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1.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261869, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629533

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to investigate the key factors influencing the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines and develop a model based on the theory of reasoned action, belief in conspiracy theory, awareness, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. The authors created and distributed a self-administered online questionnaire using Google Forms. Data were collected from 351 respondents ranging in age from 19 to 30 years, studying at the graduate and postgraduate levels at various public universities in Bangladesh. The Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) method was used to analyze the data. The results indicate that belief in conspiracy theory undermines COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, thereby negatively impacting the individual attitudes, subjective norms, and acceptance. Individual awareness, on the other hand, has a strong positive influence on the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. Furthermore, the perceived usefulness of vaccination and the perceived ease of obtaining the vaccine positively impact attitude and the acceptance of immunization. Individuals' positive attitudes toward immunization and constructive subjective norms have a positive impact on vaccine acceptance. This study contributes to the literature by combining the theory of reasoned action with conspiracy theory, awareness, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use to understand vaccine acceptance behavior. Authorities should focus on campaigns that could reduce misinformation and conspiracy surrounding COVID-19 vaccination. The perceived usefulness of vaccination to prevent pandemics and continue normal education will lead to vaccination success. Furthermore, the ease with which people can obtain the vaccine and that it is free of cost will encourage students to get vaccinated to protect themselves, their families, and society.


Subject(s)
Awareness , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/psychology , Adult , Attitude , Bangladesh , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Least-Squares Analysis , Male , Perception , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
2.
Spinal Cord Ser Cases ; 8(1): 2, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636921

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: An observational study based on an online survey to explore if the participant had experienced (1) cancellation or delay of scheduled health services (2) reduction of assistance provided by a caregiver (3) barriers to social participation and recreational activities. Three validated questionnaires to investigate well-being and symptoms of anxiety and depression were also administered. OBJECTIVES: Our main aim was to quantify the obstacles experienced by adults living with SCI in Italy during COVID-19 pandemic, to explore the presence of depression and anxiety symptoms and to quantify subjective well-being. SETTING: Outpatient clinic of a Spinal Unit in Italy. METHODS: Online survey via direct contact and by e-mail lists. RESULTS: In total, 101 individuals completed the survey. Of, 82.2% participants reported a history of deferment or cancellation of non-COVID-19 health services. The majority (56.4%) revealed that, at least seldom, they have chosen to reduce their usual everyday activities and more than one third (37.6%) affirmed that they had been forced to renounce to one or more of their occupations. Discontinuation of assistance by caregivers was uncommon. The median score of questionnaires measuring depression and anxiety symptoms do not differ significatively when compared with prior studies. The variable that explored the limitations experienced in everyday activities showed a significant correlation with the results of the questionnaires measuring well-being and symptoms of anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that our results could contribute to the discussion ongoing inside our community on how to answer to the new challenges of this pandemic period and of the post-pandemic future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spinal Cord Injuries , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Spinal Cord Injuries/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 126: 104141, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, 22 state governors temporarily waived physician supervision of nurse practitioners to expand access to health care during the state of emergency. OBJECTIVE: We examined the nurse practitioner perception of the simultaneous scope of practice changes and the exigent pandemic demands during the initial COVID-19 surge in Massachusetts. METHODS: Qualitative descriptive design using content analysis of open-ended responses to a web-based survey of Massachusetts nurse practitioners conducted in May & June 2020. RESULTS: Survey response rate was 40.6 percent (N = 389). Content analysis identified four themes including: 1) State waivers enabled more control over practice and more expedited care, 2) State waiver did not change practice either because of pre-established independence or employers not changing policy, 3) Perception of nurse practitioner role as both versatile and disposable and 4) Telehealth increased access to care and created an autonomous setting. CONCLUSIONS: Although findings suggest fewer barriers in some areas, the temporary removal of state-level restrictions alone is not sufficient to achieve immediate full scope of practice for nurse practitioners. There is a need for regulatory frameworks that optimize the capacity of the advanced practice nursing workforce to respond to global health emergencies. US-based policymakers and healthcare organizations should revise outdated scope of practice policies and capitalize on telehealth technology to utilize the full extent of nurse practitioners. Likewise, nursing leaders should be a voice for nurse practitioners to more effectively and safely maximize the nurse practitioner contribution during emergency responses. In countries where the role is under development, regulators can leverage these findings to establish modernized nurse practitioner scope of practice policies from the outset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurse Practitioners , Humans , Nurse's Role , Pandemics , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613760

