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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200287

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has negatively impacted millions of lives, despite several vaccine interventions and strict precautionary measures. The main causative organism of this disease is the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) which infects the host via two key players: the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2). Some reports revealed that patients with glycemic dysregulation could have increased susceptibility to developing COVID-19 and its related neurological complications. However, no previous studies have looked at the involvement of these key molecules within the hypothalamus, which is the central regulator of glucose in the brain. By exposing embryonic mouse hypothalamic neurons to varying glucose concentrations, we aimed to investigate the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. A significant and time-dependent increase and decrease was observed on the viability of hypothalamic neurons with increasing and decreasing glucose concentrations, respectively (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). Under the same increasing and decreasing glucose conditions, the expression of hypothalamic ACE2 also revealed a significant and time-dependent increase (p < 0.01). These findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 invades the hypothalamic circuitry. In addition, it highlights the importance of strict glycemic control for COVID-19 in diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Glucose , Hypothalamus/metabolism , Mice , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(36): 16604-16611, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185543

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the infectious agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, remains a global medical problem. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was identified as the primary viral entry receptor, and transmembrane serine protease 2 primes the spike protein for membrane fusion. However, ACE2 expression is generally low and variable across tissues, suggesting that auxiliary receptors facilitate viral entry. Identifying these factors is critical for understanding SARS-Cov-2 pathophysiology and developing new countermeasures. However, profiling host-virus interactomes involves extensive genetic screening or complex computational predictions. Here, we leverage the photocatalytic proximity labeling platform µMap to rapidly profile the spike interactome in human cells and identify eight novel candidate receptors. We systemically validate their functionality in SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviral uptake assays with both Wuhan and Delta spike variants and show that dual expression of ACE2 with either neuropilin-2, ephrin receptor A7, solute carrier family 6 member 15, or myelin and lymphocyte protein 2 significantly enhances viral uptake. Collectively, our data show that SARS-CoV-2 synergistically engages several host factors for cell entry and establishes µMap as a powerful tool for rapidly interrogating host-virus interactomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
3.
Mol Biol Cell ; 33(14): ar147, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151826

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizes its Spike (S) glycoprotein to bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor for cellular entry. ACE2 is a critical negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system and plays a protective role in preventing tissue injury. Expression of ACE2 has been shown to decrease upon infection by SARS-CoV. However, whether SARS-CoV-2 down-regulates ACE2 and the underlying mechanism and biological impact of this down-regulation have not been well defined. Here we show that the SARS-CoV-2 infection down-regulates ACE2 in vivo in an animal model, and in cultured cells in vitro, by inducing clathrin- and AP2-dependent endocytosis, leading to its degradation in the lysosome. SARS-CoV-2 S-treated cells and ACE2 knockdown cells exhibit similar alterations in downstream gene expression, with a pattern indicative of activated cytokine signaling that is associated with respiratory distress and inflammatory diseases often observed in COVID-19 patients. Finally, we have identified a soluble ACE2 fragment with a stronger binding to SARS-CoV-2 S that can efficiently block ACE2 down-regulation and viral infection. Thus, our study suggests that ACE2 down-regulation represents an important mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2-associated pathology, and blocking this process could be a promising therapeutic strategy.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Protein Binding
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1021928, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123417

