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2.
Pediatrics ; 149(3)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714832

ABSTRACT

The use of telehealth technology to connect with patients has expanded significantly over the past several years, particularly in response to the global coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This technical report describes the present state of telehealth and its current and potential applications. Telehealth has the potential to transform the way care is delivered to pediatric patients, expanding access to pediatric care across geographic distances, leveraging the pediatric workforce for care delivery, and improving disparities in access to care. However, implementation will require significant efforts to address the digital divide to ensure that telehealth does not inadvertently exacerbate inequities in care. The medical home model will continue to evolve to use telehealth to provide high-quality care for children, particularly for children and youth with special health care needs, in accordance with current and evolving quality standards. Research and metric development are critical for the development of evidence-based best practices and policies in these new models of care. Finally, as pediatric care transitions from traditional fee-for-service payment to alternative payment methods, telehealth offers unique opportunities to establish value-based population health models that are financed in a sustainable manner.


Subject(s)
Health Care Costs , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Pediatrics/methods , Pediatrics/organization & administration , Quality of Health Care/organization & administration , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Patient-Centered Care/economics , Patient-Centered Care/organization & administration , Pediatrics/economics , Pediatrics/standards , Telemedicine/economics , Telemedicine/standards , United States
3.
Arch Dis Child ; 107(3): e14, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691374

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and impact of having paediatric clinicians working in the Clinical Assessment Services (CAS) within NHS 111, a national telephone advice service. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Six NHS 111 providers across England with CAS where volunteer paediatric clinicians (doctors and advanced nurse practitioners (ANPs)) worked between May and December 2020. A data reporting framework was used to compare the outcomes of calls taken by paediatric vs non-paediatric clinicians. PATIENTS: Under 16-year-olds prompting calls to NHS 111 over the study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The disposition (final outcome of calls) taken by paediatric versus non-paediatric clinicians, paediatric clinicians' and patient experience. RESULTS: 70 paediatric clinicians (66 doctors and 4 ANPs) worked flexible shifts in six NHS 111 providers' CAS over the study period: 2535 calls for under 16-year-olds were taken by paediatric clinicians and 137 008 by non-paediatric clinicians. Overall, disposition rates differed significantly between the calls taken by paediatric versus (vs) non-paediatric clinicians: 69% vs 43% were advised on self-care only, 13% vs 18% to attend emergency departments (EDs), 13% vs 29% to attend primary care, 1% vs 4% to receive an urgent ambulance call out and 4% vs 6% referred to another health service, respectively. When compared with recent (all age) national whole data sets, the feedback from calls taken by paediatricians noted a greater proportion of patients/carers reporting that their problem was fully resolved (92% vs 27%). CONCLUSIONS: Introducing paediatric specialists into NHS 111 CAS is likely to increase self-care dispositions, and reduce onward referrals to primary care, ED and ambulances. Future work will evaluate the impact of a national paediatric clinical assessment service to which specific case types are streamed.


Subject(s)
Health Personnel , Pediatrics/methods , Remote Consultation/methods , Telephone , Adolescent , Ambulances/statistics & numerical data , Ambulatory Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , England , Humans , Physicians , Pilot Projects , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , State Medicine , Surveys and Questionnaires , Triage/methods
4.
Clin Nutr ; 41(3): 661-672, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683011