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Knowledge of COVID-19 prevention among communities is the first step towards protective behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess COVID-19 prevention knowledge among a Middle Eastern and North African community in Houston, Texas. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a validated quantitative survey; survey questions consisted of three parts: COVID-19 specific questions, general health questions, and sociodemographic questions. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine predictors of perception of knowledge on preventing COVID-19 spread. The outcome of interest comprised of "good/excellent" versus "average and below" knowledge. (3) Results: A total of 366 participants (66.39% males) completed the survey. A univariate analysis demonstrated significant differences in self-reported COVID-19 prevention knowledge among those with and without health insurance, different ages, level of knowledge, and perceived severity of COVID-19 infection. In the multivariate logistic regression, two predictors were identified: those in the 18-25-year-old group were more likely to have "excellent/good" knowledge on COVID-19 spread compared to the ≥40-year-old group (OR: 6.36; 95% CI: 1.38, 29.34). Those who somewhat agree with knowing how to protect themselves from COVID-19 were more likely to have "excellent/good" knowledge of preventing COVID-19 spread compared to those that neither agree nor disagree or disagree (OR: 7.74; 95% CI: 2.58, 23.26). (4) Conclusions: Younger adults reported higher knowledge of COVID-19 prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Texas , Young Adult
5.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261851, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613359

ABSTRACT

Perceived risk clearly impacts travel behavior, including destination selection and satisfaction, but it is unclear how or why its effect is only significant in certain cases. This is because existing studies have undervalued the mediating factors of risk aversion, government initiatives, and media influence as well as the multiple forms or dimensions of risk that can mask its direct effect. This study constructs a structural equation model of perceived risk's impact on destination image and travel intention for a more nuanced model of the perceived risk mechanism in tourism, based on 413 e-questionnaires regarding travel to Chengdu, China during the COVID-19 pandemic, using the Bootstrap method to analyze suppressing effect. It finds that while perceived risk has a significant negative impact on destination image and travel intention, this is complexly mediated so as to appear insignificant. Furthermore, different mediating factors and dimensions of perceived risk operate differently according to their varied combinations in actual circumstances. This study is significant because it provides a theoretical interpretation of tourism risk, elucidates the mechanisms or paths by which perceived risk affects travel intention, and expands a framework for research on destination image and travel intention into the realms of psychology, political, and communication science. It additionally encourages people to pay greater attention to the negative impact of crises and focuses on the important role of internal and external responses in crisis management, which can help improve the effectiveness of crisis management and promote the sustainable development of the tourism industry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Travel/trends , China/epidemiology , Humans , Intention , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Perception , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tourism , Travel/psychology
6.
Acta Virol ; 65(4): 350-364, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607905

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic transmission of highly pathogenic viruses, are a cause of deadly epidemics around the globe. These are of particular concern as evident from the recent global pandemic due to Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The genus Ebolavirus belongs to the Filoviridae family and its members are known to cause the Ebola virus disease (EVD), a highly contagious disease with a mortality rate of approximately 90%. The similarity of the clinical symptoms to those of various tropical ailments poses a high risk of misdiagnosis. Diagnostic strategies currently utilized include real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, amongst others. No specific treatment exists at present, and the management of patients is aimed at the treatment of complications augmented with supportive clinical care. The recent outbreak of EVD in West Africa, which began in 2014, led to accelerated development of vaccines and treatment. In this review, we contemplate the origin of the ebolaviruses, discuss the clinical aspects and treatment of the disease, depict the current diagnostic strategies of the virus, as well discuss its pathogenesis. Keywords: Ebolavirus; viral origin; treatment; pathogenicity of Ebola; Ebola virus disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ebolavirus , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Disease Outbreaks , Ebolavirus/genetics , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/therapy , Humans , Perception , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 810014, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607214