ABSTRACT

ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are crucial for SARS-CoV-2 entry into the cell. Although ACE2 facilitates viral entry, its loss leads to promoting the devastating clinical symptoms of COVID-19 disease. Thus, enhanced ACE2/TMPRSS2 expression is likely to increase predisposition of target cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, little evidence existed about the biological kinetics of these two enzymes and whether dexamethasone treatment modulates their expression. Here, we show that the expression of ACE2 at the protein and mRNA levels was significantly higher in the lung and heart tissues of neonatal compared to adult mice. However, the expression of TMPRSS2 was developmentally regulated. Our results may introduce a novel concept for the reduced susceptibility of the young to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, ACE2 expression but not TMPRSS2 was upregulated in adult female lungs compared to their male counterparts. Interestingly, the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expressions were upregulated by dexamethasone treatment in the lung and heart tissues in both neonatal and adult mice. Furthermore, our findings provide a novel mechanism for the observed differential therapeutic effects of dexamethasone in COVID-19 patients. As such, dexamethasone exhibits different therapeutic effects depending on the disease stage. This was supported by increased ACE2/TMPRSS2 expression and subsequently enhanced infection of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) and Vero E6 cells with SARS-CoV-2 once pre-treated with dexamethasone. Therefore, our results suggest that individuals who take dexamethasone for other clinical conditions may become more prone to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Female , Mice , Animals , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
5.
J Nippon Med Sch ; 89(1): 95-101, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel, highly pathogenic coronavirus that has spread rapidly worldwide and caused an international public health emergency. Patients with hematological cancers are regarded as a high-risk group for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, few reports have investigated factors that might account for the differential severity of COVID-19 disease in these patients. METHODS: Gene expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry-promoting factors and entry-restricting factors and the associated effects on myeloid malignancies were evaluated. Gene expression levels of 11 SARS-CoV-2 entry-promoting factors and 4 SARS-CoV-2 entry-restricting factors were analyzed in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and acute myeloid leukemia and its subtypes. RESULTS: Expression levels of promoting and restricting factors were most affected in MDS. Specifically, 4 of the 11 analyzed SARS-CoV-2 entry-promoting factors were significantly increased (TMPRSS4, CD209, CLEC4G, and CTSB), and 2 of the 4 analyzed SARS-CoV-2 entry-restricting factors were significantly decreased (IFITM1 and IFITM2) in MDS. Patients with CML also exhibited a pattern of significant changes in SARS-CoV-2 entry-promoting and entry-restricting factors. Five of the 11 analyzed SARS-CoV-2 entry-promoting factors were significantly increased (ACE2, TMPRSS2, TMPRSS4, ANPEP, CD209), and 1 of the 4 analyzed SARS-CoV-2 entry-restricting factors was significantly decreased (LY6E) in CML. CONCLUSIONS: The present and past results highlight the importance of investigating SARS-CoV-2 entry-promoting factors and entry-restricting factors, because of their crucial role in determining the differential severity of COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Cell Line , Humans , Membrane Proteins , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118407

ABSTRACT

Longevity is a unique human phenomenon and a highly stable trait, characterized by polygenicity. The longevity phenotype occurs due to the ability to successfully withstand the age-related genomic instability triggered by Alu elements. The purpose of our cross-sectional study was to evaluate the combined contribution of ACE*Ya5ACE, CDH4*Yb8NBC516, COL13A1*Ya5ac1986, HECW1*Ya5NBC182, LAMA2*Ya5-MLS19, PLAT*TPA25, PKHD1L1*Yb8AC702, SEMA6A*Yb8NBC597, STK38L*Ya5ac2145 and TEAD1*Ya5ac2013 Alu elements to longevity. The study group included 2054 unrelated individuals aged from 18 to 113 years who are ethnic Tatars from Russia. We analyzed the dynamics of the allele and genotype frequencies of the studied Alu polymorphic loci in the age groups of young (18-44 years old), middle-aged (45-59 years old), elderly (60-74 years old), old seniors (75-89 years old) and long-livers (90-113 years old). Most significant changes in allele and genotype frequencies were observed between the long-livers and other groups. The search for polygenic predictors of longevity was performed using the APSampler program. Attaining longevity was associated with the combinations LAMA2*ID + CDH4*D (OR = 2.23, PBonf = 1.90 × 10-2) and CDH4*DD + LAMA2*ID + HECW1*D (OR = 4.58, PBonf = 9.00 × 10-3) among persons aged between 18 and 89 years, LAMA2*ID + CDH4*D + SEMA6A*I for individuals below 75 years of age (OR = 3.13, PBonf = 2.00 × 10-2), LAMA2*ID + HECW1*I for elderly people aged 60 and older (OR = 3.13, PBonf = 2.00 × 10-2) and CDH4*DD + LAMA2*D + HECW1*D (OR = 4.21, PBonf = 2.60 × 10-2) and CDH4*DD + LAMA2*D + ACE*I (OR = 3.68, PBonf = 1.90 × 10-2) among old seniors (75-89 years old). The key elements of combinations associated with longevity were the deletion alleles of CDH4 and LAMA2 genes. Our results point to the significance for human longevity of the Alu polymorphic loci in CDH4, LAMA2, HECW1, SEMA6A and ACE genes, involved in the integration systems.


