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1.
Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) ; 68(5): 14-23, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203930

ABSTRACT

A severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread around the world since was first scientifically described in December 2019. At present approximately 400 million people have suffered from the disease, almost 6 million people have died.SARS-CoV-2 uses the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are expressed in several endocrine glands, including the pituitary, pancreas, thyroid, ovaries, and testes. Thus, the endocrine glands may be a direct target for SARS-CoV-2. The main risk factors for severity of the COVID-19 are obesity, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), vertebral fractures, which potentially predisposes patients to a severe course of COVID-19.In this review, we present current data on the course of COVID-19 in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary diseases, and also discuss treatment for endocrinopathies during to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pituitary Diseases , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism
2.
Theranostics ; 12(10): 4779-4790, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203050

ABSTRACT

New variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are continuing to spread globally, contributing to the persistence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Increasing resources have been focused on developing vaccines and therapeutics that target the Spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. Recent advances in microfluidics have the potential to recapitulate viral infection in the organ-specific platforms, known as organ-on-a-chip (OoC), in which binding of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) of the host cells occurs. As the COVID-19 pandemic lingers, there remains an unmet need to screen emerging mutations, to predict viral transmissibility and pathogenicity, and to assess the strength of neutralizing antibodies following vaccination or reinfection. Conventional detection of SARS-CoV-2 variants relies on two-dimensional (2-D) cell culture methods, whereas simulating the micro-environment requires three-dimensional (3-D) systems. To this end, analyzing SARS-CoV-2-mediated pathogenicity via microfluidic platforms minimizes the experimental cost, duration, and optimization needed for animal studies, and obviates the ethical concerns associated with the use of primates. In this context, this review highlights the state-of-the-art strategy to engineer the nano-liposomes that can be conjugated with SARS-CoV-2 Spike mutations or genomic sequences in the microfluidic platforms; thereby, allowing for screening the rising SARS-CoV-2 variants and predicting COVID-19-associated coagulation. Furthermore, introducing viral genomics to the patient-specific blood accelerates the discovery of therapeutic targets in the face of evolving viral variants, including B1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), B.1.617.2 (Delta), c.37 (Lambda), and B.1.1.529 (Omicron). Thus, engineering nano-liposomes to encapsulate SARS-CoV-2 viral genomic sequences enables rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 variants in the long COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genomics , Humans , Liposomes , Microfluidics , Mutation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200287

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has negatively impacted millions of lives, despite several vaccine interventions and strict precautionary measures. The main causative organism of this disease is the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) which infects the host via two key players: the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2). Some reports revealed that patients with glycemic dysregulation could have increased susceptibility to developing COVID-19 and its related neurological complications. However, no previous studies have looked at the involvement of these key molecules within the hypothalamus, which is the central regulator of glucose in the brain. By exposing embryonic mouse hypothalamic neurons to varying glucose concentrations, we aimed to investigate the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. A significant and time-dependent increase and decrease was observed on the viability of hypothalamic neurons with increasing and decreasing glucose concentrations, respectively (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). Under the same increasing and decreasing glucose conditions, the expression of hypothalamic ACE2 also revealed a significant and time-dependent increase (p < 0.01). These findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 invades the hypothalamic circuitry. In addition, it highlights the importance of strict glycemic control for COVID-19 in diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Glucose , Hypothalamus/metabolism , Mice , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
4.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271359, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196940

ABSTRACT

The viral genome of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), particularly its cell-binding spike protein gene, has undergone rapid evolution during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Variants including Omicron BA.1 and Omicron BA.2 now seriously threaten the efficacy of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and vaccines that target the spike protein. Viral evolution over a much longer timescale has generated a wide range of genetically distinct sarbecoviruses in animal populations, including the pandemic viruses SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1. The genetic diversity and widespread zoonotic potential of this group complicates current attempts to develop drugs in preparation for the next sarbecovirus pandemic. Receptor-based decoy inhibitors can target a wide range of viral strains with a common receptor and may have intrinsic resistance to escape mutant generation and antigenic drift. We previously generated an affinity-matured decoy inhibitor based on the receptor target of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and deployed it in a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (rAAV) for intranasal delivery and passive prophylaxis against COVID-19. Here, we demonstrate the exceptional binding and neutralizing potency of this ACE2 decoy against SARS-CoV-2 variants including Omicron BA.1 and Omicron BA.2. Tight decoy binding tracks with human ACE2 binding of viral spike receptor-binding domains across diverse clades of coronaviruses. Furthermore, in a coronavirus that cannot bind human ACE2, a variant that acquired human ACE2 binding was bound by the decoy with nanomolar affinity. Considering these results, we discuss a strategy of decoy-based treatment and passive protection to mitigate the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and future airway virus threats.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270609, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196920

