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1.
J Nucl Med Technol ; 49(4): 320-323, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556040

ABSTRACT

The incidence of thromboembolic complications in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is well recognized. The present study retrospectively evaluated the type and prevalence of lung perfusion defects in early-post-COVID-19 patients with hypoxia and was aimed to identify the risk factors for mismatched perfusion defects. Methods: We analyzed SPECT/CT images of 54 early-post-COVID-19 patients (44 men and 10 women). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the risk. Results: The mean age of the study population was 55.4 y (range, 34-76 y). All received prophylactic anticoagulation from the day of hospitalization to the date of perfusion scanning. The median interval between COVID-19-positive reports and lung perfusion scanning was 22 d. Lung perfusion defects (of any type) were observed in most (87%). Twenty-three subjects (42.6%) had mismatched perfusion defects. Mismatched perfusion defects were segmental in 14 subjects (25.9%) and subsegmental in 11 (20.4%). Higher age was a risk factor for mismatched perfusion defects (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.99-1.13; P = 0.06). Subjects with a serum D-dimer level of at least 2,500 ng/mL on the day before the scan were not at higher risk for having mismatched perfusion defects (odds ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.34-3.9; P = 0.83). Conclusion: Despite prophylactic anticoagulation, mismatched perfusion defects suggestive of pulmonary thromboembolism were observed. Serum D-dimer level in patients early after COVID-19 is a poor predictor of mismatched perfusion defects. Confirmed evidence of pulmonary embolism by imaging studies should support the decision to extend anticoagulant prophylaxis in post-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Perfusion , Perfusion Imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Ann Nucl Med ; 35(10): 1117-1125, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281331

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary embolism is a severe source of mortality and morbidity in patients with severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019. It is not yet clear whether the tendency to thrombosis is increased in the mild-to-moderate course of COVID-19. Our research aims to show the clinical benefit of Q-SPECT/CT in diagnosing PD in outpatients treated with mild-to-moderate course of COVID-19 and to determine the frequency of perfusion defects in these patients having relatively lower risk. METHODS: All patients who underwent Q-SPECT/CT with suspicion of embolism were examined retrospectively. Only patients with low clinical probability and mild-to-moderate course of COVID-19 for PE were included in the study. The patients were evaluated comparatively as those with and without perfusion defects. Patients were divided into laboratory suspicion, clinical suspicion, or clinical and laboratory suspicion. RESULTS: In outpatients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 with low clinical probability for PE, PD without CT abnormality was detected with a rate of 36.6% with Q-SPECT/CT performed for complaints of high D-dimer and/or dyspnea. None of the patients had PD at more proximal level than the segment level. PD with no concomitant CT abnormality was observed with a rate of 56.5% in patients with both clinical and laboratory suspicion. For D-dimer = 0.5 mg/dL cut-off sensitivity is 85%, for D-dimer = 1.5 mg/dL cut-off specificity 81%. CONCLUSION: Thrombosis tendency is also present in outpatients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19, and these patients should also be offered anticoagulant prophylaxis during the COVID-19 period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Perfusion Imaging/methods , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Dyspnea/metabolism , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Lung , Male , Middle Aged , Multimodal Imaging , Probability , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
3.
Clin Nucl Med ; 46(5): 413-414, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119171

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: We present the case of a 64-year-old man presenting an episode of confusion during SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection with a positive oropharyngeal swab polymerase chain reaction test. He was hospitalized for dyspnea related to pneumonia demonstrated on chest CT. FDG PET performed after the confusion phase, but still in the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019)-positive phase, showed high glucose metabolism of the inferior colliculi. Morphological MRI was normal. The first-pass perfusion MRI shows hyperperfusion of the inferior colliculi, corresponding to FDG PET hypermetabolism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/metabolism , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Inferior Colliculi/metabolism , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Perfusion Imaging , Positron-Emission Tomography , Humans , Inferior Colliculi/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged
5.
Neuroradiology ; 63(9): 1419-1427, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060974

