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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(14): 517-523, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780340

ABSTRACT

Cardiac complications, particularly myocarditis and pericarditis, have been associated with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) infection (1-3) and mRNA COVID-19 vaccination (2-5). Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) is a rare but serious complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection with frequent cardiac involvement (6). Using electronic health record (EHR) data from 40 U.S. health care systems during January 1, 2021-January 31, 2022, investigators calculated incidences of cardiac outcomes (myocarditis; myocarditis or pericarditis; and myocarditis, pericarditis, or MIS) among persons aged ≥5 years who had SARS-CoV-2 infection, stratified by sex (male or female) and age group (5-11, 12-17, 18-29, and ≥30 years). Incidences of myocarditis and myocarditis or pericarditis were calculated after first, second, unspecified, or any (first, second, or unspecified) dose of mRNA COVID-19 (BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech] or mRNA-1273 [Moderna]) vaccines, stratified by sex and age group. Risk ratios (RR) were calculated to compare risk for cardiac outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection to that after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. The incidence of cardiac outcomes after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination was highest for males aged 12-17 years after the second vaccine dose; however, within this demographic group, the risk for cardiac outcomes was 1.8-5.6 times as high after SARS-CoV-2 infection than after the second vaccine dose. The risk for cardiac outcomes was likewise significantly higher after SARS-CoV-2 infection than after first, second, or unspecified dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccination for all other groups by sex and age (RR 2.2-115.2). These findings support continued use of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines among all eligible persons aged ≥5 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
2.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 20(2): 87-90, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703307

ABSTRACT

Rare cases of myocarditis and pericarditis after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination have been recently reported in male adolescents and young adults. Acute myocarditis and pericarditis following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination in male adolescents and young adults may be connected with age-related lower levels of T-bet and PD-1 in predisposed individulas with T-bet polymorphisms by the release od autoreactive CD8+CTL. Upregulatiomn of T-Bet and PD-1 by estrogen might explai the higher incidence of men developing myocarditis or pericarditis in comparison to women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/complications , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination/adverse effects , Young Adult
3.
Vaccine ; 40(10): 1499-1511, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700469

ABSTRACT

Myocarditis and/or pericarditis (also known as myopericarditis) are inflammatory diseases involving the myocardium (with non-ischemic myocyte necrosis) and/or the pericardial sac. Myocarditis/pericarditis (MPC) may present with variable clinical signs, symptoms, etiologies and outcomes, including acute heart failure, sudden death, and chronic dilated cardiomyopathy. Possible undiagnosed and/or subclinical acute myocarditis, with undefined potential for delayed manifestations, presents further challenges for diagnosing an acute disease and may go undetected in the setting of infection as well as adverse drug/vaccine reactions. The most common causes of MPC are viral, with non-infectious, drug/vaccine associated hypersensitivity and/or autoimmune causes being less well defined and with potentially different inflammatory mechanisms and treatment responses. Potential cardiac adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) encompass a larger scope of diagnoses such as triggering or exacerbating ischemic cardiac events, cardiomyopathy with potential heart failure, arrhythmias and sudden death. The current published experience does not support a potential causal association with vaccines based on epidemiologic evidence of relative risk increases compared with background unvaccinated incidence. The only evidence supporting a possible causal association of MPC with a vaccine comes from case reports. Hypersensitivity MPC as a drug/vaccine induced cardiac adverse event has long been a concern for post-licensure safety surveillance, as well as safety data submission for licensure. Other cardiac adverse events, such as dilated cardiomyopathy, were also defined in the CDC definitions for adverse events after smallpox vaccination in 2006. In addition, several groups have attempted to develop and improve the definition and adjudication of post-vaccination cardiovascular events. We developed the current case definitions for myocarditis and pericarditis as an AEFI building on experience and lessons learnt, as well as a comprehensive literature review. Considerations of other etiologies and causal relationships are outside the scope of this document.


