Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 126
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488613

ABSTRACT

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a key regulator of blood pressure and hypertension. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme I (ACE) are two main components of the RAS that play a major role in blood pressure homeostasis. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) uses ACE2 as a receptor to enter cells. Despite some controversies, numerous studies have reported a significant association between the use of ACE inhibitors and reduced risk of COVID-19. In our previous studies, we produced and identified peptide sequences present in whey hydrolysates exhibiting high ACE inhibitory activity. Therefore, the aim of this work is to obtain an improved understanding of the function of these natural peptides as RAS inhibitors and investigate their potential therapeutic role in the COVID-19 pandemic. The molecular interactions between peptides IPP, LIVTQ, IIAE, LVYPFP, and human ACE2 were assessed by employing a molecular docking approach. The results show that natural whey-derived peptides have a dual inhibitory action against both ACE and ACE2. This dual activity distinguishes these ACE inhibitory peptides from synthetic drugs, such as Captopril and Lisinopril which were not shown to inhibit ACE2 activity, and may represent a potential strategy in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptides/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Whey Proteins/chemistry
2.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408625

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is caused by an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus, referred to as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which belongs to the realm Riboviria, order Nidovirales, family Coronaviridae, genus Betacoronavirus and the species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus. This viral disease is characterized by a myriad of varying symptoms, such as pyrexia, cough, hemoptysis, dyspnoea, diarrhea, muscle soreness, dysosmia, lymphopenia and dysgeusia amongst others. The virus mainly infects humans, various other mammals, avian species and some other companion livestock. SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry is primarily accomplished by molecular interaction between the virus's spike (S) protein and the host cell surface receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), although other host cell-associated receptors/factors, such as neuropilin 1 (NRP-1) and neuropilin 2 (NRP-2), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), as well as proteases such as TMPRSS2 (transmembrane serine protease 2) and furin, might also play a crucial role in infection, tropism, pathogenesis and clinical outcome. Furthermore, several structural and non-structural proteins of the virus themselves are very critical in determining the clinical outcome following infection. Considering such critical role(s) of the abovementioned host cell receptors, associated proteases/factors and virus structural/non-structural proteins (NSPs), it may be quite prudent to therapeutically target them through a multipronged clinical regimen to combat the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Host Microbial Interactions , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Delivery Systems , Furin/chemistry , Furin/metabolism , Humans , Lectins, C-Type/chemistry , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Molecular Structure , Neuropilins/chemistry , Neuropilins/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Treatment Outcome , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization
3.
Molecules ; 25(20)2020 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389460

ABSTRACT

Docking of over 160 aminothiourea derivatives at the SARS-CoV-2 S-protein-human ACE2 receptor interface, whose structure became available recently, has been evaluated for its complex stabilizing potency and subsequently subjected to quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis. The structural variety of the studied compounds, that include 3 different forms of the N-N-C(S)-N skeleton and combinations of 13 different substituents alongside the extensive length of the interface, resulted in the failure of the QSAR analysis, since different molecules were binding to different parts of the interface. Subsequently, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) analysis on all studied compounds, followed by a toxicity analysis using statistical models for selected compounds, was carried out to evaluate their potential use as lead compounds for drug design. Combined, these studies highlighted two molecules among the studied compounds, i.e., 5-(pyrrol-2-yl)-2-(2-methoxyphenylamino)-1,3,4-thiadiazole and 1-(cyclopentanoyl)-4-(3-iodophenyl)-thiosemicarbazide, as the best candidates for the development of future drugs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/drug effects , Semicarbazides/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Models, Statistical , Molecular Structure , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Conformation , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
4.
Sci Adv ; 6(28): eabb8097, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388430

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of respiratory illness caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus associated with multiple organ failures is spreading rapidly because of its contagious human-to-human transmission and inadequate globalhealth care systems. Pharmaceutical repurposing, an effective drug development technique using existing drugs, could shorten development time and reduce costs compared to those of de novo drug discovery. We carried out virtual screening of antiviral compounds targeting the spike glycoprotein (S), main protease (Mpro), and the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD)-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) complex of SARS-CoV-2. PC786, an antiviral polymerase inhibitor, showed enhanced binding affinity to all the targets. Furthermore, the postfusion conformation of the trimeric S protein RBD with ACE2 revealed conformational changes associated with PC786 drug binding. Exploiting immunoinformatics to identify T cell and B cell epitopes could guide future experimental studies with a higher probability of discovering appropriate vaccine candidates with fewer experiments and higher reliability.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Drug Design , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Benzamides , Benzazepines , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/immunology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/drug effects , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/drug effects , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Spiro Compounds/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
5.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 220, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387194
6.
Biol Open ; 9(10)2020 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255997

