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1.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(8): e24566, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1999872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the significant role of penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in inducing severe infectious diseases, identifying serotypes and genotypes that can mediate antimicrobial resistance has become a pillar of treatment strategies. This study aims to determine the correlation between the minimum inhibitory concentration of antimicrobial agents and amino acid mutations in penicillin-binding proteins. Moreover, molecular serotyping and multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis typing were first-ever performed to characterize the invasive penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae isolates in Iran. METHODS: Of 149 isolates, antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed against penicillin, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime by the MIC Test Strip, and sequence analysis of the pbp genes was performed through PCR-sequencing method. All penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae isolates were serotyped and genotyped by sequential multiplex PCR and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis, respectively. RESULTS: Among pneumococcal isolates, 53 isolates were classified as penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae, of which 38 (71.7%) and 15 (28.3%) were resistant and intermediate to penicillin, respectively. Furthermore, ceftriaxone- and cefotaxime-nonsusceptible pneumococci constituted 33 (62.2%) and 29 cases (54.7%), respectively. Of note, there were 8 and 41 different serotypes and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis types, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents, the most efficient approach to preventing pneumococcal infection mortality as vaccine-preventable diseases is focusing on wide-spectrum vaccination. Based on our findings, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine could considerably reduce the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases due to the high rate of serotype coverage.


Subject(s)
Pneumococcal Infections , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cefotaxime/pharmacology , Ceftriaxone/pharmacology , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Penicillins/pharmacology , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genetics
2.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(10): e744-e752, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967563

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies are necessary to explore the effect of current pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) against antibiotic resistance, including the rise of non-vaccine serotypes that are resistant to antibiotics. Hence, epidemiological changes in the antimicrobial pattern of Streptococcus pneumoniae before and during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic were studied. METHODS: In this national surveillance study, we characterised the antimicrobial susceptibility to a panel of antibiotics in 3017 pneumococcal clinical isolates with reduced susceptibility to penicillin during 2004-20 in Spain. This study covered the early and late PCV7 periods; the early, middle, and late PCV13 periods; and the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, to evaluate the contribution of PCVs and the pandemic to the emergence of non-vaccine serotypes associated with antibiotic resistance. FINDINGS: Serotypes included in PCV7 and PCV13 showed a decline after the introduction of PCVs in Spain. However, an increase in non-PCV13 serotypes (mainly 11A, 24F, and 23B) that were not susceptible to penicillin promptly appeared. A rise in the proportion of pneumococcal strains with reduced susceptibility to ß-lactams and erythromycin was observed in 2020, coinciding with the emergence of SARS-CoV-2. Cefditoren was the ß-lactam with the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)50 or MIC90 values, and had the highest proportion of susceptible strains throughout 2004-20. INTERPRETATION: The increase in non-PCV13 serotypes associated with antibiotic resistance is concerning, especially the increase of penicillin resistance linked to serotypes 11A and 24F. The future use of PCVs with an increasingly broad spectrum (such as PCV20, which includes serotype 11A) could reduce the impact of antibiotic resistance for non-PCV13 serotypes. The use of antibiotics to prevent co-infections in patients with COVID-19 might have affected the increased proportion of pneumococcal-resistant strains. Cefotaxime as a parenteral option, and cefditoren as an oral choice, were the antibiotics with the highest activity against non-PCV20 serotypes. FUNDING: The Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and Meiji-Pharma Spain. TRANSLATION: For the Spanish translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cefotaxime/pharmacology , Cephalosporins , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Erythromycin/pharmacology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Penicillins/pharmacology , Pneumococcal Infections/drug therapy , Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Serogroup , Spain/epidemiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Vaccines, Conjugate , beta-Lactams/pharmacology
3.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(11): 2295-2303, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479485

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to present the first nationwide microbiological and epidemiological study of invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) disease in Spain. One thousand eight hundred ninety-three iGAS isolates were analyzed over 2007-2019. emm typing was performed by sequencing the gene's variable 5' end, exotoxin genes were identified by PCR, and antimicrobial susceptibility explored via the E test and disk diffusion. Five hundred twenty-three isolates were associated with sepsis, 292 with cellulitis, 232 with scarlet fever, 153 with pneumonia, 141 with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, and 94 with necrotizing fasciitis. The most prevalent emm types were emm1 (449/1893 isolates), emm89 (210/1893), emm3 (208/1893), emm4 (150/1893), emm12 (112/1893) emm6 (107/1893), emm87 (89/1893), emm28 (88/1893), emm75 (78/1893), emm77 (78/1893), emm11 (58/1893), and emm22 (35/1893). emm1, emm3, emm4, and emm6 were the predominant types affecting children (mostly respiratory infections), while emm11, emm77, and emm89 prevailed in the elderly (mostly skin infections). Each emm type was associated with one or more exotoxin gene (spe, sme, and ssa) profiles. speA was detected in 660 isolates, speB in 1829, speC in 1014, speF in 1826, speG in 1651, speJ in 716, speH in 331, smeZ in 720, and ssa in 512. Isolates with speA were associated with the most severe infections. Penicillin susceptibility was universal. Two hundred twenty-four isolates were resistant to tetracycline, 169 to erythromycin, and 81 to clindamycin. Tetracycline, erythromycin, and clindamycin resistance rates declined over the study period. The above information could serve as the basis for continued surveillance efforts designed to control disease cause by this bacterium.


Subject(s)
Streptococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Carrier Proteins/genetics , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Child , Child, Preschool , Erythromycin/pharmacology , Exotoxins/genetics , Exotoxins/metabolism , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Penicillins/pharmacology , Spain/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcus pyogenes/classification , Streptococcus pyogenes/drug effects , Streptococcus pyogenes/genetics , Young Adult
4.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 55(2): 215-224, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274336

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes pneumonia and other invasive diseases, and is a leading cause of mortality in the elderly population. The present study aimed to provide current antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological profiles of S. pneumoniae infections in Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 252 nonduplicate S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from patients admitted to 16 hospitals in Taiwan between January 2017 and December 2019, and were analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics was determined using the Vitek 2 automated system for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Furthermore, epidemiological profiles of S. pneumoniae infections were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the strains analyzed, 88% were recognized as invasive pneumococcal strains. According to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria for non-meningitis, the prevalence of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae demonstrated a declining trend from 43.6% in 2017 to 17.2% in 2019. However, the rate of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 85.7% based on the criteria for meningitis. Furthermore, the prevalence of ceftriaxone-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 62.7% based on the criteria for meningitis. Isolates demonstrated higher susceptibility toward doripenem and ertapenem than toward meropenem and imipenem. An increased rate of non-susceptibility toward levofloxacin was observed in southern Taiwan (15.1%) and elderly patients (≥65 years; 11.4%). Most isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. CONCLUSION: Empirical treatment with ceftriaxone monotherapy for pneumococcal meningitis should be carefully monitored owing to its high non-susceptibility rate. The susceptibility rates of most isolates to penicillin (used for treating non-meningitis pneumococcal diseases), carbapenems (ertapenem and doripenem), respiratory quinolones (moxifloxacin and levofloxacin), vancomycin, and linezolid suggested the potential of these antibiotics in treating pneumococcal diseases in Taiwan.


Subject(s)
Meningitis, Pneumococcal , Pneumococcal Infections , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Ceftriaxone/pharmacology , Doripenem/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Ertapenem/therapeutic use , Humans , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Linezolid/therapeutic use , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Penicillins/pharmacology , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Pneumococcal Infections/drug therapy , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Taiwan/epidemiology , Vancomycin/pharmacology
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