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The Remote Malnutrition Application (R-MAPP) was developed during the COVID-19 pandemic to provide support for health care professionals (HCPs) working in the community to complete remote nutritional assessments, and provide practical guidance for nutritional care. The aim of this study was to modify the R-MAPP into a version suitable for children, Pediatric Remote Malnutrition Application (Pedi-R-MAPP), and provide a structured approach to completing a nutrition focused assessment as part of a technology enabled care service (TECS) consultation. METHODS: A ten-step process was completed: 1) permission to modify adult R-MAPP, 2) literature search to inform the Pedi-R-MAPP content, 3) Pedi-R-MAPP draft, 4) international survey of HCP practice using TECS, 5) nutrition experts invited to participate in a modified Delphi process, 6) first stakeholder meeting to agree purpose/draft of the tool, 7) round-one online survey, 8) statements with consensus removed from survey, 9) round-two online survey for statements with no consensus and 10) second stakeholder meeting with finalisation of the Pedi-R-MAPP nutrition awareness tool. RESULTS: The international survey completed by 463 HCPs, 55% paediatricians, 38% dietitians, 7% nurses/others. When HCPs were asked to look back over the last 12 months, dietitians (n = 110) reported that 5.7 ± 10.6 out of every 10 appointments were completed in person; compared to paediatricians (n = 182) who reported 7.5 ± 7.0 out of every 10 appointments to be in person (p < 0.0001), with the remainder completed as TECS consultations. Overall, 74 articles were identified and used to develop the Pedi-R-MAPP which included colour-coded advice using a traffic light system; green, amber, red and purple. Eighteen participants agreed to participate in the Delphi consensus and completed both rounds of the modified Delphi survey. Agreement was reached at the first meeting on the purpose and draft sections of the proposed tool. In round-one of the online survey, 86% (n = 89/104) of statements reached consensus, whereas in round-two 12.5% (n = 13/104) of statements reached no consensus. At the second expert meeting, contested statements were discussed until agreement was reached and the Pedi-R-MAPP could be finalised. CONCLUSION: The Pedi-R-MAPP nutrition awareness tool was developed using a modified Delphi consensus. This tool aims to support the technological transformation fast-tracked by the COVID-19 pandemic by providing a structured approach to completing a remote nutrition focused assessment, as well as identifying the frequency of follow up along with those children who may require in-person assessment.


Subject(s)
Child Health , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Nutrition Assessment , Remote Consultation/instrumentation , Remote Consultation/methods , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Dietetics/instrumentation , Dietetics/methods , Evidence-Based Practice , Female , Humans , Male , Nutritional Status , Pediatrics/instrumentation , Pediatrics/methods , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20 Suppl 3: 41-46, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, CF centers shifted to a telehealth delivery model. Our study aimed to determine how people with CF (PwCF) and their families experienced telehealth and assessed its quality and acceptability for future CF care. METHODS: The CF Patient and Family State of Care Survey (PFSoC) was fielded from August 31-October 30, 2020. The PFSoC explored themes of overall telehealth quality, ease of use, desirability, and preference for a future mix of in-person and telehealth care. Demographic covariates considered included: gender, age, CFTR modulator status, and region of residence. RESULTS: 424 PwCF and parents of PwCF responded (47% parents). Most (81%) reported a telehealth visit which included a MD/APP and nurse team members. 91% found telehealth easy to use, and 66% reported similar/higher quality than in-person care. One-third (34%) reported the highest desire for future telehealth care, with 45% (n =212) desiring 50% or more of visits conducted via telehealth. Adults were more likely than parents to report highest desire for future telehealth (64% vs. 36%). Respondents who perceived telehealth as similar/higher quality were more likely to desire future telehealth compared to those who perceived telehealth as lower quality (96% vs. 50%). Mixed methods analysis revealed themes affecting perceptions of telehealth. CONCLUSIONS: PwCF desire for future telehealth was influenced by perception of quality and age. Several themes emerged that need to be explored as telehealth is adapted into the CF chronic care model, especially when thinking about integration into pediatric care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication Barriers , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Cystic Fibrosis , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Telemedicine , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Cystic Fibrosis/psychology , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Family Health , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Humans , Models, Organizational , Patient Participation/methods , Patient Participation/psychology , Pediatrics/methods , Pediatrics/trends , Quality Improvement , Quality of Health Care/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards , United States/epidemiology
8.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(2): 532-550, 2021 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545666