Subject(s)
Myocarditis , Pericarditis , Vaccination , Humans , Incidence , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/diagnosis , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 52(5): e13759, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Male patients ages 12-17 years have an elevated risk of mRNA vaccination-associated myo/pericarditis. A risk-benefit analysis of first and second doses of mRNA vaccination in adolescent boys by health status and history of SARS-CoV-2 infection has not been performed. METHODS: Using the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), we identified BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech] myo/pericarditis occurrence according to CDC criteria. Main outcomes were as follows: 1) post-vaccination myo/pericarditis crude incidence in adolescents aged 12-15 and 16-17; and 2) two risk-benefit analyses by age, sex, comorbidity, variant and history of infection. RESULTS: Cases of myo/pericarditis (n = 253) included 129 after dose 1 and 124 after dose 2; 86.9% were hospitalized. Incidence per million after dose two in male patients aged 12-15 and 16-17 was 162.2 and 93.0, respectively. Weighing post-vaccination myo/pericarditis against COVID-19 hospitalization during delta, our risk-benefit analysis suggests that among 12-17-year-olds, two-dose vaccination was uniformly favourable only in nonimmune girls with a comorbidity. In boys with prior infection and no comorbidities, even one dose carried more risk than benefit according to international estimates. In the setting of omicron, one dose may be protective in nonimmune children, but dose two does not appear to confer additional benefit at a population level. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings strongly support individualized paediatric COVID-19 vaccination strategies which weigh protection against severe disease vs. risks of vaccine-associated myo/pericarditis. Research is needed into the nature and implications of this adverse effect as well as immunization strategies which reduce harms in this overall low-risk cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pericarditis , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pericarditis/epidemiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMJ ; 375: e068665, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583188

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and myocarditis or myopericarditis. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 4 931 775 individuals aged 12 years or older, followed from 1 October 2020 to 5 October 2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome, myocarditis or myopericarditis, was defined as a combination of a hospital diagnosis of myocarditis or pericarditis, increased troponin levels, and a hospital stay lasting more than 24 hours. Follow-up time before vaccination was compared with follow-up time 0-28 days from the day of vaccination for both first and second doses, using Cox proportional hazards regression with age as an underlying timescale to estimate hazard ratios adjusted for sex, comorbidities, and other potential confounders. RESULTS: During follow-up, 269 participants developed myocarditis or myopericarditis, of whom 108 (40%) were 12-39 years old and 196 (73%) were male. Of 3 482 295 individuals vaccinated with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), 48 developed myocarditis or myopericarditis within 28 days from the vaccination date compared with unvaccinated individuals (adjusted hazard ratio 1.34 (95% confidence interval 0.90 to 2.00); absolute rate 1.4 per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination (95% confidence interval 1.0 to 1.8)). Adjusted hazard ratios among female participants only and male participants only were 3.73 (1.82 to 7.65) and 0.82 (0.50 to 1.34), respectively, with corresponding absolute rates of 1.3 (0.8 to 1.9) and 1.5 (1.0 to 2.2) per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio among 12-39 year olds was 1.48 (0.74 to 2.98) and the absolute rate was 1.6 (1.0 to 2.6) per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination. Among 498 814 individuals vaccinated with mRNA-1273 (Moderna), 21 developed myocarditis or myopericarditis within 28 days from vaccination date (adjusted hazard ratio 3.92 (2.30 to 6.68); absolute rate 4.2 per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination (2.6 to 6.4)). Adjusted hazard ratios among women only and men only were 6.33 (2.11 to 18.96) and 3.22 (1.75 to 5.93), respectively, with corresponding absolute rates of 2.0 (0.7 to 4.8) and 6.3 (3.6 to 10.2) per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio among 12-39 year olds was 5.24 (2.47 to 11.12) and the absolute rate was 5.7 (3.3 to 9.3) per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with mRNA-1273 was associated with a significantly increased risk of myocarditis or myopericarditis in the Danish population, primarily driven by an increased risk among individuals aged 12-39 years, while BNT162b2 vaccination was only associated with a significantly increased risk among women. However, the absolute rate of myocarditis or myopericarditis after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination was low, even in younger age groups. The benefits of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination should be taken into account when interpreting these findings. Larger multinational studies are needed to further investigate the risks of myocarditis or myopericarditis after vaccination within smaller subgroups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myocarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , /adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin/blood , Young Adult
7.
Nat Med ; 28(2): 410-422, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575259

