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2.
Pediatrics ; 149(3)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714832

ABSTRACT

The use of telehealth technology to connect with patients has expanded significantly over the past several years, particularly in response to the global coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This technical report describes the present state of telehealth and its current and potential applications. Telehealth has the potential to transform the way care is delivered to pediatric patients, expanding access to pediatric care across geographic distances, leveraging the pediatric workforce for care delivery, and improving disparities in access to care. However, implementation will require significant efforts to address the digital divide to ensure that telehealth does not inadvertently exacerbate inequities in care. The medical home model will continue to evolve to use telehealth to provide high-quality care for children, particularly for children and youth with special health care needs, in accordance with current and evolving quality standards. Research and metric development are critical for the development of evidence-based best practices and policies in these new models of care. Finally, as pediatric care transitions from traditional fee-for-service payment to alternative payment methods, telehealth offers unique opportunities to establish value-based population health models that are financed in a sustainable manner.


Subject(s)
Health Care Costs , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Pediatrics/methods , Pediatrics/organization & administration , Quality of Health Care/organization & administration , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Patient-Centered Care/economics , Patient-Centered Care/organization & administration , Pediatrics/economics , Pediatrics/standards , Telemedicine/economics , Telemedicine/standards , United States
3.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(3S): S3-S9, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1679889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The growth of antimicrobial resistance worldwide has led to increased focus on antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) and infection prevention and control (IPC) measures, although primarily in high-income countries (HIC). We aimed to compare pediatric AMS and IPC resources/activities between low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and HIC and to determine the barriers and priorities for AMS and IPC in LMIC as assessed by clinicians in those settings. METHODS: An online questionnaire was distributed to clinicians working in HIC and LMIC healthcare facilities in 2020. RESULTS: Participants were from 135 healthcare settings in 39 LMIC and 27 HIC. Formal AMS and IPC programs were less frequent in LMIC than HIC settings (AMS 42% versus 76% and IPC 58% versus 89%). Only 47% of LMIC facilities conducted audits of antibiotic use for pediatric patients, with less reliable availability of World Health Organization Access list antibiotics (29% of LMIC facilities). Hand hygiene promotion was the most common IPC intervention in both LMIC and HIC settings (82% versus 91%), although LMIC hospitals had more limited access to reliable water supply for handwashing and antiseptic hand rub. The greatest perceived barrier to pediatric AMS and IPC in both LMIC and HIC was lack of education: only 17% of LMIC settings had regular/required education on antimicrobial prescribing and only 25% on IPC. CONCLUSIONS: Marked differences exist in availability of AMS and IPC resources in LMIC as compared with HIC. A collaborative international approach is urgently needed to combat antimicrobial resistance, using targeted strategies that address the imbalance in global AMS and IPC resource availability and activities.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Stewardship/standards , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Infection Control/methods , Pediatrics/standards , Developed Countries , Developing Countries , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 73(8): e46-e59, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332946

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To provide clinical guidance to rheumatology providers who treat children with pediatric rheumatic disease (PRD) in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: The task force, consisting of 7 pediatric rheumatologists, 2 pediatric infectious disease physicians, 1 adult rheumatologist, and 1 pediatric nurse practitioner, was convened on May 21, 2020. Clinical questions and subsequent guidance statements were drafted based on a review of the queries posed by the patients as well as the families and healthcare providers of children with PRD. An evidence report was generated and disseminated to task force members to assist with 3 rounds of asynchronous, anonymous voting by email using a modified Delphi approach. Voting was completed using a 9-point numeric scoring system with predefined levels of agreement (categorized as disagreement, uncertainty, or agreement, with median scores of 1-3, 4-6, and 7-9, respectively) and consensus (categorized as low, moderate, or high). To be approved as a guidance statement, median vote ratings were required to fall into the highest tertile for agreement, with either moderate or high levels of consensus. RESULTS: To date, 39 guidance statements have been approved by the task force. Those with similar recommendations were combined to form a total of 33 final guidance statements, all of which received median vote ratings within the highest tertile of agreement and were associated with either moderate consensus (n = 5) or high consensus (n = 28). CONCLUSION: These guidance statements have been generated based on review of the available literature, indicating that children with PRD do not appear to be at increased risk for susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. This guidance is presented as a "living document," recognizing that the literature on COVID-19 is rapidly evolving, with future updates anticipated.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/standards , COVID-19 , Pediatrics/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatology/standards , Academies and Institutes , Advisory Committees , Child , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
10.
Laryngoscope ; 131(8): 1876-1883, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978151