Subject(s)
Longevity , Polymorphism, Genetic , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Alu Elements/genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Longevity/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Gene Deletion
7.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 323(6): H1262-H1269, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117986

ABSTRACT

Myocardial pathologies resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infections are consistently rising with mounting case rates and reinfections; however, the precise global burden is largely unknown and will have an unprecedented impact. Understanding the mechanisms of COVID-19-mediated cardiac injury is essential toward the development of cardioprotective agents that are urgently needed. Assessing novel therapeutic strategies to tackle COVID-19 necessitates an animal model that recapitulates human disease. Here, we sought to compare SARS-CoV-2-infected animals with patients with COVID-19 to identify common mechanisms of cardiac injury. Two-month-old hamsters were infected with either the ancestral (D614) or Delta variant (B.1.617.2) of SARS-CoV-2 for 2 days, 7 days, and/or 14 days. We measured viral RNA and cytokine expression at the earlier time points to capture the initial stages of infection in the lung and heart. We assessed myocardial angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the entry receptor for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and cardioprotective enzyme, as well as markers for inflammatory cell infiltration in the hamster hearts at days 7 and 14. In parallel, human hearts were stained for ACE2, viral nucleocapsid, and inflammatory cells. Indeed, we identify myocardial ACE2 downregulation and myeloid cell burden as common events in both hamsters and humans infected with SARS-CoV-2, and we propose targeting downstream ACE2 downregulation as a therapeutic avenue that warrants clinical investigation.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Cardiac manifestations of COVID-19 in humans are mirrored in the SARS-CoV-2 hamster model, recapitulating myocardial damage, ACE2 downregulation, and a consistent pattern of immune cell infiltration independent of viral dose and variant. Therefore, the hamster model is a valid approach to study therapeutic strategies for COVID-19-related heart disease.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Cricetinae , Infant , SARS-CoV-2 , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Inflammation
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1001951, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099151

ABSTRACT

Various species of the SARS-CoV-2 host cell receptor, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), are present in serum, which may result from virus entry and subsequent proteolytic processing of the membrane receptor. We have recently demonstrated changes of particular ACE2 species in virus infected humans, either cleaved fragments or circulating full-length species. Here, we further explore the potential of serum ACE2 as a biomarker to test SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccine efficacy in virus susceptible transgenic K18-hACE2 mice expressing human ACE2. First, in serum samples derived from K18-hACE2 mice challenged with a lethal dose of SARS-CoV-2, we observed an increase in the levels of cleaved ACE2 fragment at day 2 post-challenge, which may represent the subsequent proteolytic processing through virus entry. These elevated levels were maintained until the death of the animals at day 6 post-challenge. The circulating full-length ACE2 form displayed a sizable peak at day 4, which declined at day 6 post-challenge. Noticeably, immunization with two doses of the MVA-CoV2-S vaccine candidate prevented ACE2 cleaved changes in serum of animals challenged with a lethal dose of SARS-CoV-2. The efficacy of the MVA-CoV2-S was extended to vaccinated mice after virus re-challenge. These findings highlight that ACE2 could be a potential serum biomarker for disease progression and vaccination against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Mice , Biomarkers , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mice, Transgenic , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccine Efficacy
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(11)2022 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081951