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The fear of COVID-19 infection may discourage patients from going to the hospital even in case of sudden onset of disabling symptoms. There is growing evidence of the reduction of stroke admissions and higher prevalence of severe clinical presentation. Yet, no studies have investigated the perfusion pattern of acute strokes admitted during the lockdown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on hyper-acute stroke CT perfusion (CTP) pattern during the first months of the pandemic in Italy. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, we analyzed CTP images and clinical data of ischemic stroke patients admitted between 9 March and 2 June 2020 that underwent CTP (n = 30), to compare ischemic volumes and clinical features with stroke patients admitted during the same period in 2019 (n = 51). In particular, CTP images were processed to calculate total hypoperfused volumes, core volumes, and mismatch. The final infarct volumes were calculated on follow-up CT. RESULTS: Significantly higher total CTP hypoperfused volume (83.3 vs 18.5 ml, p = 0.003), core volume (27.8 vs 1.0 ml, p < 0.001), and unfavorable mismatch (0.51 vs 0.91, p < 0.001) were found during the COVID-19 period compared to no-COVID-19 one. The more unfavorable perfusion pattern at admission resulted in higher infarct volume on follow-up CT during COVID-19 (35.5 vs 3.0 ml, p < 0.001). During lockdown, a reduction of stroke admissions (- 37%) and a higher prevalence of severe clinical presentation (NIHSS ≥ 10; 53% vs 36%, p = 0.029) were observed. CONCLUSION: The results of CTP analysis provided a better insight in the higher prevalence of major severity stroke patients during the COVID-19 period.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Communicable Disease Control , Fear , Humans , Pandemics , Perfusion , Perfusion Imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(1): 107-116, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939393

ABSTRACT

A compelling body of evidence points to pulmonary thrombosis and thromboembolism as a key feature of COVID-19. As the pandemic spread across the globe over the past few months, a timely call to arms was issued by a team of clinicians to consider the prospect of long-lasting pulmonary fibrotic damage and plan for structured follow-up. However, the component of post-thrombotic sequelae has been less widely considered. Although the long-term outcomes of COVID-19 are not known, should pulmonary vascular sequelae prove to be clinically significant, these have the potential to become a public health problem. In this Personal View, we propose a proactive follow-up strategy to evaluate residual clot burden, small vessel injury, and potential haemodynamic sequelae. A nuanced and physiological approach to follow-up imaging that looks beyond the clot, at the state of perfusion of lung tissue, is proposed as a key triage tool, with the potential to inform therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Ventilation-Perfusion Scan/methods , Aftercare , COVID-19/physiopathology , Chronic Disease , Contrast Media , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Lung/blood supply , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Perfusion Imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/physiopathology , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
7.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 619, 2020 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Subtraction CT angiography (sCTA) is a technique used to evaluate pulmonary perfusion based on iodine distribution maps. The aim of this study is to assess lung perfusion changes with sCTA seen in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and correlate them with clinical outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study was carried out with 45 RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients that required hospitalization at three different hospitals, between April and May 2020. In all cases, a basic clinical and demographic profile was obtained. Lung perfusion was assessed using sCTA. Evaluated imaging features included: Pattern predominance of injured lung parenchyma in both lungs (ground-glass opacities, consolidation and mixed pattern) and anatomical extension; predominant type of perfusion abnormality (increased perfusion or hypoperfusion), perfusion abnormality distribution (focal or diffuse), extension of perfusion abnormalities (mild, moderate and severe involvement); presence of vascular dilatation and vascular tortuosity. All participants were followed-up until hospital discharge searching for the development of any of the study endpoints. These endpoints included intensive-care unit (ICU) admission, initiation of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and death. RESULTS: Forty-one patients (55.2 ± 16.5 years, 22 men) with RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and an interpretable iodine map were included. Patients with perfusion anomalies on sCTA in morphologically normal lung parenchyma showed lower Pa/Fi values (294 ± 111.3 vs. 397 ± 37.7, p = 0.035), and higher D-dimer levels (1156 ± 1018 vs. 378 ± 60.2, p < 0.01). The main common patterns seen in lung CT scans were ground-glass opacities, mixed pattern with predominant ground-glass opacities and mixed pattern with predominant consolidation in 56.1%, 24.4% and 19.5% respectively. Perfusion abnormalities were common (36 patients, 87.8%), mainly hypoperfusion in areas of apparently healthy lung. Patients with severe hypoperfusion in areas of apparently healthy lung parenchyma had an increased probability of being admitted to ICU and to initiate IMV (HR of 11.9 (95% CI 1.55-91.9) and HR 7.8 (95% CI 1.05-61.1), respectively). CONCLUSION: Perfusion abnormalities evidenced in iodine maps obtained by sCTA are associated with increased admission to ICU and initiation of IMV in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Contrast Media , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Iodine , Perfusion Imaging/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
8.
10.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(3): 794-799, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-777748