ABSTRACT

Background: Workplace violence is a social problem of special interest in both intervention and research. Among the sectors that most perceive this type of violence, health care professionals stand out. The most common type of violence for this professional group is the one perpetrated by the users or patients themselves. It has been reported that one out of every four acts of violence in the workplace occurs in the healthcare setting. Within the health sector, the Mental Health, Emergency and Primary Care services have been widely reported as being among the most vulnerable, with Primary Care being the least addressed of the three. Although the available literature is extensive, there are hardly any studies that explore from a qualitative perspective what are the sources of conflict in this sector from the perspective of the users, the most common being to work with professionals. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine those aspects derived from the organization, the professionals or the users of Primary Care that, from the users' point of view, cause violent situations and how they think these could be avoided. Method: The sample consisted of 80 users of the Primary Care services of the Health Service of Murcia. For data collection, a qualitative study was conducted through 10 focus groups and a subsequent thematic analysis of the data. Results: The results have allowed us to identify that, from an organizational point of view, the uncertainty in waiting times, the need to adapt the telematic or telephone appointment to the different types of users, or the management of emergencies in Primary Care are the aspects that cause most conflicts between users and professionals. In this sense, suggested improvements are aimed at providing information in the mobile application updated on the opening hours or maintaining the telephone appointment for those who need or request it, among many others. As for the professionals, users point out that the medical staff is perceived as distant and sometimes does not provide enough information on the health status of users. Another professional group widely addressed in the focus groups was the administrative staff, being described as lacking in communication skills, assertiveness, or empathy. Users recognize the existence of a demanding/aggressive profile among users, who makes instrumental use of violence to achieve privileges over users in general. We have also identified the profile of the user who makes use of Primary Care as a way of socializing or managing conflicts of a socioemotional nature. As proposals for this thematic block, users suggest group therapies, the use of audiovisual material complementary to the information provided by professionals or community interventions in psychoeducation. Conclusion: This study allows to explore conflicts between users and professionals from the Primary Care patients' perspective. Our results are complementary to the available evidence that has used the professional's approach to study the phenomenon of workplace violence. The identification of sources of conflict and the assessment and contribution of users on possible ways of improvement can serve as a basis for the design of prevention and intervention plans to improve the work environment in Primary Care centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Perception , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Violence
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 734065, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591400