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to identify the association between four selected COVID-19 polymorphisms of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 receptors genes with the presence of long-COVID symptomatology in COVID-19 survivors. These genes were selected as they associate with the entry of the SARS-CoV-2 virus into the cells, so polymorphisms could be important for the prognoses of long-COVID symptoms. Two hundred and ninety-three (n = 293, 49.5% female, mean age: 55.6 ± 12.9 years) individuals who had been previously hospitalized due to COVID-19 were included. Three potential genotypes of the following single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained from non-stimulated saliva samples of participants: ACE2 (rs2285666), ACE2 (rs2074192), TMPRSS2 (rs12329760), TMPRSS2 (rs2070788). Participants were asked to self-report the presence of any post-COVID defined as a symptom that started no later than one month after SARS-CoV-2 acute infection and whether the symptom persisted at the time of the study. At the time of the study (mean: 17.8, SD: 5.2 months after hospital discharge), 87.7% patients reported at least one symptom. Fatigue (62.8%), pain (39.9%) or memory loss (32.1%) were the most prevalent post-COVID symptoms. Overall, no differences in long-COVID symptoms were dependent on ACE2 rs2285666, ACE2 rs2074192, TMPRSS2 rs12329760, or TMPRSS2 rs2070788 genotypes. The four SNPs assessed, albeit previously associated with COVID-19 severity, do not predispose for developing long-COVID symptoms in people who were previously hospitalized due to COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Survivors
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066024

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2), has triggered an enormous scientific response. Many studies have focused on understanding the entry of the SARS-CoV-2 virus into the host cell. The angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) is recognized as the host receptor used by SARS-CoV-2 to enter its target cells. Recent studies suggest that ACE2 gene polymorphisms might be candidates for genetic susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of ACE2 polymorphisms on COVID-19 disease risk and severity. In our study, we confirmed that there is a statistically significant increased risk of a more severe disease course of SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with the need for hospitalization in intensive care for patients with specific polymorphisms of the ACE2 gene. The most significant correlation was found for variant ACE2 rs2285666 (AA allele, OR = 2.12, p = 0.0189) and ACE2 rs2074192 (TT allele, OR = 2.05, p = 0.0016), and for ACE2 rs4646174 (GG allele, OR = 1.93, p = 0.0016), ACE2 rs4646156 (TT allele OR = 1.71, p = 0.008) and ACE2 rs2158083 (TT allele OR = 1.84, p = 0.0025). In conclusion, our findings identify that certain ACE2 polymorphisms impact the severity of COVID-19 disease independently of other well-known risk factors.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19 , Angiotensins/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
11.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol ; 30(10): 647-653, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063097

ABSTRACT

The membrane protein angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) has gained notoriety as the receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Prior evidence has shown ACE2 is expressed within the liver but its function has not been fully discerned. Here, we utilized novel methodology to assess ACE2 expression in pediatric immune-mediated liver disease to better understand its presence in liver diseases and its role during infections such as COVID-19. We stained liver tissue with ACE2-specific immunofluorescent antibodies, analyzed via confocal microscopy. Computational deep learning-based segmentation models identified nuclei and cells, allowing the quantification of mean cellular and cytosolic immunofluorescent. Spatial transcriptomics provided high-throughput gene expression analysis in tissue to determine cellular composition for ACE2 expression. ACE2 plasma expression was quantified via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High ACE2 expression was seen at the apical surface of cholangiocytes, with lower expression within hepatocyte cytosol and nonparenchymal cells ( P <0.001). Children with liver disease had higher ACE2 hepatic expression than pediatric control tissue ( P <0.001). Adult control tissue had higher expression than pediatric control ( P <0.001). Plasma ACE2 was not found to be statistically different between samples. Spatial transcriptomics identified cell composition of ACE2-expressing spots containing antibody-secreting cells. Our results show ACE2 expression throughout the liver, with strongest localization to cholangiocyte membranes. Machine learning can be used to rapidly identify hepatic cellular components for histologic analysis. ACE2 expression in the liver may be increased in pediatric liver disease. Future work is needed to better understand the role of ACE2 in chronic disease and acute infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Humans , Child , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Angiotensins
13.
Biochemistry ; 61(20): 2188-2197, 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050236