ABSTRACT

Purpose Our aim was to critically review recent literature on the use of telehealth for dysphagia during the COVID-19 pandemic and enhance this information in order to provide evidence- and practice-based clinical guidance during and after the pandemic. Method We conducted a rapid systematized review to identify telehealth adaptations during COVID-19, according to peer-reviewed articles published from January to August 2020. Of the 40 articles identified, 11 met the inclusion criteria. Full-text reviews were completed by three raters, followed by qualitative synthesis of the results and description of practical recommendations for the use of telehealth for dysphagia. Results Seven articles were guidelines articles, three were editorials, and one was a narrative review. One article focused on telehealth and dysphagia during COVID-19. The remaining 10 mentioned telehealth in varying degrees while focusing on dysphagia management during the pandemic. No articles discussed pediatrics in depth. The most common procedure for which telehealth was recommended was the clinical swallowing assessment (8/11), followed by therapy (7/11). Six articles characterized telehealth as a second-tier service delivery option. Only one article included brief guidance on telehealth-specific factors, such as legal safeguards, safety, privacy, infrastructure, and facilitators. Conclusions Literature published during the pandemic on telehealth for dysphagia is extremely limited and guarded in endorsing telehealth as an equivalent service delivery model. We have presented prepandemic and emerging current evidence for the safety and reliability of dysphagia telemanagement, in combination with practical guidelines to facilitate the safe adoption of telehealth during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Speech-Language Pathology/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/rehabilitation , Humans , Pandemics , Pediatrics/methods , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(12): 1140-1147, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522400

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The long-term sequelae after SARS-CoV-2 infections in children is unknown. Guidance is needed on helpful models of care for an emerging subset of pediatric patients with postacute/long COVID who continue to experience persistent symptoms after initial COVID-19 diagnosis. Here, we describe a pediatric multidisciplinary post-COVID-19 rehabilitation clinic model as well as a case series of the initial cohort of patients who presented to this clinic. A consecutive sample of nine patients (pediatric patients <21 yrs of age) who presented to our clinic are included. The most common presenting symptoms were fatigue (8 of 9 patients), headaches (6 of 9), difficulty with schoolwork (6 of 8), "brain fog" (4 of 9), and dizziness/lightheadedness (4 of 9). Most patients had decreased scores on self-reported quality-of-life measures compared with healthy controls. In the patients who participated in neuropsychological testing, a subset demonstrated difficulties with sustained auditory attention and divided attention; however, most of these patients had preexisting attention and/or mood concerns. There were also some who self-reported elevated depression and anxiety symptoms. Pediatric patients with postacute/long COVID may present with a variety of physical, cognitive, and mood symptoms. We present a model of care to address these symptoms through a multidisciplinary rehabilitation approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Patient Care Team , Pediatrics/methods , Subacute Care/methods , Adolescent , Anxiety/rehabilitation , Anxiety/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Fatigue/rehabilitation , Fatigue/virology , Female , Headache/rehabilitation , Headache/virology , Humans , Male , Neuropsychological Tests , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 61(1): 34-41, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505941

ABSTRACT

In Italy, during the second epidemic wave of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), rapid antigenic (Ag) test at point-of-care (POCT) station were employed to quickly evaluate large numbers of swabs. We collected data of all children who underwent the Ag test in our hospital. All positive patients were recalled to perform reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. A total of 2133 tests were collected over 1 month. Clinical data of 1941 children (median age = 3.7 years) were analyzed: 1343 (69.2%) patients complained of symptoms, 594 (30.6%) had a history of close contact with SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals. Among symptoms reported, acute rhinitis was the most frequent (67.9%), followed by cough (42.6%) and fever (31.5%). Among all tests, 95.8% resulted negative, 4.2% positive: 37/89 were confirmed. In confirmed cases, fever (56.2% vs 32.2%; P = .041) and gastrointestinal symptoms (18.8% vs 6.25%; P = .041) were significantly more frequent compared with negative children. The use of POCT for Ag test seems appropriate for SARS-CoV-2 screening in the pediatric population. In children, fever and gastrointestinal symptoms may constitute red flags of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Systems/standards , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/standards , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pediatrics/methods , Point-of-Care Systems/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
11.
Pediatr Transplant ; 26(1): e14152, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470453