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 progression shows sex-dependent features. It is hypothesized that a better Covid-19 survival rate in females can be attributed to the presence of higher 17ß-estradiol (E2) levels in women than in men. Virus SARS-CoV-2 is enabled to enter the cell with the use of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The expression of several renin-angiotensin system components has been shown to exert a rhythmic pattern, and a role of the circadian system in their regulation has been implicated. Therefore, the aim of the study is to elucidate possible interference between E2 signalling and the circadian system in the regulation of the expression of ACE2 mRNA and functionally related molecules. E2 was administered at a dosage of 40 µg/kg/day for 7 days to male Wistar rats, and sampling of the lungs and colon was performed during a 24-h cycle. The daily pattern of expression of molecules facilitating SARS-CoV-2 entry into the cell, clock genes and E2 receptors was analysed. As a consequence of E2 administration, a rhythm in ACE2 and TMPRSS2 mRNA expression was observed in the lungs but not in the colon. ADAM17 mRNA expression showed a pronounced rhythmic pattern in both tissues that was not influenced by E2 treatment. ESR1 mRNA expression exerted a rhythmic pattern, which was diminished by E2 treatment. The influence of E2 administration on ESR2 and GPER1 mRNA expression was greater in the lungs than in the colon as a significant rhythm in ESR2 and GPER1 mRNA expression appeared only in the lungs after E2 treatment. E2 administration also increased the amplitude of bmal1 expression in the lungs, which implicates altered functioning of peripheral oscillators in response to E2 treatment. The daily pattern of components of the SARS-CoV-2 entrance pathway and their responsiveness to E2 should be considered in the timing of pharmacological therapy for Covid-19.


Subject(s)
ADAM17 Protein , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Colon , Estradiol , Lung , Receptors, Estradiol , ADAM17 Protein/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Colon/drug effects , Colon/metabolism , Estradiol/pharmacology , Female , Lung/metabolism , Male , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, Estradiol/genetics , Receptors, Estradiol/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects , Virus Internalization
6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(36): 16604-16611, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185543

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the infectious agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, remains a global medical problem. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was identified as the primary viral entry receptor, and transmembrane serine protease 2 primes the spike protein for membrane fusion. However, ACE2 expression is generally low and variable across tissues, suggesting that auxiliary receptors facilitate viral entry. Identifying these factors is critical for understanding SARS-Cov-2 pathophysiology and developing new countermeasures. However, profiling host-virus interactomes involves extensive genetic screening or complex computational predictions. Here, we leverage the photocatalytic proximity labeling platform µMap to rapidly profile the spike interactome in human cells and identify eight novel candidate receptors. We systemically validate their functionality in SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviral uptake assays with both Wuhan and Delta spike variants and show that dual expression of ACE2 with either neuropilin-2, ephrin receptor A7, solute carrier family 6 member 15, or myelin and lymphocyte protein 2 significantly enhances viral uptake. Collectively, our data show that SARS-CoV-2 synergistically engages several host factors for cell entry and establishes µMap as a powerful tool for rapidly interrogating host-virus interactomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
7.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1350-1367, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153223

