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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 462, 2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650125

ABSTRACT

As a result of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic numerous scientific groups have generated antibodies against a single target: the CoV-2 spike antigen. This has provided an unprecedented opportunity to compare the efficacy of different methods and the specificities and qualities of the antibodies generated by those methods. Generally, the most potent neutralizing antibodies have been generated from convalescent patients and immunized animals, with non-immune phage libraries usually yielding significantly less potent antibodies. Here, we show that it is possible to generate ultra-potent (IC50 < 2 ng/ml) human neutralizing antibodies directly from a unique semisynthetic naïve antibody library format with affinities, developability properties and neutralization activities comparable to the best from hyperimmune sources. This demonstrates that appropriately designed and constructed naïve antibody libraries can effectively compete with immunization to directly provide therapeutic antibodies against a viral pathogen, without the need for immune sources or downstream optimization.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibody Affinity/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Neutralization Tests/methods , Pandemics , Peptide Library , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Single-Chain Antibodies/immunology , Single-Chain Antibodies/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
2.
STAR Protoc ; 3(1): 101101, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626432

ABSTRACT

The generation of high-affinity nanobodies for diverse biomedical applications typically requires immunization or affinity maturation. Here, we report a simple protocol using complementarity-determining region (CDR)-swapping mutagenesis to isolate high-affinity nanobodies from common framework libraries. This approach involves shuffling the CDRs of low-affinity variants during the sorting of yeast-displayed libraries to directly isolate high-affinity nanobodies without the need for lead isolation and optimization. We expect this approach, which we demonstrate for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing nanobodies, will simplify the generation of high-affinity nanobodies. For complete details on the use and execution of this profile, please refer to Zupancic et al. (2021).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Single-Domain Antibodies , Complementarity Determining Regions/genetics , Humans , Mutagenesis , Peptide Library , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Domain Antibodies/genetics
3.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2002236, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585298

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an evolving global public health crisis in need of therapeutic options. Passive immunization of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) represents a promising therapeutic strategy capable of conferring immediate protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Herein, we describe the discovery and characterization of neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 IgG and VHH antibodies from four large-scale phage libraries. Each library was constructed synthetically with shuffled complementarity-determining region loops from natural llama and human antibody repertoires. While most candidates targeted the receptor-binding domain of the S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, we also identified a neutralizing IgG candidate that binds a unique epitope on the N-terminal domain. A select number of antibodies retained binding to SARS-CoV-2 variants Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Kappa and Delta. Overall, our data show that synthetic phage libraries can rapidly yield SARS-CoV-2 S1 antibodies with therapeutically desirable features, including high affinity, unique binding sites, and potent neutralizing activity in vitro, and a capacity to limit disease in vivo.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Surface Display Techniques , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Peptide Library , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Specificity , Binding Sites, Antibody , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Epitopes , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Immunoglobulin G/genetics , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/pharmacology , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Single-Domain Antibodies/genetics , Single-Domain Antibodies/metabolism , Single-Domain Antibodies/pharmacology , Vero Cells
4.
Cell Rep ; 38(3): 110242, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588137

ABSTRACT

Characterization of COVID-19 antibodies has largely focused on memory B cells; however, it is the antibody-secreting plasma cells that are directly responsible for the production of serum antibodies, which play a critical role in resolving SARS-CoV-2 infection. Little is known about the specificity of plasma cells, largely because plasma cells lack surface antibody expression, thereby complicating their screening. Here, we describe a technology pipeline that integrates single-cell antibody repertoire sequencing and mammalian display to interrogate the specificity of plasma cells from 16 convalescent patients. Single-cell sequencing allows us to profile antibody repertoire features and identify expanded clonal lineages. Mammalian display screening is used to reveal that 43 antibodies (of 132 candidates) derived from expanded plasma cell lineages are specific to SARS-CoV-2 antigens, including antibodies with high affinity to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) that exhibit potent neutralization and broad binding to the RBD of SARS-CoV-2 variants (of concern/interest).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Plasma Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cells, Cultured , Cohort Studies , Gene Library , HEK293 Cells , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Mammals , Neutralization Tests , Peptide Library , Plasma Cells/chemistry
5.
Mol Immunol ; 141: 287-296, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559780