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic and consequent lockdowns, the use of telehealth interventions has rapidly increased both in the general population and among transplant recipients. Among pediatric transplant recipients, this most frequently takes the form of interventions on mobile devices, or mHealth, such as remote visits via video chat or phone, phone-based monitoring, and mobile apps. Telehealth interventions may offer the opportunity to provide care that minimizes many of the barriers of in-person care. METHODS: The present review followed the PRISMA guidelines. Sources up until October 2020 were initially identified through searches of PsycInfo® and PubMed® . RESULTS: We identified ten papers that reported findings from adult interventions and five studies based in pediatrics. Eight of the adult publications stemmed from the same two trials; within the pediatric subset, this was the case for two papers. Studies that have looked at mHealth interventions have found high acceptability rates over the short run, but there is a general lack of data on long-term use. CONCLUSIONS: The literature surrounding pediatric trials specifically is sparse with all findings referencing interventions that are in early stages of development, ranging from field tests to small feasibility trials. The lack of research highlights the need for a multi-center RCT that utilizes robust measures of medication adherence and other outcome variables, with longer-term follow-up before telehealth interventions should be fully embraced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility , Organ Transplantation , Pediatrics/methods , Postoperative Care/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , Attitude to Health , Canada , Child , Europe , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pediatrics/economics , Pediatrics/trends , Postoperative Care/economics , Postoperative Care/trends , Telemedicine/economics , Telemedicine/trends , United States
14.
Pediatr Radiol ; 51(11): 1991-1999, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a worldwide pandemic in March 2020, many authors have noted the collateral damage on non-COVID-19-related illnesses. These indirect effects of the pandemic have resulted in people presenting later and with more severe stages of disease, even if their diagnoses are not directly related to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: We studied these indirect effects of COVID-19 on the imaging workup and outcomes for pediatric patients at our center who had acute appendicitis during the pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of cases in children ≤18 years who were evaluated for acute appendicitis during the same period, March 1 to May 31, in both 2019 and 2020. We compared demographic and clinical data as well as surgical and pathological findings, and we graded imaging findings according to severity. Differences in patient outcomes were assessed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test and the Pearson chi-square test. RESULTS: The total number of pediatric patients evaluated with imaging for acute appendicitis dropped by 43% between 2019 and 2020 (298 vs. 169), but the total number of children treated remained similar (59 vs. 51). There was proportionate use of US and CT in each timeframe but a higher percentage of positive imaging findings in 2020 (50/169, 29.6% vs. 56/298, 18.7% in 2019, P=0.04). There were more imaging examinations with features of complicated appendicitis among positive cases (9/51, 18% vs. 5/59, 8% in 2019, P=0.08) and more pathologically proven perforated cases during the pandemic (14/51, 27% vs. 6/59, 10% in 2019, P=0.11), although these results did not reach statistical significance. There were no changes in surgical management, vital signs, laboratory values, length of stay or complication rates. CONCLUSION: There was a large drop in the number of pediatric patients imaged for acute appendicitis during the acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic despite similar numbers of patients treated. The utilization trends of US vs. CT remained stable between time periods. The differences in imaging findings and perforation rates were less pronounced compared to other published studies.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pediatrics/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Acute Disease , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; 28(4): 483-489, 2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357502