ABSTRACT

The receptor binding domain(s) (RBD) of spike (S) proteins of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) undergoes closed to open transition to engage with host ACE2 receptors. In this study, using multi atomistic (equilibrium) and targeted (non-equilibrium) molecular dynamics simulations, we have compared energetics of RBD opening pathways in full-length (modeled from cryo-EM structures) S proteins of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2. Our data indicate that amino acid variations at the RBD interaction interface can culminate into distinct free energy landscapes of RBD opening in these S proteins. We further report that mutations in the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern can reduce the protein-protein interaction affinity of RBD(s) with its neighboring domains and could favor its opening to access ACE2 receptors. The findings can also aid in predicting the impact of future mutations on the rate of S protein opening for rapid host receptor scanning.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Amino Acids/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19/genetics , Mutation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
14.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 10(11): e2063, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: ACE1 I/D rs1799752 and ACE2 rs2285666 genetic polymorphisms could play a critical role in altering the clinical outcomes of SARS-CoV-2. The findings of previous studies remained inconclusive. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association and provide a more reliable outcome. METHODS: This study was completed following the updated recommendations of PRISMA using RevMan 5.4.1 statistical software. RESULTS: A total of 11 studies with 950 severe cases and 1573 non-severe cases with COVID-19 infection were included. Pooled analysis showed that ACE1 I/D polymorphism was correlated with the severity of SARS-CoV-2 in the DD genotype and D allele for the fixed-effects model (OR:1.27 and OR:1.17). Besides, codominant 3, recessive, and allele models were associated with the severity of the fixed-effects model (OR:1.35, OR:1.37, and OR:1.20) in Caucasian ethnicity. ACE2 rs2285666 was linked with the severity in codominant 3 (OR:2.63, for both random- and fixed effects-models), overdominant (OR:1.97, for random-effects model and OR:1.97, for fixed effects-model), and recessive model (OR:0.41 for fixed- and random-effects model). Allele model of rs2285666 showed a significant association in the fixed-effects model (OR:1.61). CONCLUSION: Our present meta-analysis suggests that ACE1 I/D rs1799752 and ACE2 rs2285666 variants may enhance the severity in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Future studies are warranted to verify our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic
15.
J Leukoc Biol ; 112(3): 569-576, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047706

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2), which causes the disease COVID-19, has caused an unprecedented global pandemic. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the major cellular receptor for SARS-CoV2 entry, which is facilitated by viral Spike priming by cellular TMPRSS2. Macrophages play an important role in innate viral defense and are also involved in aberrant immune activation that occurs in COVID-19, and thus direct macrophage infection might contribute to severity of SARS-CoV2 infection. Here, we demonstrate that monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) under in vitro conditions express low-to-undetectable levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and minimal coexpression. Expression of these receptors remained low in MDM induced to different subtypes such as unpolarized, M1 and M2 polarized. Untreated, unpolarized, M1 polarized, and M2 polarized MDM were all resistant to infection with SARS-CoV2 pseudotyped virions. These findings suggest that direct infection of myeloid cells is unlikely to be a major mechanism of SARS-CoV2 pathogenesis. Summary sentence: Monocytes and macrophages express minimal ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and resist SARS-CoV-2 Spike-mediated infection, suggesting direct myeloid cell infection is unlikely a major contributor to pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Macrophages , Monocytes , Serine Endopeptidases , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Resistance , Humans , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/virology , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
16.
Res Vet Sci ; 152: 564-568, 2022 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042118

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an enzyme within the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system that plays a role in regulating blood pressure. However, it is also a cellular receptor for infection with SARS coronaviruses. Although most cats develop subclinical or mild disease following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) acquired from human patients, a previous study has suggested hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a potential risk factor for the development of severe disease in the cat. Herein we investigate the ACE2 protein expression in the lung, heart, and kidney from a small subset of cats with (n = 10) and without HCM (n = 10) by immunohistochemistry. The abundance and intensity of ACE2 expression is slightly elevated in alveoli (p = 0.09; 0.07, respectively) and bronchioles (p = 0.095; 0.37, respectively). However, statistically elevated abundance and intensity of ACE-2 expression was only evident in the heart of cats with HCM (p = 0.032; p = 0.011, respectively). Further investigation did not demonstrate a statistical correlation between the ACE2 expression in the heart in relation to the heart weight to body weight ratio, and the ventricular wall ratio. Current findings suggest an overexpression of ACE2 in HCM cases but follow up study is warranted to understand the pathophysiological process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic , Cat Diseases , Humans , Cats , Animals , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Follow-Up Studies , COVID-19/veterinary , Renin-Angiotensin System , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/genetics , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/veterinary , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/metabolism
17.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 111: 109128, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036144