ABSTRACT

Although myocarditis and pericarditis were not observed as adverse events in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine trials, there have been numerous reports of suspected cases following vaccination in the general population. We undertook a self-controlled case series study of people aged 16 or older vaccinated for COVID-19 in England between 1 December 2020 and 24 August 2021 to investigate hospital admission or death from myocarditis, pericarditis and cardiac arrhythmias in the 1-28 days following adenovirus (ChAdOx1, n = 20,615,911) or messenger RNA-based (BNT162b2, n = 16,993,389; mRNA-1273, n = 1,006,191) vaccines or a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive test (n = 3,028,867). We found increased risks of myocarditis associated with the first dose of ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2 vaccines and the first and second doses of the mRNA-1273 vaccine over the 1-28 days postvaccination period, and after a SARS-CoV-2 positive test. We estimated an extra two (95% confidence interval (CI) 0, 3), one (95% CI 0, 2) and six (95% CI 2, 8) myocarditis events per 1 million people vaccinated with ChAdOx1, BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, respectively, in the 28 days following a first dose and an extra ten (95% CI 7, 11) myocarditis events per 1 million vaccinated in the 28 days after a second dose of mRNA-1273. This compares with an extra 40 (95% CI 38, 41) myocarditis events per 1 million patients in the 28 days following a SARS-CoV-2 positive test. We also observed increased risks of pericarditis and cardiac arrhythmias following a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. Similar associations were not observed with any of the COVID-19 vaccines, apart from an increased risk of arrhythmia following a second dose of mRNA-1273. Subgroup analyses by age showed the increased risk of myocarditis associated with the two mRNA vaccines was present only in those younger than 40.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , /adverse effects , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , /immunology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Young Adult
8.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572665

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has mobilized many efforts worldwide to curb its impact on morbidity and mortality. Vaccination of the general population has resulted in the administration of more than 6,700,000,000 doses by the end of October 2021, which is the most effective method to prevent hospitalization and death. Among the adverse effects described, myocarditis and pericarditis are low-frequency events (less than 10 per 100,000 people), mainly observed with messenger RNA vaccines. The mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been specified, considering an exacerbated and uncontrolled immune response and an autoimmune response against specific cardiomyocyte proteins. This greater immunogenicity and reactogenicity is clinically manifested in a differential manner in pediatric patients, adults, and the elderly, determining specific characteristics of its presentation for each age group. It generally develops as a condition of mild to moderate severity, whose symptoms and imaging findings are self-limited, resolving favorably in days to weeks and, exceptionally, reporting deaths associated with this complication. The short- and medium-term prognosis is favorable, highlighting the lack of data on long-term evolution, which should be determined in longer follow-ups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Adolescent , Aged , Cardiomyopathies/epidemiology , Cardiomyopathies/pathology , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/pathology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/pathology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
9.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(1): e25-e28, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566087

ABSTRACT

In this prospective nationwide multicenter study from Denmark, myopericarditis after Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccination was identified in 13 males and 2 females between May 15 and September 15, 2021, among 133,477 vaccinated males and 127,857 vaccinated females 12-17 years of age, equaling 97 males and 16 females per million. In conclusion, the incidence of myopericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination among males appears higher than reports from the United States.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/chemically induced , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Child , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Prospective Studies
10.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 8(2): 99-103, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545925