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To review the literature on pediatric ENT COVID-19 guidelines worldwide, in particular, surgical practice during the pandemic, and to establish a comprehensive set of recommendations. STUDY DESIGN: Review. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review through an independent electronic search of the COVID-19 pandemic in PubMed, Medline, Google, and Google Scholar was performed on April 26-30, 2020. Resources identified comprised of published papers, national and international pediatric ENT society guidelines. RESULTS: Fourteen guidelines fit the inclusion criteria. Key statements were formulated and graded: 1) Strong recommendation (reported by 9 or more/14); 2) Fair recommendation (7-8/14); 3) Weak recommendation (5-6/14); and 4) Expert opinion (2-4/14). Any single source suggestion was included as a comment. Highly scored recommendations included definition of urgent/emergent cases that required surgery; surgery for acute airway obstruction; prompt diagnosis of suspected cancer; and surgical intervention for sepsis following initial first-line medical management. Other well scored recommendations included senior faculty to perform the surgery; the use of open approaches rather than endoscopic ones; and avoidance of powered instruments that would aerosolize virus-loaded tissue. A tracheostomy should be performed on a case by case basis where key technical modifications become necessary. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic will have a profound short and long-term impact on pediatric ENT practice. During this rapidly evolving climate, guidelines have been based on local practice and expert opinion. Until evidence-based practice in the COVID era is established, a comprehensive set of recommendations for pediatric ENT surgical practice based on a review of currently available literature and guidelines, is therefore, appropriate. Laryngoscope, 131:1876-1883, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Otolaryngology/standards , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/standards , Pediatrics/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Neurosurg Focus ; 49(6): E2, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954867

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a potentially severe respiratory illness that has threatened humanity globally. The pediatric neurosurgery practice differs from that of adults in that it treats children in various stages of physical and psychological development and contemplates diseases that do not exist in other areas. The aim of this study was to identify the level of knowledge and readiness of the healthcare providers, as well as to evaluate new preventive practices that have been introduced, psychological concerns, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric neurosurgical units in Brazil. METHODS: Pediatric neurosurgeons were given an online questionnaire developed by the Brazilian Society of Pediatric Neurosurgery to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their clinical practice. RESULTS: Of a cohort of 110 active members of the Brazilian Society of Pediatric Neurosurgery, 76 completed the survey (69%). Ninety-six percent were aware of the correct use of and indication for the types of personal protective equipment in clinical and surgical practices, but only 73.7% of them had unrestricted access to this equipment. Ninety-eight percent of participants agreed or strongly agreed that the pandemic had affected their pediatric neurosurgical practice. The COVID-19 pandemic interfered with outpatient care in 88% of the centers, it affected neurosurgical activity in 90.7%, and it led to the cancellation of elective neurosurgical procedures in 57.3%. Concerning the impact of COVID-19 on surgical activity, 9.2% of the centers had less than 25% of the clinical practice affected, 46.1% had 26%-50% of their activity reduced, 35.5% had a 51%-75% reduction, and 9.2% had more than 75% of their surgical work cancelled or postponed. Sixty-three percent affirmed that patients had been tested for COVID-19 before surgery. Regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of those interviewed, 3.9% reported fear and anxiety with panic episodes, 7.9% had worsening of previous anxiety symptoms, 60.5% reported occasional fear, 10.5% had sadness and some depressive symptoms, and 2.6% reported depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed unprecedented challenges to healthcare services worldwide, including neurosurgical units. Medical workers, pediatric neurosurgeons included, should be aware of safety measures and follow the recommendations of local healthcare organizations, preventing and controlling the disease. Attention should be given to the psychological burden of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare workers, which carries a high risk of anxiety and depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/standards , Neurosurgery/standards , Pediatrics/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Societies, Medical/standards , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Neurosurgeons/psychology , Neurosurgeons/standards , Neurosurgical Procedures/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 162(6): 800-803, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-913946

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel coronavirus resulting in high mortality in the adult population but low mortality in the pediatric population. The role children and adolescents play in COVID-19 transmission is unclear, and it is possible that healthy pediatric patients serve as a reservoir for the virus. This article serves as a summary of a single pediatric institution's response to COVID-19 with the goal of protecting both patients and health care providers while providing ongoing care to critically ill patients who require urgent interventions. A significant limitation of this commentary is that it reflects a single institution's joint effort at a moment in time but does not take into consideration future circumstances that could change practice patterns. We still hope dissemination of our overall response at this moment, approximately 8 weeks after our region's first adult case, may benefit other pediatric institutions preparing for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hospitals, Pediatric/organization & administration , Otolaryngology/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pediatrics/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Primary Prevention/methods , Retrospective Studies , State Health Plans/organization & administration , Washington
15.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 149, 2020 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842313