ABSTRACT

Background: In an elderly population with hypertension, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with a higher incidence of mortality and a protracted course of clinical symptoms. Objective: To assess the perceived risk of infection and complications due to COVID-19 in people with hypertension living in a semi-urban city of Ecuador. Methods: A cross-sectional telephone survey of adult outpatients with a previous diagnosis of hypertension in the semi-urban community of Conocoto in Quito, Ecuador was conducted from August to December 2020. Results: A total of 260 adult outpatients, aged 34-97 years, completed telephone surveys. Of total, 71.5% (n = 186) of respondents were women and 28.5% (n = 74) of respondents were men. Overall, 18.1% believe that their risk of infection is "very high," 55.4% believe that their risk of infection is "high," 21.5% believe that their risk of infection is "low," and 5% believe that their risk of infection is "very low." The perceived risk of complications, if infected by COVID-19, revealed that 21.9% believe that their risk of complication is "very high," 65.0% believe that their risk of complication is "high," 10.4% believe that their risk of complication is "low," and 2.7% believe that their risk of complication is "very low." Conclusion: Patients with hypertension are aware of the risks posed by COVID-19 infection and its impact on their health. However, the health system must educate the population on health practices and behaviors to avoid COVID-19 infection until the majority of the population of Ecuador can be vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador/epidemiology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Perception , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 20(1): 45-57, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: TREATgermany, a registry for patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD), established an additional questionnaire in spring 2020 to investigate the effects of the coronavirus pandemic on the daily life of patients with AD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire was used to analyze general information regarding a patient's experience of the coronavirus pandemic and, using the Inventory of Life-Changing Events, the resulting personal burden. To analyze possible associations between disease severity (EASI score, oSCORAD, IGA, PGA, POEM), quality of life (DLQI) and personal burden, t-tests, analyses of variance and correlations were evaluated, controlled for sex and age. RESULTS: 58 % (n = 233) of the included 400 registry patients reported high burden scores caused by the coronavirus pandemic, regardless of an actual infection. Men showed significantly higher burden scores than women, and younger than older respondents (both P = 0.03). There were no differences in burden scores related to the physician's assessment of disease severity. However, patients with higher quality of life impairments and higher disease severity perceived the burden of the coronavirus pandemic as less severe (DLQI P = 0.019, PGA P = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that registry patients considered the coronavirus pandemic as a life-changing event and perceived the burden differently. This should be taken into account in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe AD as well as in further studies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Dermatitis, Atopic , Dermatitis, Atopic/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Atopic/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Perception , Quality of Life , Registries , Severity of Illness Index
10.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 195, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Safeguarding the psychological well-being of healthcare workers (HCWs) is crucial to ensuring sustainability and quality of healthcare services. During the COVID-19 pandemic, HCWs may be subject to excessive mental stress. We assessed the risk perception and immediate psychological state of HCWs early in the pandemic in referral hospitals involved in the management of COVID-19 patients in Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in five referral hospitals from April 20-May 22, 2020. During this time, we distributed paper-based, self-administered questionnaires to all consenting HCWs on day shifts. The questionnaire included questions on socio-demographics, occupational behaviors, potential perceived risks, and psychological distress. We assessed risk perception towards COVID-19 using 27 concern statements with a four-point Likert scale. We defined psychological distress as a total score > 12 from the 12-item Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We used modified Poisson regression to identify factors associated with psychological distress. RESULTS: Among 335 HCWs who received questionnaires, 328 (98%) responded. Respondents' mean age was 36 (range 18-59) years; 172 (52%) were male. The median duration of professional experience was eight (range 1-35) years; 208 (63%) worked more than 40 h per week; 116 (35%) were nurses, 52 (14%) doctors, 30 (9%) clinical officers, and 86 (26%) support staff. One hundred and forty-four (44%) had a GHQ-12 score > 12. The most common concerns reported included fear of infection at the workplace (81%), stigma from colleagues (79%), lack of workplace support (63%), and inadequate availability of personal protective equipment (PPE) (56%). In multivariable analysis, moderate (adjusted prevalence ratio, [aPR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-4.0) and high (aPR = 3.8, 95% CI 2.0-7.0) risk perception towards COVID-19 (compared with low-risk perception) were associated with psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: Forty-four percent of HCWs surveyed in hospitals treating COVID-19 patients during the early COVID-19 epidemic in Uganda reported psychological distress related to fear of infection, stigma, and inadequate PPE. Higher perceived personal risk towards COVID-19 was associated with increased psychological distress. To optimize patient care during the pandemic and future outbreaks, workplace management may consider identifying and addressing HCW concerns, ensuring sufficient PPE and training, and reducing infection-associated stigma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Perception , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Uganda/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 730647, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581129