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pediatric neurosurgery outpatient consultation is conducted face-to-face (FTF) conventionally. Reasons for not using telemedicine include the perceived difficulty with obtaining a reliable history and an inability to perform a physical examination. However, FTF consultation can cause distress and inconvenience to the child and family. In 2018, the authors' department piloted a clinical nurse specialist-led telephone consultation (TC) for follow-up appointments. This was extended to the routine neurosurgery clinics in 2020. In this study, the authors evaluate 1) the effectiveness of TC, 2) families' experience with TC compared with traditional FTF appointments, and 3) the factors associated with their preferences. METHODS: In this prospective study using a survey methodology, TCs carried out by 2 consultant neurosurgeons and 1 nurse specialist over 8 weeks were evaluated. Based on clinical background, each patient was assigned to a TC or FTF appointment. Clinical and surgical details and home postal code were recorded. At the end of each TC, the clinician recorded whether the child required an FTF appointment within 3 months. In addition, patients/families answered 1) how the current TC compared with FTF consultation, and 2) their preference of TC or FTF for the next consultation. RESULTS: A total of 114 TCs were included. No child required an FTF appointment within 3 months. Overall, compared with an FTF appointment, the TC was the "same/better/much better" for 101 families (89%), and "worse/much worse" for 13 (11%). Two-thirds of families preferred the next appointment to be a TC. Families attending a TC for new appointments preferred the next appointment to be FTF compared with those attending a follow-up TC (6/8 [75%] vs 31/106 [29%], p = 0.006). A high rating of the current TC was associated with a preference for a TC as the next appointment (p < 0.0001). Families preferring TC over FTF lived farther from the hospital (mean 38 vs 27 km) (p = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: From the clinicians' perspective, TC is adequate in appropriately selected patients as either the primary mode of consultation or as a triage system. From a service users' perspective, the majority of families felt that the appointment was the same/better than traditional FTF appointments. The findings suggested that 1) new patients should be offered FTF appointments; 2) follow-up TCs should be offered to families when possible; and 3) clinicians should develop their skills in conducting TCs. The authors' results have led to a modification of our algorithm in delivering traditional outpatient service and telemedicine with telephone.


Subject(s)
Neurosurgery/methods , Pediatrics/methods , Remote Consultation , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Patient Satisfaction , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telephone , United Kingdom , Young Adult
16.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 60(11-12): 452-458, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354635

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine, more novel in provision of pediatric care, rapidly expanded due to the recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of telemedicine for acute and chronic care provision in an underserved pediatric primary care center. Items assessed included patient demographic data, chief complaint, and alternative care locations if telemedicine was not available. In our setting, 62% of telemedicine visits were for acute concerns and 38% for chronic concerns. Of acute telemedicine visits, 16.5% of families would have sought care in the Emergency Department/Urgent Care, and 11.3% would have opted for no care had telemedicine not been offered. The most common chronic issues addressed were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (80.3%) and asthma (16.9%). Racial disparities existed among our telemedicine visits with Black patients utilizing telemedicine services less frequently than non-Black patients. Telemedicine is feasible for pediatric acute and chronic care, but systems must be designed to mitigate widening racial disparities.


Subject(s)
Medically Underserved Area , Pediatrics/methods , Primary Health Care/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Child , Child, Preschool , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Retrospective Studies
20.
Hosp Pediatr ; 11(6): 636-649, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238799

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Pediatric family-centered rounds (FCRs) have been shown to have benefits in staff satisfaction, teaching, and rounding efficiency, but no systematic review has been conducted to explicitly examine the humanistic impact of FCRs. OBJECTIVE: The objective with this review is to determine if FCRs promote the core values of humanism in medicine by answering the question, "Do FCRs promote humanistic pediatric care?" DATA SOURCES: Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we conducted a search of PubMed, Web of Science, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Dissertation Abstracts for peer-reviewed pediatric studies through January 1, 2020. We used search terms including FCRs, communication, humanism, and the specific descriptors in the Gold Foundation's definition of humanism. STUDY SELECTION: Abstracts (n = 1003) were assessed for 5 primary outcomes: empathy, enhanced communication, partnership, respect, and satisfaction and service. We evaluated 158 full-text articles for inclusion, reconciling discrepancies through an iterative process. DATA EXTRACTION: Data abstraction, thematic analysis, and conceptual synthesis were conducted on 29 studies. RESULTS: Pediatric family-centered rounds (FCRs) improved humanistic outcomes within all 5 identified themes. Not all studies revealed improvement within every category. The humanistic benefits of FCRs are enhanced through interventions targeted toward provider-family barriers, such as health literacy. Patients with limited English proficiency or disabilities or who were receiving intensive care gained additional benefits. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric FCRs promote humanistic outcomes including increased empathy, partnership, respect, service, and communication. Limitations included difficulty in defining humanism, variable implementation, and inconsistent reporting of humanistic outcomes. Future efforts should include highlighting FCR's humanistic benefits, universal implementation, and adapting FCRs to pandemics such as coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Humanism , Pediatrics/methods , Professional-Family Relations , Teaching Rounds/methods , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Communication , Empathy , Humans
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