ABSTRACT

SARS-like coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) has emerged as a global threat to humankind and is rapidly spreading. The infectivity, pathogenesis and infection of this virus are dependent on the interaction of SARS-CoV2 spike protein with human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2). Spike protein contains a receptor-binding domain (RBD) that recognizes hACE-2. In the present study, we are reporting a de novo designed novel hybrid antiviral 'VTAR-01' molecule that binds at the interface of RBD-hACE2 interaction. A series of antiviral molecules were tested for binding at the interface of RBD-hACE2 interaction. In silico screening, molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) analysis suggest ribavirin, ascorbate, lopinavir and hydroxychloroquine have strong interaction at the RBD-hACE2 interface. These four molecules were used for de novo fragment-based antiviral design. De novo designing, docking and MDS analysis identified a 'VTAR' hybrid molecule that has better interaction with this interface than all of the antivirals used to design it. We have further used retrosynthetic analysis and combinatorial synthesis to design 100 variants of VTAR molecules. Retrosynthetic analysis and combinatorial synthesis, along with docking and MDS, identified that VTAR-01 interacts with the interface of the RBD-ACE2 complex. MDS analysis confirmed its interaction with the RBD-ACE2 interface by involving Glu35 and Lys353 of ACE2, as well as Gln493 and Ser494 of RBD. Interaction of spike protein with ACE2 is essential for pathogenesis and infection of this virus; hence, this i n s ilico designed hybrid antiviral molecule (VTAR-01) that binds at the interface of RBD-hACE2 may be further developed to control the infection of SARS-CoV2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cell Death/drug effects , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2 , Thermodynamics
7.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194711

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus-like organisms have been previously identified in Arthropod ectoparasites (such as ticks and unfed cat flea). Yet, the question regarding the possible role of these arthropods as SARS-CoV-2 passive/biological transmission vectors is still poorly explored. In this study, we performed in silico structural and binding energy calculations to assess the risks associated with possible ectoparasite transmission. We found sufficient similarity between ectoparasite ACE and human ACE2 protein sequences to build good quality 3D-models of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike:ACE complex to assess the impacts of ectoparasite mutations on complex stability. For several species (e.g., water flea, deer tick, body louse), our analyses showed no significant destabilisation of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike:ACE complex, suggesting these species would bind the viral Spike protein. Our structural analyses also provide structural rationale for interactions between the viral Spike and the ectoparasite ACE proteins. Although we do not have experimental evidence of infection in these ectoparasites, the predicted stability of the complex suggests this is possible, raising concerns of a possible role in passive transmission of the virus to their human hosts.


Subject(s)
Arthropod Proteins/metabolism , Arthropods/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Arthropod Proteins/chemistry , Arthropod Proteins/genetics , Arthropods/chemistry , Arthropods/classification , Arthropods/genetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19/transmission , Ectoparasitic Infestations/parasitology , Humans , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Homology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
8.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178367

ABSTRACT

To determine whether quaternary ammonium (k21) binds to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein via computational molecular docking simulations, the crystal structure of the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain complexed with ACE-2 (PDB ID: 6LZG) was downloaded from RCSB PD and prepared using Schrodinger 2019-4. The entry of SARS-CoV-2 inside humans is through lung tissues with a pH of 7.38-7.42. A two-dimensional structure of k-21 was drawn using the 2D-sketcher of Maestro 12.2 and trimmed of C18 alkyl chains from all four arms with the assumption that the core moiety k-21 was without C18. The immunogenic potential of k21/QA was conducted using the C-ImmSim server for a position-specific scoring matrix analyzing the human host immune system response. Therapeutic probability was shown using prediction models with negative and positive control drugs. Negative scores show that the binding of a quaternary ammonium compound with the spike protein's binding site is favorable. The drug molecule has a large Root Mean Square Deviation fluctuation due to the less complex geometry of the drug molecule, which is suggestive of a profound impact on the regular geometry of a viral protein. There is high concentration of Immunoglobulin M/Immunoglobulin G, which is concomitant of virus reduction. The proposed drug formulation based on quaternary ammonium to characterize affinity to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein using simulation and computational immunological methods has shown promising findings.