ABSTRACT

As the second wave of COVID-19 launched, various variants of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have emerged with a dramatic global spread amongst millions of people causing unprecedented case fatalities and economic shut-downs. That initiated a necessity for developing specific diagnostics and therapeutics along with vaccines to control such a pandemic. This endeavor describes generation of murine derived recombinant single-chain fragment variable (scFv) as a monoclonal antibody (MAb) platform targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. A specific synthesized RBD coding sequence was cloned and expressed in Baculovirus expression system. The recombinant RBD (rRBD) was ascertained to be at the proper encoding size of ∼ 600bp and expressed protein of the molecular weight of ∼ 21KDa. Purified rRBD was proved genuinely antigenic and immunogenic, exhibiting specific reactivity to anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and inducing strong seroconversion in immunized mice. The scFv phage display library against rRBD was successfully constructed, revealing ∼ 90 % recombination frequency, and great enriching factor reaching 88 % and 25 % in polyclonal Ab-based and MAb-based ELISAs, respectively. Typically, three unique scFvs were generated, selected, purified and molecularly identified. That was manifested by their: accurate structure, close relation to the mouse immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, right anchored six complementarily-determining regions (CDRs) as three within variable heavy (vH) and variable light (vL) regions each, and proper configuration of the three-dimensional (3D) structure. Besides, their expression downstream in a non-suppressive amber codon of E. coli strain SS32 created a distinct protein band at an apparent molecular weight of ∼ 27KDa. Moreover, the purified scFvs showed authentic immunoreactivity and specificity to both rRBD and SARS-CoV-2 in western blot and ELISA. Accordingly, these developed scFvs platform might be a functional candidate for research, inexpensive diagnostics and therapeutics, mitigating spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cell Surface Display Techniques , Epitopes/immunology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Chain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Specificity , Baculoviridae , COVID-19/prevention & control , Escherichia coli , Female , Genetic Vectors , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Models, Molecular , Peptide Library , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Single-Chain Antibodies/biosynthesis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
6.
ACS Synth Biol ; 10(12): 3595-3599, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517598

ABSTRACT

The novel respiratory virus SARS-CoV-2 is rapidly evolving across the world with the potential of increasing its transmission and the induced disease. Here, we applied the CRISPR-Cas12a system to detect, without the need of sequencing, SARS-CoV-2 genomes harboring the E484K mutation, first identified in the Beta variant and catalogued as an escape mutation. The E484K mutation creates a canonical protospacer adjacent motif for Cas12a recognition in the resulting DNA amplicon, which was exploited to obtain a differential readout. We analyzed a series of fecal samples from hospitalized patients in Valencia (Spain), finding one infection with SARS-CoV-2 harboring the E484K mutation, which was then confirmed by sequencing. Overall, these results suggest that CRISPR diagnostics can be a useful tool in epidemiology to monitor the spread of escape mutations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , CRISPR-Cas Systems , DNA, Viral/genetics , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19/virology , DNA/analysis , Genetic Techniques , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Peptide Library , Polymers/chemistry , Spain/epidemiology , Surface Plasmon Resonance
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21768, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505016

ABSTRACT

Rapid design, screening, and characterization of biorecognition elements (BREs) is essential for the development of diagnostic tests and antiviral therapeutics needed to combat the spread of viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To address this need, we developed a high-throughput pipeline combining in silico design of a peptide library specific for SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and microarray screening to identify binding sequences. Our optimized microarray platform allowed the simultaneous screening of ~ 2.5 k peptides and rapid identification of binding sequences resulting in selection of four peptides with nanomolar affinity to the SARS-CoV-2 S protein. Finally, we demonstrated the successful integration of one of the top peptides into an electrochemical sensor with a clinically relevant limit of detection for S protein in spiked saliva. Our results demonstrate the utility of this novel pipeline for the selection of peptide BREs in response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, and the broader application of such a platform in response to future viral threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques , Peptides/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology , Electrochemistry/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Interferometry , Kinetics , Peptide Library , Protein Array Analysis , Protein Engineering , Saliva/immunology
8.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 18(12): 2588-2608, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500456