ABSTRACT

Background: The onset of the pandemic necessitated abrupt transition to telehealth consultations. Although there is a few tools that gauge the patients' perception about their experiences, none of them are contextualized to an emergency in the Middle East and North Africa region. Accordingly, this study aims at developing and validating a tool to address this gap, and deploying it to assess the patients' perception of telehealth services during COVID-19 in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: A convergent mixed methods design was adapted. A random selection of 100 patients from Dubai, UAE were invited to participate. Qualitative and quantitative datasets were collected using a tailor-made survey. The qualitative data, collected through open-ended questions, was analyzed using multi-staged thematic analysis. As for the quantitative data, it captured the patients' extent of satisfaction, and was assessed using SPSS (with a series of descriptive and inferential analyses). The qualitative and quantitative findings were then merged via joint display analysis. Results: Out of the 100 patients that were randomly selected, 94 patients participated in this study. The reliability score of Cronbach's Alpha for the instrument was 98.9%. The percentage of the total average of satisfaction was 80.67%. The Principal Component Analysis showed that 88.1% of the variance can be explained by the instrument (p < 0.001). The qualitative data analysis expanded upon the quantitative findings enabling a better understanding of the patients' perception. Three themes, revolving around the quality of the patient telehealth experiences, surfaced: "Factors that worked to the benefit of the patients," "Factors that the patients were not in favor of," and "Opportunities for improvements as perceived by the patients." Discussion: This study introduced a novel patient satisfaction with telehealth consultation survey contextualized to the COVID-19 times in Dubai, UAE. The participants were quite satisfied with the quality of their experience, however they suggested areas for improvement. Regional healthcare decision-makers can leverage the identified advantages and opportunities for improvement of telehealth. This will enable making informed decisions regarding the continuity of telehealth irrespective of how matters unfold in relation to the pandemic. It will also better prepare the healthcare sector for potential resurgence(s) of COVID-19 and/or the occurrence of other similar emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Patient Satisfaction , Perception , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580798

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, outpatient nurses have been exposed to a double burden of already known occupational and new pandemic-related stressors. Recent studies suggest that increased pandemic-related stress can affect mental health and promote the development of negative mental health outcomes for nurses. This includes a decrease in sleep quality and work engagement. In addition, certain groups appear to be particularly vulnerable to pandemic-related stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the stress perception of German outpatient nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim was to determine associations between their pandemic-related stress and variables such as sleep quality, work engagement, pandemic-related worries and concerns. For this purpose, a questionnaire was developed based on well-established measurement instruments such as the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire to conduct a cross-sectional online survey among outpatient nurses from Germany. Participants (n = 166) showed rather moderate overall pandemic-related stress levels, good sleep quality, high work engagement, and moderate pandemic-related worries and concerns. Pandemic-related stress proved to be a predictor of decreased sleep quality and work engagement of outpatient nurses with weak effect sizes. Despite the surprisingly moderate stress levels, the effects of pandemic-related stress on selected aspects of participants' mental health could be demonstrated. Therefore, behavioural and organisational health promotion measures are recommended to support outpatient nurses during the pandemic. However, further research is needed to determine the causal relationships and long-term effects of pandemic-related stress on the mental health of outpatient caregivers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Outpatients , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Work Engagement
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580715