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world, predominantly due to lung and cardiovascular injury. The virus responsible for COVID-19-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-gains entry into host cells via ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2). ACE2 is a primary enzyme within the key counter-regulatory pathway of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which acts to oppose the actions of Ang (angiotensin) II by generating Ang-(1-7) to reduce inflammation and fibrosis and mitigate end organ damage. As COVID-19 spans multiple organ systems linked to the cardiovascular system, it is imperative to understand clearly how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may affect the multifaceted RAS. In addition, recognition of the role of ACE2 and the RAS in COVID-19 has renewed interest in its role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in general. We provide researchers with a framework of best practices in basic and clinical research to interrogate the RAS using appropriate methodology, especially those who are relatively new to the field. This is crucial, as there are many limitations inherent in investigating the RAS in experimental models and in humans. We discuss sound methodological approaches to quantifying enzyme content and activity (ACE, ACE2), peptides (Ang II, Ang-[1-7]), and receptors (types 1 and 2 Ang II receptors, Mas receptor). Our goal is to ensure appropriate research methodology for investigations of the RAS in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and COVID-19 to ensure optimal rigor and reproducibility and appropriate interpretation of results from these investigations.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Blood Pressure Determination/methods , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Incidence , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prognosis , Research Design , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 928704, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154680

ABSTRACT

In the lungs of infected individuals, the downstream molecular signaling pathways induced by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are incompletely understood. Here, we describe and examine predictions of a model in which NOTCH may represent a central signaling axis in lung infection in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). A pathway involving NOTCH signaling, furin, ADAM17, and ACE2 may be capable of increasing SARS-CoV-2 viral entry and infection. NOTCH signaling can also upregulate IL-6 and pro-inflammatory mediators induced to hyperactivation in COVID-19. Furthermore, if NOTCH signaling fails to turn down properly and stays elevated, airway regeneration during lung healing can be inhibited-a process that may be at play in COVID-19. With specific NOTCH inhibitor drugs in development and clinical trials for other diseases being conducted, the roles of NOTCH in all of these processes central to both infection and healing merit contemplation if such drugs might be applied to COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Humans , Lung , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism
9.
Mol Biol Cell ; 33(14): ar147, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151826

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizes its Spike (S) glycoprotein to bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor for cellular entry. ACE2 is a critical negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system and plays a protective role in preventing tissue injury. Expression of ACE2 has been shown to decrease upon infection by SARS-CoV. However, whether SARS-CoV-2 down-regulates ACE2 and the underlying mechanism and biological impact of this down-regulation have not been well defined. Here we show that the SARS-CoV-2 infection down-regulates ACE2 in vivo in an animal model, and in cultured cells in vitro, by inducing clathrin- and AP2-dependent endocytosis, leading to its degradation in the lysosome. SARS-CoV-2 S-treated cells and ACE2 knockdown cells exhibit similar alterations in downstream gene expression, with a pattern indicative of activated cytokine signaling that is associated with respiratory distress and inflammatory diseases often observed in COVID-19 patients. Finally, we have identified a soluble ACE2 fragment with a stronger binding to SARS-CoV-2 S that can efficiently block ACE2 down-regulation and viral infection. Thus, our study suggests that ACE2 down-regulation represents an important mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2-associated pathology, and blocking this process could be a promising therapeutic strategy.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Protein Binding
10.
Circulation ; 141(20): 1648-1655, 2020 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138307

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic affecting 185 countries and >3 000 000 patients worldwide as of April 28, 2020. COVID-19 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which invades cells through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. Among patients with COVID-19, there is a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease, and >7% of patients experience myocardial injury from the infection (22% of critically ill patients). Although angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 serves as the portal for infection, the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers requires further investigation. COVID-19 poses a challenge for heart transplantation, affecting donor selection, immunosuppression, and posttransplant management. There are a number of promising therapies under active investigation to treat and prevent COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Pneumonia, Viral , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/enzymology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/enzymology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/enzymology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Curr Microbiol ; 80(1): 1, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2128602