ABSTRACT

Since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific T cells have been found to play essential roles in host immune protection and pathology in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), this study focused on the functional validation of T cell epitopes and the development of vaccines that induce specific T cell responses. A total of 120 CD8+ T cell epitopes from the E, M, N, S, and RdRp proteins were functionally validated. Among these, 110, 15, 6, 14, and 12 epitopes were highly homologous with SARS-CoV, OC43, NL63, HKU1, and 229E, respectively; in addition, four epitopes from the S protein displayed one amino acid that was distinct from the current SARS-CoV-2 variants. Then, 31 epitopes restricted by the HLA-A2 molecule were used to generate peptide cocktail vaccines in combination with Poly(I:C), R848 or poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles, and these vaccines elicited robust and specific CD8+ T cell responses in HLA-A2/DR1 transgenic mice as well as wild-type mice. In contrast to previous research, this study established a modified DC-peptide-PBL cell coculture system using healthy donor PBMCs to validate the in silico predicted epitopes, provided an epitope library restricted by nine of the most prevalent HLA-A allotypes covering broad Asian populations, and identified the HLA-A restrictions of these validated epitopes using competitive peptide binding experiments with HMy2.CIR cell lines expressing the indicated HLA-A allotype, which initially confirmed the in vivo feasibility of 9- or 10-mer peptide cocktail vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. These data will facilitate the design and development of vaccines that induce antiviral CD8+ T cell responses in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Cell Line , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , HLA-A2 Antigen/immunology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Peptide Library
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488610

ABSTRACT

The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor used by SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 coronaviruses to attach to cells via the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of their viral spike protein. Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, several structures of protein complexes involving ACE2 and RBD as well as monoclonal antibodies and nanobodies have become available. We have leveraged the structural data to design peptides to target the interaction between the RBD of SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 and SARS-CoV and ACE2, as contrasting exemplar, as well as the dimerization surface of ACE2 monomers. The peptides were modelled using our original method: PiPreD that uses native elements of the interaction between the targeted protein and cognate partner(s) that are subsequently included in the designed peptides. These peptides recapitulate stretches of residues present in the native interface plus novel and highly diverse conformations surrogating key interactions at the interface. To facilitate the access to this information we have created a freely available and dedicated web-based repository, PepI-Covid19 database, providing convenient access to this wealth of information to the scientific community with the view of maximizing its potential impact in the development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic agents.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Peptides/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites , Databases, Factual , Humans , Models, Molecular , Peptide Library , Peptides/chemistry , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , Protein Engineering , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
10.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(1): e2102181, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487434

ABSTRACT

Combinatorial antibody libraries not only effectively reduce antibody discovery to a numbers game, but enable documentation of the history of antibody responses in an individual. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has prompted a wider application of this technology to meet the public health challenge of pandemic threats in the modern era. Herein, a combinatorial human antibody library constructed 20 years before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is used to discover three highly potent antibodies that selectively bind SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and neutralize authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus. Compared to neutralizing antibodies from COVID-19 patients with generally low somatic hypermutation (SHM), these three antibodies contain over 13-22 SHMs, many of which are involved in specific interactions in their crystal structures with SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain. The identification of these somatically mutated antibodies in a pre-pandemic library raises intriguing questions about the origin and evolution of these antibodies with respect to their reactivity with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites , Binding, Competitive , Cell Surface Display Techniques , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Peptide Library , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 690742, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389184