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy has dramatically impacted the National Healthcare System, causing the sudden congestion of hospitals, especially in Northern Italy, thus imposing drastic restriction of almost all routine medical care. This exceptional adaptation of the Italian National Healthcare System has also been felt by non-frontline settings such as Pediatric Orthopaedic Units, where the limitation or temporary suspension of most routine care activities met with a need to maintain continuity of care and avoid secondary issues due to the delay or suspension of the routine clinical practice. The Italian Society of Pediatric Orthopaedics and Traumatology formulated general and specific recommendations to face the COVID-19 outbreak, aiming to provide essential care for children needing orthopaedic treatments during the pandemic and early post-peak period, ensure safety of children, caregivers and healthcare providers and limit the spread of contagion.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Orthopedic Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Decision-Making , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Orthopedic Procedures/methods , Orthopedics/standards , Patient Safety , Pediatrics/standards , Societies, Medical/standards , Traumatology/standards
16.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 146, 2020 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-818113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is ample evidence that COVID-19 is significantly less severe in children than in adults and asthma and allergy, the most common chronic disorders in children, are not included in the top 10 comorbidities related to COVID-19 fatalities. Nevertheless, concerns about asthma and allergy are still high.. In order to evaluate the impact of paediatric COVID-19 among Italian paediatricians, we sent a 20-questions anonymous internet-based survey to 250 Italian paediatricians with particular address to allergic symptoms and those affecting the upper airways. METHODS: The questionnaire was conceived and pretested in April 2020, by a working group of experts of the Italian Paediatric Society for Allergy and Immunology (SIAIP), and structured into different sections of 20 categorized and multiple choice questions. The first part included questions about epidemiological data follows by a second part assessing the way to manage a suspected COVID-19 infection and personal experiences about that. The third part concerned questions about patients' clinical characteristics and clinical manifestations. The survey was emailed once between April and mid-May 2020. RESULTS: A total 99 participants had participated in our survey and provided responses to our electronic questionnaire. The distribution of patients reported per month varies significantly according to the geographical area (P = 0.02). Data confirmed that in the North part of Italy the rate of patients referred is higher than in the rest of Italy. Almost all respondents (98%) reported caring for up to a maximum of 10 infected children and the last 2% more than twenty. Among these patients, according to the 75% of responders, a maximum rate of 20% were affected by allergic rhino-conjunctivitis and in particular in the North of Italy while in the Centre and in the South there was a higher incidence (P = 0.09). Almost the same applies for asthma, 83% of responders declared that up to a maximum of 20% of affected children were asthmatic, from 20 to 40% for the 13,5% of responders and from 40 to 60% for the last 3,5%. As for the allergic conjunctivitis also for asthma, we found a higher incidence in the Centre and in South than in the North (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to provide a comprehensive review of COVID-19 knowledge and impact among paediatricians in Italy about allergic asthma and upper airway involvement. From our point of view, it provides important information clearly useful for improving a good practice.


Subject(s)
Conjunctivitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Age Distribution , COVID-19 , Causality , Child , Conjunctivitis, Allergic/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pediatricians/statistics & numerical data , Pediatrics/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis , Risk Assessment , Sex Distribution , Societies, Medical
17.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 21(11): e1031-e1037, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744635

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is a novel cause of organ dysfunction in children, presenting as either coronavirus disease 2019 with sepsis and/or respiratory failure or a hyperinflammatory shock syndrome. Clinicians must now consider these diagnoses when evaluating children for septic shock and sepsis-associated organ dysfunction. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign International Guidelines for the Management of Septic Shock and Sepsis-associated Organ Dysfunction in Children provide an appropriate framework for the early recognition and initial resuscitation of children with sepsis or septic shock caused by all pathogens, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. However, the potential benefits of select adjunctive therapies may differ from non-coronavirus disease 2019 sepsis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pediatrics/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Sepsis/therapy , Algorithms , Attitude to Health , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Critical Care/standards , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Pandemics , Resuscitation/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/etiology , Shock, Septic/etiology , Shock, Septic/therapy , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
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