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has shown a vast range of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic to life-threatening symptoms. To figure out the cause of this heterogeneity, studies demonstrated the trace of genetic diversities whether in the hosts or the virus itself. With this regard, this review provides a comprehensive overview of how host genetic such as those related to the entry of the virus, the immune-related genes, gender-related genes, disease-related genes, and also host epigenetic could influence the severity of COVID-19. Besides, the mutations in the genome of SARS-CoV-2 __leading to emerging of new variants__ per se affect the affinity of the virus to the host cells and enhance the immune escape capacity. The current review discusses these variants and also the latest data about vaccination effectiveness facing the most important variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Genetic Variation , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
18.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 45(11): 1753-1769, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035057

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Symptoms of COVID-19 can range from asymptomatic to severe, which could lead to fatality. Like other pathogenic viruses, the infection of SARS-CoV-2 relies on binding its spike glycoprotein to the host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2). Molecular studies suggested that there is a high affinity between the spike glycoprotein and ACE 2 that might arise due to their hydrophobic interaction. This property is mainly responsible for making this virus highly infectious. Apart from this, the transmissibility of the virus, prolonged viability in certain circumstances, and rapid mutations also contributed to the current pandemic situation. Nanotechnology provides potential alternative solutions to combat COVID-19 with the development of i. nanomaterial-based COVID-19 detection technology, ii. nanomaterial-based disinfectants, iii. nanoparticle-based vaccines, and iv. nanoparticle-based drug delivery. Hence, this review provides diverse insight into understanding COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Biology
19.
Microb Pathog ; 172: 105781, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031567

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies emphasize the significant impact of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) as a risk factor associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. However, according to the literature, the effect of rs4646994 and rs2285666 polymorphisms on susceptibility and progression to severe clinical outcomes is still controversial. Our aim was to investigate the effect of polymorphisms such as rs4646994 and rs2285666 on susceptibility to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature search using databases such as ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar to retrieve studies on the effect of two polymorphisms (rs4646994 and rs2285666) of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene on COVID-19. Finally, the effect of each polymorphism on SARS-CoV-2 infection was measured based on the odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Analysis of the rs4646994 polymorphism showed that the frequency of the D allele in patients infected with COVID-19 was higher than that the I allele. Moreover, the authors found that the DD genotype increased the risk of severe disease by 1.7-fold in Asian population, whereas, this was not the case in the Western population. However, the rs4646994 II genotype plays a protective role against COVID-19 in Western countries. In the case of the rs2285666 polymorphism based on patient ethnicity, the C allele had the highest frequency. Interestingly, in people harboring the GG and TT genotypes, the risk of progression to severe disease significantly increased, while people with genotypes such as GA, AA and CC seem to be more resistant to severe Covid-19. CONCLUSIONS: Based on geographical region, the rs4646994 DD genotype may be considered as a predictive biomarker to identify the susceptibility of human to SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 outcomes. We also concluded that individuals with GG and TT genotypes are significantly more susceptible to severe outcomes of disease, while conversely, individuals with GA, AA, and CC genotypes are less susceptible to severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Humans , Aldosterone , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensins , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Renin , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Cell ; 185(21): 3992-4007.e16, 2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031185

ABSTRACT

After the global spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2, some BA.2 subvariants, including BA.2.9.1, BA.2.11, BA.2.12.1, BA.4, and BA.5, emerged in multiple countries. Our statistical analysis showed that the effective reproduction numbers of these BA.2 subvariants are greater than that of the original BA.2. Neutralization experiments revealed that the immunity induced by BA.1/2 infections is less effective against BA.4/5. Cell culture experiments showed that BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/5 replicate more efficiently in human alveolar epithelial cells than BA.2, and particularly, BA.4/5 is more fusogenic than BA.2. We further provided the structure of the BA.4/5 spike receptor-binding domain that binds to human ACE2 and considered how the substitutions in the BA.4/5 spike play roles in ACE2 binding and immune evasion. Moreover, experiments using hamsters suggested that BA.4/5 is more pathogenic than BA.2. Our multiscale investigations suggest that the risk of BA.2 subvariants, particularly BA.4/5, to global health is greater than that of original BA.2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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