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the SARS-CoV-2 has erupted on a large scale worldwide and spread rapidly. Passive immunization of antibody-related molecules provides opportunities for prevention and treatment of high-risk patients and children. Nanobodies (Nbs) have many strong physical and chemical properties. They can be atomized, administered by inhalation, and can be directly applied to the infected site, with fast onset, high local drug concentration/high bioavailability, and high patient compliance (no needles). It has very attractive potential in the treatment of respiratory viruses. Rapid and low-cost development of Nbs targeting SARS-CoV-2 can quickly be achieved. Nbs against SARS-CoV-2 mutant strains also can be utilized quickly to prevent the virus from escaping. It provides important technical supports for the treatment of the SARS-CoV-2 and has the potential to become an essential medicine in the toolbox against the SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Animals , Antibody Affinity/immunology , Binding Sites , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Peptide Library , Protein Binding
12.
STAR Protoc ; 2(3): 100617, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386745

ABSTRACT

This protocol is a comprehensive guide to phage display-based selection of virus neutralizing VH antibody domains. It details three optimized parts including (1) construction of a large-sized (theoretically > 1011) naïve human antibody heavy chain domain library, (2) SARS-CoV-2 antigen expression and stable cell line construction, and (3) library panning for selection of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody domains. Using this protocol, we identified a high-affinity neutralizing human VH antibody domain, VH ab8, which exhibits high prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Li et al. (2020).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/immunology , Peptide Library , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , COVID-19/virology , Cell Surface Display Techniques/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Homology
13.
Proteomics ; 21(7-8): e2000226, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384280

ABSTRACT

A major part of the analysis of parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) data is the comparison of observed fragment ion intensities to a library spectrum. Classically, these libraries are generated by data-dependent acquisition (DDA). Here, we test Prosit, a published deep neural network algorithm, for its applicability in predicting spectral libraries for PRM. For this purpose, we targeted 1529 precursors derived from synthetic viral peptides and analyzed the data with Prosit and DDA-derived libraries. Viral peptides were chosen as an example, because virology is an area where in silico library generation could significantly improve PRM assay design. With both libraries a total of 1174 precursors were identified. Notably, compared to the DDA-derived library, we could identify 101 more precursors by using the Prosit-derived library. Additionally, we show that Prosit can be applied to predict tandem mass spectra of synthetic viral peptides with different collision energies. Finally, we used a spectral library predicted by Prosit and a DDA library to identify SARS-CoV-2 peptides from a simulated oropharyngeal swab demonstrating that both libraries are suited for peptide identification by PRM. Summarized, Prosit-derived viral spectral libraries predicted in silico can be used for PRM data analysis, making DDA analysis for library generation partially redundant in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Proteomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Proteins/analysis , Amino Acid Sequence , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Peptide Library , Peptides/analysis , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 705772, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376700

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune diseases (ADs) could occur due to infectious diseases and vaccination programs. Since millions of people are expected to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 and vaccinated against it, autoimmune consequences seem inevitable. Therefore, we have investigated the whole proteome of the SARS-CoV-2 for its ability to trigger ADs. In this regard, the entire proteome of the SARS-CoV-2 was chopped into more than 48000 peptides. The produced peptides were searched against the entire human proteome to find shared peptides with similar experimentally confirmed T-cell and B-cell epitopes. The obtained peptides were checked for their ability to bind to HLA molecules. The possible population coverage was calculated for the most potent peptides. The obtained results indicated that the SARS-CoV-2 and human proteomes share 23 peptides originated from ORF1ab polyprotein, nonstructural protein NS7a, Surface glycoprotein, and Envelope protein of SARS-CoV-2. Among these peptides, 21 peptides had experimentally confirmed equivalent epitopes. Amongst, only nine peptides were predicted to bind to HLAs with known global allele frequency data, and three peptides were able to bind to experimentally confirmed HLAs of equivalent epitopes. Given the HLAs which have already been reported to be associated with ADs, the ESGLKTIL, RYPANSIV, NVAITRAK, and RRARSVAS were determined to be the most harmful peptides of the SARS-CoV-2 proteome. It would be expected that the COVID-19 pandemic and the vaccination against this pathogen could significantly increase the ADs incidences, especially in populations harboring HLA-B*08:01, HLA-A*024:02, HLA-A*11:01 and HLA-B*27:05. The Southeast Asia, East Asia, and Oceania are at higher risk of AD development.