Subject(s)
Drug Discovery , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Silanes/chemistry , Silanes/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
9.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(21): 2851-2871, 2020 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177131

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is well-known for its role in blood pressure regulation via the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) but also functions in fertility, immunity, haematopoiesis and diseases such as obesity, fibrosis and Alzheimer's dementia. Like ACE, the human homologue ACE2 is also involved in blood pressure regulation and cleaves a range of substrates involved in different physiological processes. Importantly, it is the functional receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus (CoV)-2 responsible for the 2020, coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Understanding the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 is crucial for the design of therapies to combat this disease. This review provides a comparative analysis of methodologies and findings to describe how structural biology techniques like X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy have enabled remarkable discoveries into the structure-function relationship of ACE and ACE2. This, in turn, has enabled the development of ACE inhibitors for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and candidate therapies for the treatment of COVID-19. However, despite these advances the function of ACE homologues in non-human organisms is not yet fully understood. ACE homologues have been discovered in the tissues, body fluids and venom of species from diverse lineages and are known to have important functions in fertility, envenoming and insect-host defence mechanisms. We, therefore, further highlight the need for structural insight into insect and venom ACE homologues for the potential development of novel anti-venoms and insecticides.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/enzymology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/enzymology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Conformation , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Structure-Activity Relationship
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009392, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148252

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus interaction with its viral receptor is a primary genetic determinant of host range and tissue tropism. SARS-CoV-2 utilizes ACE2 as the receptor to enter host cell in a species-specific manner. We and others have previously shown that ACE2 orthologs from New World monkey, koala and mouse cannot interact with SARS-CoV-2 to mediate viral entry, and this defect can be restored by humanization of the restrictive residues in New World monkey ACE2. To better understand the genetic determinants behind the ability of ACE2 orthologs to support viral entry, we compared koala and mouse ACE2 sequences with that of human and identified the key residues in koala and mouse ACE2 that restrict viral receptor activity. Humanization of these critical residues rendered both koala and mouse ACE2 capable of binding the spike protein and facilitating viral entry. Our study shed more lights into the genetic determinants of ACE2 as the functional receptor of SARS-CoV-2, which facilitates our understanding of viral entry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Base Sequence , COVID-19/virology , Host Specificity , Humans , Mice/genetics , Mice/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phascolarctidae/genetics , Phascolarctidae/virology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
11.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 138: 106856, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144979

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a global-pandemic binds human-lung-ACE2. ACE2 causes vasodilatation. ACE2 works in balance with ACE1. The vaso-status maintains blood-pressure/vascular-health which is demolished in Covid-19 manifesting aldosterone/salt-deregulations/inflammations/endothelial-dysfunctions/hyper-hypo- tension, sepsis/hypovolemic-shock and vessel-thrombosis/coagulations. Here, nigellidine, an indazole-alkaloid was analyzed by molecular-docking for binding to different Angiotensin-binding-proteins (enzymes, ACE1(6en5)/ACE2(4aph)/receptors, AT1(6os1)/AT2(5xjm)) and COVID-19 spike-glycoprotein(6vsb). Nigellidine strongly binds to the spike-protein at the hinge-region/active-site-opening which may hamper proper-binding of nCoV2-ACE2 surface. Nigellidine effectively binds in the Angiotensin- II binding-site/entry-pocket (-7.54 kcal/mol, -211.76, Atomic-Contact-Energy; ACE-value) of ACE2 (Ki 8.68 and 8.3 µmol) in comparison to known-binder EGCG (-4.53) and Theaflavin-di-gallate (-2.85). Nigellidine showed strong-binding (Ki, 50.93 µmol/binding-energy -5.48 kcal/mol) to mono/multi-meric ACE1. Moreover, it binds Angiotensin-receptors, AT1/AT2 (Ki, 42.79/14.22 µmol, binding-energy, -5.96/-6.61 kcal/mol) at active-sites, respectively. This article reports the novel binding of nigellidine and subsequent blockage of angiotensin-binding proteins. The ACEs-blocking could restore Angiotensin-level, restrict vaso-turbulence in Covid patients and receptor-blocking might stop inflammatory/vascular impairment. Nigellidine may slowdown the vaso-fluctuations due to Angiotensin-deregulations in Covid patients. Angiotensin II-ACE2 binding (ACE-value -294.81) is more favorable than nigellidine-ACE2. Conversely, nigellidine-ACE1 binding-energy/Ki is lower than nigellidine-ACE2 values indicating a balanced-state between constriction-dilatation. Moreover, nigellidine binds to the viral-spike, closer-proximity to its ACE2 binding-domain. Taken together, Covid patients/elderly-patients, comorbid-patients (with hypertensive/diabetic/cardiac/renal-impairment, counting >80% of non-survivors) could be greatly benefited.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Nigella sativa , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Comorbidity , Computer Simulation/trends , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Protein Binding/physiology , Protein Structure, Secondary , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/chemistry , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14214, 2020 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065924