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We reviewed the clinical utility of perfusion (Q)-single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT for diagnosing pulmonary embolus (PE) in patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). METHODS: Following the World Health Organization's declaration of a global pandemic, our department policy recommended Q-only SPECT/CT for all patients undergoing nuclear medicine evaluation for suspected PE to reduce the risk of aerosolization of respiratory droplets. We performed a retrospective review of sequential patients admitted with COVID-19 imaged with Q-SPECT/CT between March 17, 2020, and June 30, 2020, at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. We recorded patient demographics, clinical symptoms, Wells score (to stratify patients according to pre-test probability for PE prior to Q-SPECT/CT), and noted ancillary imaging findings on CT. RESULTS: Of the 33 patients imaged with Q-SPECT/CT, 6 patients (3 men, 3 women) had a laboratory confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 (mean age, 55, ± 11.4 years, range 33-68). All patients had a current diagnosis of malignancy and had a moderate or high pre-test probability for PE (mean Wells score 2.8, range 2-4). Q-SPECT/CT was positive in 4/6 (67%) of patients. Distribution of pulmonary emboli was bilateral and segmental in 75% of patients. Ancillary acute findings on SPECT/CT included bilateral parenchymal ground glass opacities (n = 5), pleural effusions (n = 2), and pneumomediastinum (n = 1). CONCLUSION: Q-SPECT/CT has clinical utility for diagnosing PE in patients with COVID-19 where there is a contraindication for iodinated contrast media and a moderate or high pre-test probability for PE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Perfusion Imaging/methods , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Probability , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104974, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665314

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence suggests that patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at risk of thromboembolic complications, including ischemic strokes. We present a case illustrating the value of CT perfusion to identify acute small subcortical infarcts in a patient with COVID-19 admitted to an intensive care unit for bilateral pneumonia and pulmonary embolism presenting with sudden right limb weakness.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Brain Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Perfusion Imaging/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Thalamic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Infarction/therapy , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Prosthesis Implantation/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2 , Thalamic Diseases/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Vena Cava Filters
12.
Neuroradiol J ; 33(5): 368-373, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646969

ABSTRACT

Central nervous system involvement in severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has increasingly been recognised in the literature, and possible mechanisms of neuroinvasion, neurotropism and neurovirulence have been described. Neurological signs have been described in 84% of COVID-19 intensive care unit patients, and haemostatic abnormalities in such patients may play an important role, with a broad spectrum of neuroimaging findings. This report describes the magnetic resonance imaging neurovascular findings in an acutely ill patient with COVID-19, including perfusion abnormalities depicted in the arterial spin labelling technique.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Brain/blood supply , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Corpus Callosum , Frontal Lobe , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Pandemics , Parietal Lobe , Perfusion Imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spin Labels , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Thalamus
17.
Int J Stroke ; 15(5): 540-554, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: On 11 March 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 infection a pandemic. The risk of ischemic stroke may be higher in patients with COVID-19 infection similar to those with other respiratory tract infections. We present a comprehensive set of practice implications in a single document for clinicians caring for adult patients with acute ischemic stroke with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 infection. METHODS: The practice implications were prepared after review of data to reach the consensus among stroke experts from 18 countries. The writers used systematic literature reviews, reference to previously published stroke guidelines, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize existing evidence, indicate gaps in current knowledge, and when appropriate, formulate practice implications. All members of the writing group had opportunities to comment in writing on the practice implications and approved the final version of this document. RESULTS: This document with consensus is divided into 18 sections. A total of 41 conclusions and practice implications have been developed. The document includes practice implications for evaluation of stroke patients with caution for stroke team members to avoid COVID-19 exposure, during clinical evaluation and performance of imaging and laboratory procedures with special considerations of intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy in stroke patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: These practice implications with consensus based on the currently available evidence aim to guide clinicians caring for adult patients with acute ischemic stroke who are suspected of, or confirmed, with COVID-19 infection. Under certain circumstances, however, only limited evidence is available to support these practice implications, suggesting an urgent need for establishing procedures for the management of stroke patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Stroke/therapy , Betacoronavirus , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cerebral Angiography , Comorbidity , Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Management , Health Personnel , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pandemics , Patient Isolators , Perfusion Imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombophilia/blood , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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