ABSTRACT

India was severely affected by several waves of SARS-CoV-2 infection that occurred during April-June 2021 (second wave) and December 2021-January 2022 (third wave) and thereafter, resulting in >10 million new infections and a significant number of deaths. Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data database was used to collect the sequence information of ~10,000 SARS-CoV-2 patients from India and our sequence analysis identified three variants B.1.1.7 (alpha, α), B1.617.2 (delta, Δ), B.1.1.529 (Omicron, Oo) and one Omicron sub-variant BA.2.75 as the primary drivers for SARS-CoV-2 waves in India. Structural visualization and analysis of important mutations of alpha, delta, Omicron and its sub-variants of SARS-CoV-2 Receptor-Binding Domain (RBD) was performed and our analysis clearly shows that mutations occur throughout the RBD, including the RBD surface responsible for human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE-2) receptor-binding. A comparison between alpha, delta and omicron variants/sub-variants reveals many omicron mutations in the hACE-2 binding site and several other mutations within 5 Å of this binding region. Further, computational analysis highlights the importance of electrostatic interactions in stabilizing RBD-hACE-2-binding, especially in the omicron variant. Our analysis explores the likely role of key alpha, delta and omicron mutations on binding with hACE-2. Taken together, our study provides novel structural insights into the implications of RBD mutations in alpha, delta and omicron and its sub-variants that were responsible for India's SARS-CoV-2 surge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143206

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), which include Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves' disease (GD), have a higher prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the literature. The effects of AITD-associated cytokines on SARS-CoV-2 infection-mediating molecule levels might be involved in the pathogenesis of susceptibility. We speculated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) might attenuate this process since H2S has antiviral effects. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that angiotensin-converting enzyme-II (ACE2) expression was higher in the HT group and neuropilin 1 (NRP1) expression was higher in HT and GD groups than in the normal group, while transmembrane protease serine type 2 (TMPRSS2) expression was lower in HT and GD groups. When culturing primary thyrocytes with cytokines or sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) plus cytokines, we found that ACE2 and NRP1 mRNA levels were upregulated while TMPRSS2 levels were downregulated by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). After pretreatment with NaHS in thyrocytes, ACE2 and NRP1 expression were downregulated compared to IFN-γ or TNF-α treatment, and NaHS had no effect on TMPRSS2 expression. Our findings suggested that IFN-γ and TNF-α, which are elevated in AITDs, promoted ACE2 and NRP1 expression and inhibited TMPRSS2 expression. H2S might protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection by downregulating ACE2 and NRP1 levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graves Disease , Hydrogen Sulfide , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Interferon-gamma/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Hydrogen Sulfide/pharmacology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1028613, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142034

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes a variety of physiological responses in the lung, and understanding how the expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and its proteolytic activator, transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), are affected in patients with underlying disease such as interstitial pneumonia will be important in considering COVID-19 progression. We examined the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in an induced usual interstitial pneumonia (iUIP) mouse model and patients with IPF as well as the changes in whole-lung ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression under physiological conditions caused by viral infection. Histopathological and biochemical characteristics were analyzed using human specimens from patients with IPF and precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) from iUIP mouse model showing UIP with honeycombing and severe fibrosis after non-specific interstitial pneumonia. ACE2 expression decreased with acute lung inflammation and increased in the abnormal lung epithelium of the iUIP mouse model. ACE2 is also expressed in metaplastic epithelial cells. Poly(I:C), interferons, and cytokines associated with fibrosis decreased ACE2 expression in PCLS in the iUIP model. Hypoxia also decreases ACE2 via HIF1α in PCLS. Antifibrotic agent, nintedanib attenuates ACE2 expression in invasive epithelial cells. Patients with IPF are at a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection due to the high expression of ACE2. However, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression is decreased by immune intermediaries, including interferons and cytokines that are associated with viral infection and upon administration of antifibrotic agents, suggesting that most of the viral infection-induced pathophysiological responses aid the development of resistance against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Lung Diseases , Humans , Mice , Animals , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases/pathology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Cytokines , Interferons , Fibrosis
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1021928, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123417