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a major public health concern. A handful of static structures now provide molecular insights into how SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV interact with its host target, which is the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Molecular recognition, binding and function are dynamic processes. To evaluate this, multiple 500 ns or 1 µs all-atom molecular dynamics simulations were performed to better understand the structural stability and interfacial interactions between the receptor binding domain of the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV bound to ACE2. Several contacts were observed to form, break and reform in the interface during the simulations. Our results indicate that SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV utilizes unique strategies to achieve stable binding to ACE2. Several differences were observed between the residues of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV that consistently interacted with ACE2. Notably, a stable salt bridge between Lys417 of SARS-CoV-2 S protein and Asp30 of ACE2 as well as three stable hydrogen bonds between Tyr449, Gln493 and Gln498 of SARS-CoV-2 and Asp38, Glu35 and Lys353 of ACE2 were observed, which were absent in the ACE2-SARS-CoV interface. Some previously reported residues, which were suggested to enhance the binding affinity of SARS-CoV-2, were not observed to form stable interactions in these simulations. Molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area based free energy of binding was observed to be higher for SARS-CoV-2 in all simulations. Stable binding to the host receptor is crucial for virus entry. Therefore, special consideration should be given to these stable interactions while designing potential drugs and treatment modalities to target or disrupt this interface.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Conserved Sequence , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Models, Molecular , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
13.
Molecules ; 25(11)2020 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-981163

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids are widely used as phytomedicines. Here, we report on flavonoid phytomedicines with potential for development into prophylactics or therapeutics against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These flavonoid-based phytomedicines include: caflanone, Equivir, hesperetin, myricetin, and Linebacker. Our in silico studies show that these flavonoid-based molecules can bind with high affinity to the spike protein, helicase, and protease sites on the ACE2 receptor used by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 to infect cells and cause COVID-19. Meanwhile, in vitro studies show potential of caflanone to inhibit virus entry factors including, ABL-2, cathepsin L, cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, Mip-1α, TNF-α), and PI4Kiiiß as well as AXL-2, which facilitates mother-to-fetus transmission of coronavirus. The potential for the use of smart drug delivery technologies like nanoparticle drones loaded with these phytomedicines to overcome bioavailability limitations and improve therapeutic efficacy are discussed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/chemistry , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/chemistry , Coronavirus OC43, Human/growth & development , Drug Carriers/administration & dosage , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Flavonoids/chemistry , Humans , Interleukins/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukins/chemistry , Interleukins/genetics , Interleukins/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phytotherapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Primary Cell Culture , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/chemistry , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Thermodynamics , Virus Internalization/drug effects
14.
Biomolecules ; 10(9)2020 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976281

ABSTRACT

We report the results of our in silico study of approved drugs as potential treatments for COVID-19. The study is based on the analysis of normal modes of proteins. The drugs studied include chloroquine, ivermectin, remdesivir, sofosbuvir, boceprevir, and α-difluoromethylornithine (DMFO). We applied the tools we developed and standard tools used in the structural biology community. Our results indicate that small molecules selectively bind to stable, kinetically active residues and residues adjoining them on the surface of proteins and inside protein pockets, and that some prefer hydrophobic sites over other active sites. Our approach is not restricted to viruses and can facilitate rational drug design, as well as improve our understanding of molecular interactions, in general.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/chemistry , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Drug Repositioning , Eflornithine/chemistry , Eflornithine/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Ivermectin/chemistry , Ivermectin/pharmacology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/chemistry , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/drug effects , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Proline/chemistry , Proline/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Interaction Mapping , Receptors, Glycine/chemistry , Receptors, Glycine/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Saposins/chemistry , Saposins/drug effects , Sofosbuvir/chemistry , Sofosbuvir/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/drug effects , Structure-Activity Relationship
15.
J Proteome Res ; 19(11): 4609-4623, 2020 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960272

