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1.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(10): 682-686, 2020 05.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721664

ABSTRACT

Twenty years ago, an enzyme homologous to the previously known angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was identified, and subsequently named ACE2. In the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), ACE2 has counter-regulatory functions against the classical effector peptide angiotensin II, for example in blood pressure regulation and cardiovascular remodeling. However, ACE2 provides an initially unexpected interesting link between virology and cardiovascular medicine. That is, ACE2 represents the binding receptor for the cellular uptake of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 viruses. Thus, ACE2 is relevant for COVID-19. In this context, it was suspected that therapy with RAS blockers might promote transmission and complications of COVID-19 by upregulation of ACE2 expression. The aim of this short review is, to describe the link between the RAS, particularly ACE2, and COVID-19. Based on our analysis and evaluation of the available findings, we justify our conclusion: important drugs such as ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers should continue to be prescribed according to guidelines to stable patients in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Mol Pain ; 18: 17448069221080305, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700706

ABSTRACT

Nervous system manifestations caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are of great concern. Neurological symptoms and the neurological effects induced by SARS-CoV-2, such as the loss of various sensory perceptions, indicate direct viral invasion into sensory neurons. Therefore, it is very important to identify the distribution of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor of SARS-CoV-2, in human nervous system. However, autofluorescence from lipofuscin obviously impacted immunofluorescence analysis in previous studies. We demonstrated that Sudan Black B (SBB) remarkably reduced the massive lipofuscin-like autofluorescence and the immunofluorescence signal would be sharpened following the exposure compensation. Additionally, we confirmed that ACE2 was expressed in IB4+, CGRP+, and NF200+ sensory subpopulations. The mapping of ACE2 distribution in hDRG would facilitate the understanding of sensory disorder induced by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Angiotensins , Azo Compounds , Humans , Naphthalenes , Nociceptors , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 725967, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506113

ABSTRACT

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is crucially involved in the physiology and pathology of all organs in mammals. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is a homolog of ACE, acts as a negative regulator in the homeostasis of RAS. ACE2 has been proven to be the receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. As SARS-CoV-2 enters the host cells through binding of viral spike protein with ACE2 in humans, the distribution and expression level of ACE2 may be critical for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Growing evidence shows the implication of ACE2 in pathological progression in tissue injury and several chronic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease; this suggests that ACE2 is essential in the progression and clinical prognosis of COVID-19 as well. Therefore, we summarized the expression and activity of ACE2 under various conditions and regulators. We further discussed its potential implication in susceptibility to COVID-19 and its potential for being a therapeutic target in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Clin Chim Acta ; 524: 113-122, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) was isolated as a 'hypertensinconverting enzyme'. There have been considerable advances in understanding the metabolic role of ACE in the body. This review attempts to highlight the role of ACE enzyme in the physiological and pathological processes occurring in the organs in which it is localized. METHODS: The literature was searched from the websites of the National Library of Medicine (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and Pub Med Central, the U.S. National Library of Medicine's digital archive of life sciences journal literature. RESULTS: The involvement of ACE in regulation of blood pressure forms its central action but it has a role to play in a variety of physiological processes occurring in the organs in which it is localized like the lungs, macrophages, brain, pancreas, liver etc. It has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases including COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: More studies need to be carried out in order to validate the use of ACE levels in the diagnosis and monitoring of the diseases associated, and facilitate the use of ACE inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers in the management of the same, so this wonder molecule can be utilized to its full potential.


Subject(s)
Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Blood Pressure , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19 , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(5)2020 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389345

ABSTRACT

Within last 17 years two widespread epidemics of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in China, which were caused by related coronaviruses (CoVs): SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. Although the origin(s) of these viruses are still unknown and their occurrences in nature are mysterious, some general patterns of their pathogenesis and epidemics are noticeable. Both viruses utilize the same receptor-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-for invading human bodies. Both epidemics occurred in cold dry winter seasons celebrated with major holidays, and started in regions where dietary consumption of wildlife is a fashion. Thus, if bats were the natural hosts of SARS-CoVs, cold temperature and low humidity in these times might provide conducive environmental conditions for prolonged viral survival in these regions concentrated with bats. The widespread existence of these bat-carried or -released viruses might have an easier time in breaking through human defenses when harsh winter makes human bodies more vulnerable. Once succeeding in making some initial human infections, spreading of the disease was made convenient with increased social gathering and holiday travel. These natural and social factors influenced the general progression and trajectory of the SARS epidemiology. However, some unique factors might also contribute to the origination of SARS in Wuhan. These factors are discussed in different scenarios in order to promote more research for achieving final validation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Chiroptera , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Seasons , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Social Conditions , Travel , Zoonoses
6.
Microb Biotechnol ; 13(5): 1289-1299, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352399