ABSTRACT

ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are crucial for SARS-CoV-2 entry into the cell. Although ACE2 facilitates viral entry, its loss leads to promoting the devastating clinical symptoms of COVID-19 disease. Thus, enhanced ACE2/TMPRSS2 expression is likely to increase predisposition of target cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, little evidence existed about the biological kinetics of these two enzymes and whether dexamethasone treatment modulates their expression. Here, we show that the expression of ACE2 at the protein and mRNA levels was significantly higher in the lung and heart tissues of neonatal compared to adult mice. However, the expression of TMPRSS2 was developmentally regulated. Our results may introduce a novel concept for the reduced susceptibility of the young to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, ACE2 expression but not TMPRSS2 was upregulated in adult female lungs compared to their male counterparts. Interestingly, the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expressions were upregulated by dexamethasone treatment in the lung and heart tissues in both neonatal and adult mice. Furthermore, our findings provide a novel mechanism for the observed differential therapeutic effects of dexamethasone in COVID-19 patients. As such, dexamethasone exhibits different therapeutic effects depending on the disease stage. This was supported by increased ACE2/TMPRSS2 expression and subsequently enhanced infection of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) and Vero E6 cells with SARS-CoV-2 once pre-treated with dexamethasone. Therefore, our results suggest that individuals who take dexamethasone for other clinical conditions may become more prone to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Female , Mice , Animals , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
15.
J Nippon Med Sch ; 89(1): 95-101, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel, highly pathogenic coronavirus that has spread rapidly worldwide and caused an international public health emergency. Patients with hematological cancers are regarded as a high-risk group for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, few reports have investigated factors that might account for the differential severity of COVID-19 disease in these patients. METHODS: Gene expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry-promoting factors and entry-restricting factors and the associated effects on myeloid malignancies were evaluated. Gene expression levels of 11 SARS-CoV-2 entry-promoting factors and 4 SARS-CoV-2 entry-restricting factors were analyzed in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and acute myeloid leukemia and its subtypes. RESULTS: Expression levels of promoting and restricting factors were most affected in MDS. Specifically, 4 of the 11 analyzed SARS-CoV-2 entry-promoting factors were significantly increased (TMPRSS4, CD209, CLEC4G, and CTSB), and 2 of the 4 analyzed SARS-CoV-2 entry-restricting factors were significantly decreased (IFITM1 and IFITM2) in MDS. Patients with CML also exhibited a pattern of significant changes in SARS-CoV-2 entry-promoting and entry-restricting factors. Five of the 11 analyzed SARS-CoV-2 entry-promoting factors were significantly increased (ACE2, TMPRSS2, TMPRSS4, ANPEP, CD209), and 1 of the 4 analyzed SARS-CoV-2 entry-restricting factors was significantly decreased (LY6E) in CML. CONCLUSIONS: The present and past results highlight the importance of investigating SARS-CoV-2 entry-promoting factors and entry-restricting factors, because of their crucial role in determining the differential severity of COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Cell Line , Humans , Membrane Proteins , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
16.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 323(6): H1262-H1269, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117986

ABSTRACT

Myocardial pathologies resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infections are consistently rising with mounting case rates and reinfections; however, the precise global burden is largely unknown and will have an unprecedented impact. Understanding the mechanisms of COVID-19-mediated cardiac injury is essential toward the development of cardioprotective agents that are urgently needed. Assessing novel therapeutic strategies to tackle COVID-19 necessitates an animal model that recapitulates human disease. Here, we sought to compare SARS-CoV-2-infected animals with patients with COVID-19 to identify common mechanisms of cardiac injury. Two-month-old hamsters were infected with either the ancestral (D614) or Delta variant (B.1.617.2) of SARS-CoV-2 for 2 days, 7 days, and/or 14 days. We measured viral RNA and cytokine expression at the earlier time points to capture the initial stages of infection in the lung and heart. We assessed myocardial angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the entry receptor for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and cardioprotective enzyme, as well as markers for inflammatory cell infiltration in the hamster hearts at days 7 and 14. In parallel, human hearts were stained for ACE2, viral nucleocapsid, and inflammatory cells. Indeed, we identify myocardial ACE2 downregulation and myeloid cell burden as common events in both hamsters and humans infected with SARS-CoV-2, and we propose targeting downstream ACE2 downregulation as a therapeutic avenue that warrants clinical investigation.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Cardiac manifestations of COVID-19 in humans are mirrored in the SARS-CoV-2 hamster model, recapitulating myocardial damage, ACE2 downregulation, and a consistent pattern of immune cell infiltration independent of viral dose and variant. Therefore, the hamster model is a valid approach to study therapeutic strategies for COVID-19-related heart disease.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Cricetinae , Infant , SARS-CoV-2 , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Inflammation
17.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 456: 116267, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117610