ABSTRACT

A highly infectious coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has spread in many countries. This virus recognizes its receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), using the receptor binding domain of its spike protein subunit S1. Many missense mutations are reported in various human populations for the ACE2 gene. In the current study, we predict the affinity of many ACE2 variants for binding to S1 protein using different computational approaches. The dissociation process of S1 from some variants of ACE2 is studied in the current work by molecular dynamics approaches. We study the relation between structural dynamics of ACE2 in closed and open states and its affinity for S1 protein of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Mutation, Missense , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Humans , Iran , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutation, Missense/genetics , Mutation, Missense/physiology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Thermodynamics
16.
J Proteome Res ; 19(11): 4576-4586, 2020 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960267

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused the largest pandemic of the twenty-first century (COVID-19), threatening the life and economy of all countries in the world. The identification of novel therapies and vaccines that can mitigate or control this global health threat is among the most important challenges facing biomedical sciences. To construct a long-term strategy to fight both SARS-CoV-2 and other possible future threats from coronaviruses, it is critical to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the virus action. The viral entry and associated infectivity stems from the formation of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein complex with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The detection of putative allosteric sites on the viral spike protein molecule can be used to elucidate the molecular pathways that can be targeted with allosteric drugs to weaken the spike-ACE2 interaction and, thus, reduce viral infectivity. In this study, we present the results of the application of different computational methods aimed at detecting allosteric sites on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The adopted tools consisted of the protein contact networks (PCNs), SEPAS (Affinity by Flexibility), and perturbation response scanning (PRS) based on elastic network modes. All of these methods were applied to the ACE2 complex with both the SARS-CoV2 and SARS-CoV spike proteins. All of the adopted analyses converged toward a specific region (allosteric modulation region [AMR]), present in both complexes and predicted to act as an allosteric site modulating the binding of the spike protein with ACE2. Preliminary results on hepcidin (a molecule with strong structural and sequence with AMR) indicated an inhibitory effect on the binding affinity of the spike protein toward the ACE2 protein.


Subject(s)
Allosteric Site/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Drug Discovery , Humans , Models, Molecular , Neural Networks, Computer , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
17.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 885: 173496, 2020 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959754

ABSTRACT

The rapid breakout of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared pandemic with serious global concern due to high morbidity and mortality. As we enter the phase beyond limitations there is an urgent need for explicit treatment against COVID-19. To face this immediate global challenge, drug development from scratch is a lengthy process and unrealistic to conquer this battle. Drug repurposing is an emerging and practical approach where existing drugs, safe for humans, are redeployed to fight this harder to treat disease. A number of multi clinical studies have repurposed combined cocktail (remdesivir + chloroquine and favipiravir + chloroquine) to be effective against COVID-19. However, the exact mechanistic aspect has not yet been revealed. In the present study, we have tried to decipher the mechanistic aspects of existing medicines at the viral entry and replication stage via the structural viroinformatics approach. Here we implied the molecular docking and dynamic simulations with emphasis on the unique structural properties of host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), SARS-CoV2 spike protein and RNA dependent RNA polymerase enzyme (RdRp) of the SARS-CoV2. Deep structural analysis of target molecules exposed key binding residues and structural twists involved in binding with important pharmacophore features of existing drugs [(7-chloro-N-[5-(diethylamino)pentan-2-yl]quinolin-4-amine (chloroquine),N-[[4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]methyl]-1,2-oxazole-5-carboxamide N-[[4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]methyl]-1,2-oxazole-5-carboxamide) (SSAA09E2), 2-ethylbutyl (2S)-2-{[(S)-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-{4-aminopyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-7-yl}-5-cyano-3 (remdesivir) and 6-Fluor-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2-pyrazincarboxamid (favipiravir)]. It is evident from this structural informatics study that combo of chloroquine + SSAA09E2 with remdesivir or favipiravir could significantly restrain the virus at the entry and replication stage. Thus, drug repurposition is an attractive approach with reduced time and cost to treat COVID-19, we don't have enough time as the whole world is lockdown and we are in urgent need of an obvious therapeutics' measures.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Protein Structure, Tertiary , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(47): 13982-13989, 2020 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-920571

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a host receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Inhibiting the interaction between the envelope spike glycoproteins (S-proteins) of SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 is a potential antiviral therapeutic approach, but little is known about how dietary compounds interact with ACE2. The objective of this study was to determine if flavonoids and other polyphenols with B-ring 3',4'-hydroxylation inhibit recombinant human (rh)ACE2 activity. rhACE2 activity was assessed with the fluorogenic substrate Mca-APK(Dnp). Polyphenols reduced rhACE2 activity by 15-66% at 10 µM. Rutin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, tamarixetin, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid inhibited rhACE2 activity by 42-48%. Quercetin was the most potent rhACE2 inhibitor among the polyphenols tested, with an IC50 of 4.48 µM. Thus, quercetin, its metabolites, and polyphenols with 3',4'-hydroxylation inhibited rhACE2 activity at physiologically relevant concentrations in vitro.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Polyphenols/chemistry , Quercetin/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Enzyme Assays , Humans , Kinetics , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Temperature
19.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241168, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917991