ABSTRACT

The number of people infected with SARS-CoV-2, and sadly dying from COVID-19, has exploded, and so the amount of literature on the novel coronavirus and the disease it causes has increased proportionately. The case numbers in some countries are beyond the epidemic peak, but the uncertainty about a second wave keeps politicians and societies under pressure. Appropriate decision-making and winning support from the population depends on precise scientific information rather than leaving the field to scaremongers of all proveniences. This mini-review is an update of earlier reports (Brüssow, Microb Biotechnol 2020a;13:607; Brüssow, Microb Biotechnol 2020b; https://doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13592).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Tropism
7.
Hipertens Riesgo Vasc ; 37(4): 169-175, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322115

ABSTRACT

The first case of COVID-19 was reported on 31 December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Ever since there has been unprecedented and growing interest in learning about all aspects of this new disease. Debate has been generated as to the association between antihypertensive therapy with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors and SARS-CoV-2 infection. While many questions as yet remain unanswered, the aim of this report is to inform health professionals about the current state of knowledge. Because this is an ever-evolving topic, the recommendation is that it be updated as new evidence becomes available. Below, we provide a review of pre-clinical and clinical studies that link coronavirus to the RAAS.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , ADAM17 Protein/physiology , Angiotensin II/physiology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Models, Biological , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Receptors, Virus/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , Viral Vaccines , Virus Internalization/drug effects
8.
Pharmacol Res ; 157: 104833, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318925

ABSTRACT

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is crucial for the physiology and pathology of all the organs. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) maintains the homeostasis of RAS as a negative regulator. Recently, ACE2 was identified as the receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the coronavirus that is causing the pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since SARS-CoV-2 must bind with ACE2 before entering the host cells in humans, the distribution and expression of ACE2 may be critical for the target organ of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, accumulating evidence has demonstrated the implication of ACE2 in the pathological progression in tissue injury and several chronic diseases, ACE2 may also be essential in the progression and clinical outcomes of COVID-19. Therefore, we summarized the expression and activity of ACE2 in various physiological and pathological conditions, and discussed its potential implication in the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the progression and prognosis of COVID-19 patients in the current review.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Acta Diabetol ; 58(7): 831-843, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083870

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a pandemic. The cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry is the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, a membrane-bound homolog of angiotensin-converting enzyme. Henceforth, this has brought the attention of the scientific community to study the interaction between COVID-19 and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), as well as RAS inhibitors. However, these inhibitors are commonly used to treat hypertension, chronic kidney disorder, and diabetes. Obesity is a known risk factor for heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension, whereas diabetes and hypertension may be indirectly related to each other through the effects of obesity. Furthermore, people with hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and other related complications like cardiovascular and kidney diseases have a higher risk of severe COVID-19 infection than the general population and usually exhibit poor prognosis. This severity could be due to systemic inflammation and compromised immune response and RAS associated with these comorbid conditions. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop evidence-based treatment methods that do not affect the severity of COVID-19 infection and effectively manage these chronic diseases in people with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Heart Diseases/complications , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Obesity/complications , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
11.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 83(10): 895-897, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990893

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of pneumonia associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurred in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and has been spread worldwide rapidly now. Over 5.3-million confirmed cases and 340,000 disease-associated deaths have been found till May 25, 2020. The potential pathophysiology for SARS-CoV-2 to affect the target is via the receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 can be found in the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, and reproductive organs such as human ovaries and Leydig cells in the testis. This receptor plays a dominant role in the fertility function. Considering the crucial roles of testicular cells of the male reproductive system, increasing numbers of studies focus on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the testis. In this literature, we reviewed several studies to evaluate the relevance between SARS-CoV-2, ACE receptor, and female and male reproductive system and found that the risk of being attacked by SARS-CoV-2 is higher in males than in females. Since men infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus may have the risk of impaired reproductive performance, such as the orchitis and an elevated of luteinizing hormone (LH), and additionally, SARS-CoV-2 virus may be found in semen, although the latter is still debated, all suggest that we should pay much attention to sexual transmitted disease and male fertility after recovering from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Genitalia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Female , Fertility , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics
12.
Biomolecules ; 10(9)2020 09 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976280

