment trial involving 230 lower-income, urban children aged 6 to 12 years. Mixed-effects regression models compared children who participated in a 12-month weight-management intervention before versus during the COVID-19 pandemic on change from baseline in BMI z score (ΔzBMI) at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. RESULTS: The observed pattern of ΔzBMI was significantly different before versus during the pandemic (χ2 = 22.73, p < 0.0001). Children treated before the pandemic maintained an average weight loss of -0.06 ΔzBMI at 12 months, whereas children treated during the pandemic steadily gained weight over time, averaging a net gain of 0.11 ΔzBMI at 12 months (χ2 = 34.99, p < 0.0001). Treatment session completion did not differ before versus during the pandemic (60.4% vs. 55.7%, respectively; p = 0.30) or account for differences in ΔzBMI. CONCLUSIONS: Similar reductions in intervention efficacy may be anticipated in other pediatric obesity treatment trials conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many families that have struggled with managing their child's weight during this period may need encouragement to continue engaging in structured weight management as society renormalizes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Body Mass Index , Child , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488681

ABSTRACT

Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic altered adults' and children's lifestyles and habits, causing an increase in body weight. Adolescents are sensitive to habit changes and, because of their insufficient capacity to deal with the unexpected COVID-19 changes, were at greater risk of noncommunicable disease development due to the consequences of adopting unhealthy habits. The survey aimed to reveal the changes in nutritional status and lifestyle habits of school children in Croatia and to assess their nutrition knowledge and emotional state and feelings about COVID-19 lockdown. Self-reported data from 1370 school children aged 10 to 15 years were obtained to examine the influence of the lockdown on their nutritional status, lifestyle and emotional status, and to assess their nutrition knowledge. The study revealed that the COVID-19 lockdown has caused an increase in the proportion of overweight and obesity among Croatian school children who changed their lifestyle habits towards being less physically active, spending more time using screen-based media and revealing potential psychological distress. However, the schoolchildren had a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet assessed with the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents KIDMED index and had good nutrition knowledge. Public health programs promoting a healthy lifestyle and involving the whole family, in a school environment, could provide children with a healthy adulthood.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Diet, Healthy , Diet, Mediterranean , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Quarantine , Sedentary Behavior , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior , Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Age Factors , Child , Child Behavior , Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Croatia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Female , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Nutritional Status , Nutritive Value , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Screen Time , Time Factors
19.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477978

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lockdown is an effective nonpharmaceutical intervention to reduce coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission, but it restricts daily activity. We aimed to investigate the impact of lockdown on pediatric body weight and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: The systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. Four online databases (EMBASE, Medline, the Cochrane Library and CINAHL) were searched. RESULTS: The pooled results showed that lockdown was associated with significant body weight gain (MD 2.67, 95% CI 2.12-3.23; p < 0.00001). The BMI of children with comorbidities or obesity did not change significantly. The BMI of general population was significantly higher during lockdown than before the pandemic (MD 0.94, 95% CI 0.32-1.56; p = 0.003). However, heterogeneity was high (I2 = 84%). Among changes in weight classification, increases in the rates of obesity (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.10-1.37; p = 0.0002) and overweight (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.06-1.29; p = 0.001) were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis showed significant increases in body weight and BMI during lockdown among school-age children and adolescents. The prevalence of obesity and overweight also increased. The COVID-19 pandemic worsened the burden of childhood obesity.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Quarantine/methods , Social Isolation , Weight Gain , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 209, 2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The social consequences of COVID-19 pandemic are universally known. In particular, the pediatric population is dealing with a radical lifestyle change. For some risk categories, such as overweight or obese children, the impact of home confinement has been greater than for others. The increased sedentary life, the wrong diet and social distancing have stopped the chance of losing weight. The aims of this study were to analyse the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the behavior changes in a obese pediatric population and to explore the correlation between the new lifestyle and the level of parental instruction. METHODS: Data show features of 40 obese and overweight pediatric patients of our Clinic in Messina (Italy). We evaluated weight, height, BMI and other biochemical parameters: total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglyceride, transaminases, glycemia and insulinemia. After the lockdown, we contacted all patients in order to get some information about diet, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle changes in correlation to the level of their parents' instruction. Additionally, we also evaluated 20 children twice from a clinical and laboratory perspective. RESULTS: The study showed an increase of daily meals during COVID-19 lockdown (3.2 ± 0.4 vs 5 ± 1, P < 0.001). In particular, children whose parents have primary school diploma ate a greater significant number of meals during the lockdown, compared to those who have parents with secondary school diploma (P = 0.0019). In addition, the 95% of patients did low physical activity during the lockdown and the 97.5% spent more time in sedentary activity. Even if BMI's values don't show significant differences, they have increased after the lockdown. We didn't find any correlation between biochemical parameters before and after the lockdown. CONCLUSION: The lockdown has had bad consequences on good style of life's maintenance in overweight and obese children. The absence of a significant correlation between the worsening of biochemical parameters and the lockdown doesn't allow to exclude any long-term consequences. It's safe to assume that, if the hours spent in sedentary activity and the number of meals don't diminish, there will probably repercussion on the biochemical parameters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Exercise/physiology , Life Style , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Quarantine/methods , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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