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of pandemic control measures requires a broad understanding from the population. This study aimed to evaluate the role played by health literacy (HL) in influencing the adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures and risk perception of essential frontline workers during the lockdown period. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a population-based sample of frontline workers from Prato Province (Italy). Data on knowledge, attitudes and practices towards COVID-19 preventive measures and risk perception were collected. HL was measured with the HLS-EU-Q6 tool. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 751 people participated in this study, and 56% of the sample showed a sufficient level of HL. In the multivariate models, HL resulted in being positively correlated with both knowledge (beta 0.32 for sufficient HL, 0.11 for problematic HL) and attitudes (beta 0.33 for sufficient HL, 0.17 for problematic HL) towards the importance of COVID-19 preventive measures. The HL level was not associated with the adoption of preventive behaviors and COVID-19 risk perception. CONCLUSIONS: HL may play a key role in maintaining a high adherence to infection prevention behaviors and may be a factor to take into account in the implementation of public health interventions in pandemic times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 21(1): 362, 2021 12 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Electronic medical records systems (EMRs) adoption in healthcare to facilitate work processes have become common in many countries. Although EMRs are associated with quality patient care, patient safety, and cost reduction, their adoption rates are comparatively low. Understanding factors associated with the use of the implemented EMRs are critical for advancing successful implementations and scale-up sustainable initiatives. The aim of this study was to explore end users' perceptions and experiences on factors facilitating and hindering EMRs use in healthcare facilities in Kenya, a low- and middle-income country. METHODS: Two focus group discussions were conducted with EMRs users (n = 20) each representing a healthcare facility determined by the performance of the EMRs implementation. Content analysis was performed on the transcribed data and relevant themes derived. RESULTS: Six thematic categories for both facilitators and barriers emerged, and these related to (1) system functionalities; (2) training; (3) technical support; (4) human factors; (5) infrastructure, and (6) EMRs operation mode. The identified facilitators included: easiness of use and learning of the system complemented by EMRs upgrades, efficiency of EMRs in patient data management, responsive information technology (IT) and collegial support, and user training. The identified barriers included: frequent power blackouts, inadequate computers, retrospective data entry EMRs operation mode, lack of continuous training on system upgrades, and delayed IT support. CONCLUSIONS: Users generally believed that the EMRs improved the work process, with multiple factors identified as facilitators and barriers to their use. Most users perceived system functionalities and training as motivators to EMRs use, while infrastructural issues posed as the greatest barrier. No specific EMRs use facilitators and/or barriers could be attributed to facility performance levels. Continuous evaluations are necessary to assess improvements of the identified factors as well as determine emerging issues.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Electronic Health Records , Focus Groups , Humans , Kenya , Perception , Retrospective Studies
15.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25525, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The main German-speaking countries (Germany, Austria, and Switzerland) have implemented digital contact tracing apps to assist the authorities with COVID-19 containment strategies. Low user rates for these apps can affect contact tracing and, thus, its usefulness in controlling the spread of the novel coronavirus. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the early perceptions of people living in the German-speaking countries and compare them with the frames portrayed in the newspapers during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted qualitative interviews with 159 participants of the SolPan project. Of those, 110 participants discussed contact tracing apps and were included in this study. We analyzed articles regarding contact tracing apps from 12 newspapers in the German-speaking countries. RESULTS: Study participants perceived and newspaper coverage in all German-speaking countries framed contact tracing apps as governmental surveillance tools and embedded them in a broader context of technological surveillance. Participants identified trust in authorities, respect of individual privacy, voluntariness, and temporary use of contact tracing apps as prerequisites for democratic compatibility. Newspapers commonly referenced the use of such apps in Asian countries, emphasizing the differences in privacy regulation among these countries. CONCLUSIONS: The uptake of digital contact tracing apps in German-speaking countries may be undermined due to privacy risks that are not compensated by potential benefits and are rooted in a deeper skepticism towards digital tools. When authorities plan to implement new digital tools and practices in the future, they should be very transparent and proactive in communicating their objectives and the role of the technology-and how it differs from other, possibly similar, tools. It is also important to publicly address ethical, legal, and social issues related to such technologies prior to their launch.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing/methods , Mobile Applications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Perception , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
16.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1897267, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575983