ABSTRACT

Organophosphates (OPs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants, widely used as pesticides in agricultural fields. In addition, they serve as flame-retardants, plasticizers, antifoaming or antiwear agents in lacquers, hydraulic fluids, and floor polishing agents. Therefore, world-wide and massive application of these compounds have increased the risk of unintentional exposure to non-targets including the human beings. OPs are neurotoxic agents as they inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase at synaptic cleft. Moreover, they can fuel cardiovascular issues in the form of myocardities, cardiac oedema, arrhythmia, systolic malfunction, infarction, and altered electrophysiology. Such pathological outcomes might increase the severity of cardiovascular diseases which are the leading cause of mortality in the developing world. Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is the ongoing global health emergency caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Similar to OPs, SARS-CoV-2 disrupts cytokine homeostasis, redox-balance, and angiotensin-II/AT1R axis to promote cardiovascular injuries. Therefore, during the current pandemic milieu, unintentional exposure to OPs through several environmental sources could escalate cardiac maladies in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Humans , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Organophosphates , Acetylcholinesterase , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Inflammation/chemically induced , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Oxidative Stress
18.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 136(21): 1571-1590, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117548

ABSTRACT

Although COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory disease, it may affect also the cardiovascular system. COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular disorder (CVD) develop a more severe disease course with a significantly higher mortality rate than non-CVD patients. A common denominator of CVD is the dysfunction of endothelial cells (ECs), increased vascular permeability, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, coagulation, and inflammation. It has been assumed that clinical complications in COVID-19 patients suffering from CVD are caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection of ECs through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and the cellular transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and the consequent dysfunction of the infected vascular cells. Meanwhile, other factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host cells have been described, including disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17), the C-type lectin CD209L or heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). Here, we discuss the current data about the putative entry of SARS-CoV-2 into endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, we highlight the potential role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) affecting vascular permeability in CVD, a process that might exacerbate disease in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , RNA, Long Noncoding , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism
19.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7011, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117393

ABSTRACT

The Omicron BA.1 variant emerged in late 2021 and quickly spread across the world. Compared to the earlier SARS-CoV-2 variants, BA.1 has many mutations, some of which are known to enable antibody escape. Many of these antibody-escape mutations individually decrease the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) affinity for ACE2, but BA.1 still binds ACE2 with high affinity. The fitness and evolution of the BA.1 lineage is therefore driven by the combined effects of numerous mutations. Here, we systematically map the epistatic interactions between the 15 mutations in the RBD of BA.1 relative to the Wuhan Hu-1 strain. Specifically, we measure the ACE2 affinity of all possible combinations of these 15 mutations (215 = 32,768 genotypes), spanning all possible evolutionary intermediates from the ancestral Wuhan Hu-1 strain to BA.1. We find that immune escape mutations in BA.1 individually reduce ACE2 affinity but are compensated by epistatic interactions with other affinity-enhancing mutations, including Q498R and N501Y. Thus, the ability of BA.1 to evade immunity while maintaining ACE2 affinity is contingent on acquiring multiple interacting mutations. Our results implicate compensatory epistasis as a key factor driving substantial evolutionary change for SARS-CoV-2 and are consistent with Omicron BA.1 arising from a chronic infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Epistasis, Genetic , COVID-19/genetics
20.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110271

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) facilitates viral entry into host cells and is the key target for neutralizing antibodies. The SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.620 carries fifteen mutations in the S protein and is spread in Africa, the US and Europe, while lineage R.1 harbors four mutations in S and infections were observed in several countries, particularly Japan and the US. However, the impact of the mutations in B.1.620 and R.1 S proteins on antibody-mediated neutralization and host cell entry are largely unknown. Here, we report that these mutations are compatible with robust ACE2 binding and entry into cell lines, and they markedly reduce neutralization by vaccine-induced antibodies. Our results reveal evasion of neutralizing antibodies by B.1.620 and R.1, which might have contributed to the spread of these lineages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Virus Internalization , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Mutation
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