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virion responsible for the current world-wide pandemic COVID-19 has a characteristic Spike protein (S) on its surface that embellishes both a prefusion state and fusion state. The prefusion Spike protein (S) is a large trimeric protein where each protomer may be in a so-called Up state or Down state, depending on the configuration of its receptor binding domain (RBD) within its distal, prefusion S1 domain. The Up state is believed to allow binding of the virion to ACE-2 receptors on human epithelial cells, whereas the Down state is believed to be relatively inactive or reduced in its binding behavior. We have performed detailed all-atom, dominant energy landscape mappings for noncovalent interactions (charge, partial charge, and van der Waals) of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein in its static prefusion state based on two recent and independent experimental structure publications. We included both interchain interactions and intrachain (domain) interactions in our mappings in order to determine any telling differences (different so-called "glue" points) between residues in the Up and Down state protomers. The S2 proximal, fusion domain demonstrated no appreciable energetic differences between Up and Down protomers, including interchain as well as each protomer's intrachain, S1-S2 interactions. However, the S1 domain interactions across neighboring protomers, which include the RBD-NTD cross chain interactions, showed significant energetic differences between Up-Down and Down-Down neighboring protomers. This included, for example, a key RBD residue ARG357 in the Up-Down interaction and a three residue sequence ALA520-PRO521-ALA522, associated with a turn structure in the RBD of the Up state protomer, acting as a stabilizing interaction with the NTD of its neighbor protomer. Additionally, our intra chain dominant energy mappings within each protomer, identified a significant "glue" point or possible "latch" for the Down state protomer between the S1 subdomain, SD1, and the RBD domain of the same protomer that was completely missing in the Up state protomer analysis. Ironically, this dominant energetic interaction in the Down state protomer involved the backbone atoms of the same three residue sequence ALA520-PRO521-ALA522 of the RBD with the amino acid R-group of GLN564 in the SD1 domain. Thus, this same three residue sequence acts as a stabilizer of the RBD in the Up conformation through its interactions with its neighboring NTD chain and a kind of latch in the Down state conformation through its interactions with its own SD1 domain. The dominant interaction energy residues identified here are also conserved across reported variations of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the closely related virions SARS-Cov and the bat corona virus RatG13. We conducted preliminary molecular dynamics simulations across 0.1 µ seconds to see if this latch provided structural stability and indeed found that a single point mutation (Q564G) resulted in the latch releasing transforming the protomer from the Down to the Up state conformation. Full trimeric Spike protein studies of the same mutation across all protomers, however, did not exhibit latch release demonstrating the critical importance of interchain interactions across the S1 domain, including RBD-NTD neighboring chain interactions. Therapies aimed at disrupting these noncovalent interactions could be a viable route for the physico-chemical mitigation of this deadly virion.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Point Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Stability , Protein Subunits/chemistry , Protein Subunits/genetics , Protein Subunits/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Thermodynamics
20.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 641, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894423

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has caused over a million human deaths and massive global disruption. The viral infection may also represent a threat to our closest living relatives, nonhuman primates. The contact surface of the host cell receptor, ACE2, displays amino acid residues that are critical for virus recognition, and variations at these critical residues modulate infection susceptibility. Infection studies have shown that some primate species develop COVID-19-like symptoms; however, the susceptibility of most primates is unknown. Here, we show that all apes and African and Asian monkeys (catarrhines), exhibit the same set of twelve key amino acid residues as human ACE2. Monkeys in the Americas, and some tarsiers, lemurs and lorisoids, differ at critical contact residues, and protein modeling predicts that these differences should greatly reduce SARS-CoV-2 binding affinity. Other lemurs are predicted to be closer to catarrhines in their susceptibility. Our study suggests that apes and African and Asian monkeys, and some lemurs, are likely to be highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Urgent actions have been undertaken to limit the exposure of great apes to humans, and similar efforts may be necessary for many other primate species.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Host Specificity/genetics , Pandemics/veterinary , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Primate Diseases/enzymology , Primates/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Biological Evolution , COVID-19 , Chiroptera/genetics , Conserved Sequence , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Mammals/genetics , Models, Molecular , Mutation, Missense , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Point Mutation , Primate Diseases/virology , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Species Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...