ABSTRACT

During the spring semester of 2020, medical school anatomists in China were forced by the COVID-19 pandemic to transition from face-to-face educators or part-time online educators to full-time online educators. This nationwide survey was conducted to assess online anatomy education during the pandemic for medical students from nonclinical medicine and clinical medicine majors at medical schools in China via WeChat. The total of 356 responders included 293 responders from clinical medicine and 63 respondents from nonclinical medicine majors (i.e., 21 from preventive medicine, 13 from stomatology, and 29 from traditional Chinese medicine). The survey results showed that several aspects of online anatomy education were quite similar in clinical and nonclinical majors' classes, including theoretical and practical sessions, active learning, assessments and evaluations. However, there were statistically significant differences in class size, implementation of active learning activities prior to the pandemic, and the evaluation of the effectiveness of online learning during the pandemic, between clinical and nonclinical medicine majors. These results indicated that, compared with teachers of anatomy courses in clinical medicine, teachers of nonclinical medicine majors using online learning in medical schools in China had relatively poor preparation for online learning in response to the unforeseen pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Faculty, Medical/psychology , Pandemics , China , Education, Distance , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23400, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States has made people uncertain about their perceptions of the threat of COVID-19 and COVID-19 response measures. To mount an effective response to this epidemic, it is necessary to understand the public's perceptions, behaviors, and attitudes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test the hypothesis that people's perceptions of the threat of COVID-19 influence their attitudes and behaviors. METHODS: This study used an open dataset of web-based questionnaires about COVID-19. The questionnaires were provided by Nexoid United Kingdom. We selected the results of a questionnaire on COVID-19-related behaviors, attitudes, and perceptions among the US public. The questionnaire was conducted from March 29 to April 20, 2020. A total of 24,547 people who lived in the United States took part in the survey. RESULTS: In this study, the average self-assessed probability of contracting COVID-19 was 33.2%, and 49.9% (12,244/24,547) of the respondents thought that their chances of contracting COVID-19 were less than 30%. The self-assessed probability of contracting COVID-19 among women was 1.35 times that of males. A 5% increase in perceived infection risk was significantly associated with being 1.02 times (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.02-1.02; P<.001) more likely to report having close contact with >10 people, and being 1.01 times (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.01-1.01; P<.001) more likely to report that cohabitants disagreed with taking steps to reduce the risk of contracting COVID-19. However, there was no significant association between participants who lived with more than 5 cohabitants or less than 5 cohabitants (P=.85). Generally, participants who lived in states with 1001-10,000 COVID-19 cases, were aged 20-40 years, were obese, smoked, drank alcohol, never used drugs, and had no underlying medical conditions were more likely to be in close contact with >10 people. Most participants (21,017/24,547, 85.6%) agreed with washing their hands and maintaining social distancing, but only 20.2% (4958/24,547) of participants often wore masks. Additionally, male participants and participants aged <20 years typically disagreed with washing their hands, maintaining social distancing, and wearing masks. CONCLUSIONS: This survey is the first attempt to describe the determinants of the US public's perception of the threat of COVID-19 on a large scale. The self-assessed probability of contracting COVID-19 differed significantly based on the respondents' genders, states of residence, ages, body mass indices, smoking habits, alcohol consumption habits, drug use habits, underlying medical conditions, environments, and behaviors. These findings can be used as references by public health policy makers and health care workers who want to identify populations that need to be educated on COVID-19 prevention and health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Perception , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Young Adult
18.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248627, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been a rapid increase in the number of cases of COVID-19 in Latin America, Africa, Asia and many countries that have an insufficient number of physicians and other health care personnel, and the need for the inclusion of medical students on health teams is a very important issue. It has been recommended that medical students work as volunteers, undergo appropriate training, not undertake any activity beyond their level of competence, and receive continuous supervision and adequate personal protective equipment. However, the motivation of medical students must be evaluated to make volunteering a more evidence-based initiative. The aim of our study was to evaluate the motivation of medical students to be part of health teams to aid in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a questionnaire specifically to evaluate medical students' perceptions about participating in the care of patients with suspected infection with coronavirus during the COVID-19 pandemic. The questionnaire had two parts: a) one part with questions on individual characteristics, year in medical school and geographic location of the medical school and b) a second part with twenty-eight statements assessed on a 5-point Likert scale (totally agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree and totally disagree). To develop the questionnaire, we performed consensus meetings with a group of faculty and medical students. The questionnaire was sent to student organizations of 257 medical schools in Brazil and answered by 10,433 students. We used multinomial logistic regression models to analyze the data. Statements associated with greater odds ratios for participation of medical students in the COVID-19 pandemic were related to a sense of purpose or duty ("It is the duty of the medical student to put himself or herself at the service of the population in the pandemic"), altruism ("I am willing to take risks by participating in practice in the context of the pandemic"), and perception of good performance and professional identity ("I will be a better health professional for having experienced the pandemic"). Males were more prone than females to believe that only interns should participate in the care of patients with COVID-19 (odds ratio 1.36 [coefficient interval 95%:1.24-1.49]) and that all students should participate (OR 1.68 [CI:1.4-1.91]). CONCLUSIONS: Medical students are more motivated by a sense of purpose or duty, altruism, perception of good performance and values of professionalism than by their interest in learning. These results have implications for the development of volunteering programs and the design of health force policies in the present pandemic and in future health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Motivation/physiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perception/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e21103, 2021 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a rapid increase in the amount of information about the disease and SARS-CoV-2 on the internet. If the language used in video messages is not clear or understandable to deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) people with a high school degree or less, this can cause confusion and result in information gaps among DHH people during a health emergency. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between DHH people's perception of the effectiveness of physical distancing and contagiousness of an asymptomatic person. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey study on DHH people's perceptions about COVID-19 (N=475). Items pertaining to COVID-19 knowledge were administered to US deaf adults from April 17, 2020, to May 1, 2020, via a bilingual American Sign Language/English online survey platform. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 475 DHH adults aged 18-88 years old, with 74% (n=352) identifying as White and 54% (n=256) as female. About 88% (n=418) of the sample felt they knew most things or a lot about physical distancing. This figure dropped to 72% (n=342) for the question about the effectiveness of physical distancing in reducing the spread of COVID-19 and 70% (n=333) for the question about the contagiousness of an infected person without symptoms. Education and a knowledge of the effectiveness of physical distancing significantly predicted knowledge about the contagiousness of an asymptomatic individual. Race, gender, and age did not emerge as significant predictors. CONCLUSIONS: This results of this study point to the strong connection between education and coronavirus-related knowledge. Education-related disparities can be remedied by making information fully accessible and easily understood during emergencies and pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Persons With Hearing Impairments/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Perception , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States , Young Adult
20.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211066942, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574701