Subject(s)
Autoimmunity , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Proteome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Computer Simulation , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , HLA Antigens/immunology , Humans , Peptide Fragments/immunology , Peptide Library
15.
Mol Cell ; 81(17): 3650-3658.e5, 2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356368

ABSTRACT

CRISPR-inspired systems have been extensively developed for applications in genome editing and nucleic acid detection. Here, we introduce a CRISPR-based peptide display technology to facilitate customized, high-throughput in vitro protein interaction studies. We show that bespoke peptide libraries fused to catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) and barcoded with unique single guide RNA (sgRNA) molecules self-assemble from a single mixed pool to programmable positions on a DNA microarray surface for rapid, multiplexed binding assays. We develop dCas9-displayed saturation mutagenesis libraries to characterize antibody-epitope binding for a commercial anti-FLAG monoclonal antibody and human serum antibodies. We also show that our platform can be used for viral epitope mapping and exhibits promise as a multiplexed diagnostics tool. Our CRISPR-based peptide display platform and the principles of complex library self-assembly using dCas9 could be adapted for rapid interrogation of varied customized protein libraries or biological materials assembly using DNA scaffolding.


Subject(s)
Epitopes/genetics , Gene Editing/methods , Peptide Library , RNA, Guide/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Mutagenesis/genetics , Protein Binding/genetics , Protein Binding/immunology , RNA, Guide/immunology
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 38990-39002, 2021 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351922

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has clearly established how vital rapid, widely accessible diagnostic tests are in controlling infectious diseases and how difficult and slow it is to scale existing technologies. Here, we demonstrate the use of the rapid affinity pair identification via directed selection (RAPIDS) method to discover multiple affinity pairs for SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (N-protein), a biomarker of COVID-19, from in vitro libraries in 10 weeks. The pair with the highest biomarker sensitivity was then integrated into a 10 min, vertical-flow cellulose paper test. Notably, the as-identified affinity proteins were compatible with a roll-to-roll printing process for large-scale manufacturing of tests. The test achieved 40 and 80 pM limits of detection in 1× phosphate-buffered saline (mock swab) and saliva matrices spiked with cell-culture-generated SARS-CoV-2 viruses and is also capable of detection of N-protein from characterized clinical swab samples. Hence, this work paves the way toward the mass production of cellulose paper-based assays which can address the shortages faced due to dependence on nitrocellulose and current manufacturing techniques. Further, the results reported herein indicate the promise of RAPIDS and engineered binder proteins for the timely and flexible development of clinically relevant diagnostic tests in response to emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Nucleocapsid Proteins/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Biomarkers/analysis , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cellulose/chemistry , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Humans , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques/methods , Peptide Library , Protein Binding
17.
Sci Immunol ; 6(61)2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334534

ABSTRACT

The spillover of animal coronaviruses (aCoVs) to humans has caused SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. While antibody responses displaying cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal/common cold human coronaviruses (hCoVs) have been reported, potential cross-reactivity with aCoVs and the diagnostic implications are incompletely understood. Here, we probed for antibody binding against all seven hCoVs and 49 aCoVs represented as 12,924 peptides within a phage-displayed antigen library. Antibody repertoires of 269 recovered COVID-19 patients showed distinct changes compared to 260 unexposed pre-pandemic controls, not limited to binding of SARS-CoV-2 antigens but including binding to antigens from hCoVs and aCoVs with shared motifs to SARS-CoV-2. We isolated broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies from recovered COVID-19 patients that bind a shared motif of SARS-CoV-2, hCoV-OC43, hCoV-HKU1, and several aCoVs, demonstrating that interspecies cross-reactivity can be mediated by a single immunoglobulin. Employing antibody binding data against the entire CoV antigen library allowed accurate discrimination of recovered COVID-19 patients from unexposed individuals by machine learning. Leaving out SARS-CoV-2 antigens and relying solely on antibody binding to other hCoVs and aCoVs achieved equally accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The ability to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection without knowledge of its unique antigens solely from cross-reactive antibody responses against other hCoVs and aCoVs suggests a potential diagnostic strategy for the early stage of future pandemics. Creating regularly updated antigen libraries representing the animal coronavirome can provide the basis for a serological assay already poised to identify infected individuals following a future zoonotic transmission event.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus/immunology , Peptide Library , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Zoonoses
18.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1865(11): 129974, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330651