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing a pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The worldwide transmission of COVID-19 from human to human is spreading like wildfire, affecting almost every country in the world. In the past 100 years, the globe did not face a microbial pandemic similar in scale to COVID-19. Taken together, both previous outbreaks of other members of the coronavirus family (severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV)) did not produce even 1% of the global harm already inflicted by COVID-19. There are also four other CoVs capable of infecting humans (HCoVs), which circulate continuously in the human population, but their phenotypes are generally mild, and these HCoVs received relatively little attention. These dramatic differences between infection with HCoVs, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 raise many questions, such as: Why is COVID-19 transmitted so quickly? Is it due to some specific features of the viral structure? Are there some specific human (host) factors? Are there some environmental factors? The aim of this review is to collect and concisely summarize the possible and logical answers to these questions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Age Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Female , Global Health , Host Specificity , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Organ Specificity , Peptide Hydrolases/physiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Risk Factors , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Viral Proteins/physiology , Viral Tropism , Virulence , Virus Internalization
13.
Elife ; 92020 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916539

ABSTRACT

Pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus 19 disease (COVID-19) which presents a large spectrum of manifestations with fatal outcomes in vulnerable people over 70-years-old and with hypertension, diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, COPD, and smoking status. Knowledge of the entry receptor is key to understand SARS-CoV-2 tropism, transmission and pathogenesis. Early evidence pointed to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor. Here, we provide a critical summary of the current knowledge highlighting the limitations and remaining gaps that need to be addressed to fully characterize ACE2 function in SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated pathogenesis. We also discuss ACE2 expression and potential role in the context of comorbidities associated with poor COVID-19 outcomes. Finally, we discuss the potential co-receptors/attachment factors such as neuropilins, heparan sulfate and sialic acids and the putative alternative receptors, such as CD147 and GRP78.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Virus Attachment , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Basigin/physiology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Heparitin Sulfate/physiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Neuropilin-1/physiology , Oligopeptides/physiology , Organ Specificity , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Protein Binding , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Receptors, Virus , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Respiratory System/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sialic Acids/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Virus Internalization
14.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 109886, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912466

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease with fast spreading all over the world caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus which can culminate in a severe acute respiratory syndrome by the injury caused in the lungs. However, other organs can be also damaged. SARS-CoV-2 enter into the host cells using the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as receptor, like its ancestor SARS-CoV. ACE2 is then downregulated in lung tissues with augmented serum levels of ACE2 in SARS-CoV-2 patients. Interestingly, ACE2+ organs reveal the symptomatic repercussions, which are signals of the infection such as dry cough, shortness of breath, heart failure, liver and kidney damage, anosmia or hyposmia, and diarrhea. ACE2 exerts a chief role in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) by converting angiotensin II to angiotensin-(1-7) that activates Mas receptor, inhibits ACE1, and modulates bradykinin (BK) receptor sensitivity, especially the BK type 2 receptor (BKB2R). ACE2 also hydrolizes des-Arg9-bradykinin (DABK), an active BK metabolite, agonist at BK type 1 receptors (BKB1R), which is upregulated by inflammation. In this opinion article, we conjecture a dialogue by the figure of Sérgio Ferreira which brought together basic science of classical pharmacology and clinical repercussions in COVID-19, then we propose that in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection: i) downregulation of ACE2 impairs the angiotensin II and DABK inactivation; ii) BK and its metabolite DABK seems to be in elevated levels in tissues by interferences in kallikrein/kinin system; iii) BK1 receptor contributes to the outbreak and maintenance of the inflammatory response; iv) kallikrein/kinin system crosstalks to RAS and coagulation system, linking inflammation to thrombosis and organ injury. We hypothesize that targeting the kallikrein/kinin system and BKB1R pathway may be beneficial in SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially on early stages. This route of inference should be experimentally verified by SARS-CoV-2 infected mice.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Kallikrein-Kinin System/physiology , Models, Biological , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Humans , Kallikrein-Kinin System/drug effects , Mice , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization/drug effects
15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240647, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895060