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We conducted a cross-sectional survey as a part of an educational program in collaboration with the Global Thrombosis Forum (GTF), an affiliate of North American Thrombosis Forum (NATF), and Loyola University about public perceptions of COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccinations in the US. In this study, we are reporting the results of this survey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The survey, in the form of a questionnaire, has been developed by GTF and faculty members. A prepared questionnaire was sent to the members of the Georgia and Illinois communities. RESULTS: In our current study, the COVID-19 vaccine willingness rate was 94.5% and vaccination rate was 90.9%. In multivariate analysis believing to have enough information about the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines (OR: 3.730, 95% CI: 1.199-11.603, p: 0.023) and gender (OR: 0.123, 95% CI: 0.016-0.967, p: 0.046) were significant predictors for vaccine willingness. Previous COVID-19 infection (OR: 0.215, 95% CI: 0.061-0.758, p: 0.017), moderate and severe effects of COVID-19 pandemic on participant's life (OR: 4.631, 95% CI 1.681-12.760, p: 0.003) and believing to have enough information about the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines (OR: 4.119, 95% CI: 1.508-11.253, p: 0.006) were significant predictors for final vaccination status. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, currently vaccination remains one of the most effective tools in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. The vaccine hesitancy is a complex phenomenon that is driven by individuals' perceptions of safety, and efficiency of the vaccines. We must continue to educate the public and communities that vaccines are safe, that they are effective and that they are still required even after a COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vaccination/methods , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Perception , Pilot Projects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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