ABSTRACT

Background Since December 2019, the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 virus continues to infect humans and many people died from severe Covid-19 during the last 2 years worldwide. Different approaches are being used for treatment of this infection and its consequences, but limited results have been achieved and new therapeutics are still needed. One of the most interesting biotherapeutics in this era are Nanobodies which have shown very promising results in recent researches. Scope of review Here, we have reviewed the potentials of Nanobodies in Covid-19 treatment. We have also discussed the properties of these biotherapeutics that make them very suitable for pulmonary drug delivery, which seems to be very important route of administration in this disease. Major conclusion Nanobodies with their special biological and biophysical characteristics and their resistance against harsh manufacturing condition, can be considered as promising, targeted biotherapeutics which can be administered by pulmonary delivery pharmaceutical systems against Covid-19. General significance Covid-19 has become a global problem during the last two years and with emerging mutant strains, prophylactic and therapeutic approaches are still highly needed. Nanobodies with their specific properties can be considered as valuable and promising candidates in Covid-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Single-Domain Antibodies/therapeutic use , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Camelus , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Immune Sera/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/biosynthesis , Immunologic Factors/isolation & purification , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Peptide Library , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/biosynthesis , Single-Domain Antibodies/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
19.
Biol Cell ; 113(7): 311-328, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Comprehensive libraries of plasmids for SARS-CoV-2 proteins with various tags (e.g., Strep, HA, Turbo) are now available. They enable the identification of numerous potential protein-protein interactions between the SARS-CoV-2 virus and host proteins. RESULTS: We present here a large library of SARS CoV-2 protein constructs fused with green and red fluorescent proteins and their initial characterisation in various human cell lines including lung epithelial cell models (A549, BEAS-2B), as well as in budding yeast. The localisation of a few SARS-CoV-2 proteins matches their proposed interactions with host proteins. These include the localisation of Nsp13 to the centrosome, Orf3a to late endosomes and Orf9b to mitochondria. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: This library should facilitate further cellular investigations, notably by imaging techniques.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Peptide Library , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , A549 Cells , Cell Line , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Humans , Luminescent Proteins/genetics , Luminescent Proteins/metabolism , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Time-Lapse Imaging , Viral Proteins/genetics
20.
Nat Chem Biol ; 17(10): 1057-1064, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281726

ABSTRACT

The predominant approach for antibody generation remains animal immunization, which can yield exceptionally selective and potent antibody clones owing to the powerful evolutionary process of somatic hypermutation. However, animal immunization is inherently slow, not always accessible and poorly compatible with many antigens. Here, we describe 'autonomous hypermutation yeast surface display' (AHEAD), a synthetic recombinant antibody generation technology that imitates somatic hypermutation inside engineered yeast. By encoding antibody fragments on an error-prone orthogonal DNA replication system, surface-displayed antibody repertoires continuously mutate through simple cycles of yeast culturing and enrichment for antigen binding to produce high-affinity clones in as little as two weeks. We applied AHEAD to generate potent nanobodies against the SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein, a G-protein-coupled receptor and other targets, offering a template for streamlined antibody generation at large.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation/immunology , Protein Engineering/methods , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Antibodies/immunology , Antigens , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Peptide Library , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Single-Domain Antibodies/genetics , Single-Domain Antibodies/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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