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 epidemic a public health emergency of international concern on March 11th, 2020, and the pandemic is rapidly spreading worldwide. COVID-19 is caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which enters human target cells via angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). We used a number of bioinformatics tools to computationally characterize ACE2 by determining its cell-specific expression in trachea, lung, and small intestine, derive its putative functions, and predict transcriptional regulation. The small intestine expressed higher levels of ACE2 mRNA than any other organ. By immunohistochemistry, duodenum, kidney and testis showed strong signals, whereas the signal was weak in the respiratory tract. Single cell RNA-Seq data from trachea indicated positive signals along the respiratory tract in key protective cell types including club, goblet, proliferating, and ciliary epithelial cells; while in lung the ratio of ACE2-expressing cells was low in all cell types (<2.6%), but was highest in vascular endothelial and goblet cells. Gene ontology analysis suggested that, besides its classical role in the renin-angiotensin system, ACE2 may be functionally associated with angiogenesis/blood vessel morphogenesis. Using a novel tool for the prediction of transcription factor binding sites we identified several putative binding sites within two tissue-specific promoters of the ACE2 gene as well as a new putative short form of ACE2. These include several interferon-stimulated response elements sites for STAT1, IRF8, and IRF9. Our results also confirmed that age and gender play no significant role in the regulation of ACE2 mRNA expression in the lung.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Aging/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Carrier Proteins/biosynthesis , Carrier Proteins/genetics , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Gene Ontology , Humans , Interferons/physiology , Lung/metabolism , Male , Metalloproteases/biosynthesis , Metalloproteases/genetics , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Organ Specificity , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/biosynthesis , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , Receptors, Virus/biosynthesis , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Transcription Initiation Site , Virus Attachment
16.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 8205261, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-852770

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to cause havoc to many countries of the globe, with no end in sight, due to nonavailability of a given vaccine or treatment regimen. The pandemic has so far had a relatively limited impact on the African continent, which contributes more than 93% of global malaria burden. However, the limited burden of COVID-19 pandemic on the African region could have long-term implications on the health and wellbeing of affected inhabitants due to its malaria-endemic status. Malaria causes recurrent insulin resistance with episodes of infection at relatively low parasitaemia. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) which is widely distributed in the human body is implicated in the pathogenesis of malaria, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and COVID-19. Use of ACE2 by the COVID-19 virus induces inflammation and oxidative stress, which can lead to insulin resistance. Although COVID-19 patients in malaria-endemic African region may not exhibit severe signs and symptoms of the disease, their risk of exhibiting heightened insulin resistance and possible future development of T2DM is high due to their prior exposure to malaria. African governments must double efforts at containing the continued spread of the virus without neglecting existing malarial control measures if the region is to avert the plausible long-term impact of the pandemic in terms of future development of T2DM.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Endemic Diseases , Malaria/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Africa/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Disease Progression , Humans , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Malaria/complications , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Prediabetic State/epidemiology , Prediabetic State/pathology , Prediabetic State/virology , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Radiographics ; 40(6): 1574-1599, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810605

ABSTRACT

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) results in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was declared an official pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. The infection has been reported in most countries around the world. As of August 2020, there have been over 21 million cases of COVID-19 reported worldwide, with over 800 000 COVID-19-associated deaths. It has become apparent that although COVID-19 predominantly affects the respiratory system, many other organ systems can also be involved. Imaging plays an essential role in the diagnosis of all manifestations of the disease, as well as its related complications, and proper utilization and interpretation of imaging examinations is crucial. With the growing global COVID-19 outbreak, a comprehensive understanding of the diagnostic imaging hallmarks, imaging features, multisystemic involvement, and evolution of imaging findings is essential for effective patient management and treatment. To date, only a few articles have been published that comprehensively describe the multisystemic imaging manifestations of COVID-19. The authors provide an inclusive system-by-system image-based review of this life-threatening and rapidly spreading infection. In part 1 of this article, the authors discuss general aspects of the disease, with an emphasis on virology, the pathophysiology of the virus, and clinical presentation of the disease. The key imaging features of the varied pathologic manifestations of this infection that involve the pulmonary and peripheral and central vascular systems are also described. Part 2 will focus on key imaging features of COVID-19 that involve the cardiac, neurologic, abdominal, dermatologic and ocular, and musculoskeletal systems, as well as pediatric and pregnancy-related manifestations of the virus. Vascular complications pertinent to each system will be also be discussed in part 2. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2020.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Angiography/methods , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Inflammation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/diagnostic imaging , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Ultrasonography/methods
20.
Adv Rheumatol ; 60(1): 50, 2020 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781570

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global major concern. In this review, we addressed a theoretical model on immunopathogenesis associated with severe COVID-19, based on the current literature of SARS-CoV-2 and other epidemic pathogenic coronaviruses, such as SARS and MERS. Several studies have suggested that immune dysregulation and hyperinflammatory response induced by SARS-CoV-2 are more involved in disease severity than the virus itself.Immune dysregulation due to COVID-19 is characterized by delayed and impaired interferon response, lymphocyte exhaustion and cytokine storm that ultimately lead to diffuse lung tissue damage and posterior thrombotic phenomena.Considering there is a lack of clinical evidence provided by randomized clinical trials, the knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 disease pathogenesis and immune response is a cornerstone to develop rationale-based clinical therapeutic strategies. In this narrative review, the authors aimed to describe the immunopathogenesis of severe forms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Age Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibody Formation , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Virus Internalization
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