ABSTRACT

AIMS: While some concerns about vaccination-related pericarditis and/or myocarditis have been raised, no published data are available on pericarditis and/or myocarditis with mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in the age group of adolescents, particularly 12-15 years. The objective of this study was to determine whether the risk of reporting pericarditis and/or myocarditis with mRNA COVID-19 vaccines varied according to dose of vaccination, age, sex, and type of pericarditis and/or myocarditis in adolescents between 12 and 17 years. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed an observational study reviewing all reports of adolescents vaccinated with mRNA COVID-19 vaccines and recorded in VigiBase®, the World Health Organization global database of individual case safety reports. We included all reports registered between 1 January 2021 and 14 September 2021. Reporting odds ratios (RORs) with their 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to estimate the risk of reporting pericarditis and/or myocarditis. Among 4942 reports with mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in adolescents, we identified 242 pericarditis and/or myocarditis. Compared with the first dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines, the second dose was associated with an increased risk of reporting pericarditis and/or myocarditis (ROR 4.95; 95% CI 3.14, 7.89). The risk of reporting pericarditis and/or myocarditis was 10 times higher in boys than in girls and no difference between the two types of vaccines could be demonstrated. CONCLUSION: This investigation including only adolescent data suggests for the first time that the second dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines increases the risk of reporting myocarditis/pericarditis compared with the first dose particularly in boys without significant difference between tozinameran and elasomeran.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/complications , Myocarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Am J Cardiol ; 164: 123-130, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536420

ABSTRACT

Several recent publications have described myopericarditis cases after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. However, it is uncertain if these cases occurred secondary to the vaccination or more common etiologies of myopericarditis. To help determine whether a correlation exists between COVID-19 vaccination and myopericarditis, the present study compared the gender-specific cumulative incidence of myopericarditis and myocardial injury in a cohort of COVID-19 vaccinated patients at a tertiary care center in 2021 with the cumulative incidence of these conditions in the same subjects exactly 2 years earlier. We found that the age-adjusted incidence rate of myopericarditis in men was higher in the vaccinated than the control population, rate ratio 9.7 (p = 0.04). However, the age-adjusted incidence rate of myopericarditis in women was no different between the vaccinated and control populations, rate ratio 1.28 (p = 0.71). We further found that the rate of myocardial injury was higher in both men and women in 2021 than in 2019 both before and after vaccination, suggesting that some of the apparent increase in the diagnosis of myopericarditis after vaccination may be attributable to factors unrelated to the COVID-19 vaccinations. In conclusion, our study reaffirms the apparent increase in the diagnosis of myopericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination in men but not in women, although this finding may be confounded by increased rates of myocardial injury in 2021. The benefits of COVID-19 vaccination to individual and public health clearly outweigh the small potential increased risk of myopericarditis after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Heart Injuries , Myocarditis , Myocardium/pathology , Pericarditis , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Heart Injuries/diagnosis , Heart Injuries/epidemiology , Heart Injuries/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/diagnosis , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/etiology , Sex Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , Troponin/blood , Young Adult
12.
J Pediatr ; 238: 317-320, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481892

ABSTRACT

Reports have emerged of myocarditis and pericarditis predominantly after the second dose of the coronavirus disease messenger ribonucleic acid vaccine. We describe 13 patients aged 12-17 years who presented with chest pain within 1 week after their second dose of the Pfizer vaccine and were found to have elevated serum troponin levels and evidence of myopericarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myocarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Washington/epidemiology
14.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(11): e13679, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has a wide spectrum of cardiovascular sequelae including myocarditis and pericarditis; however, the prevalence and clinical impact are unclear. We investigated the prevalence of new-onset myocarditis/pericarditis and associated adverse cardiovascular events in patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using electronic medical records from a global federated health research network. Patients were included based on a diagnosis of COVID-19 and new-onset myocarditis or pericarditis. Patients with COVID-19 and myocarditis/pericarditis were 1:1 propensity score matched for age, sex, race and comorbidities to patients with COVID-19 but without myocarditis/pericarditis. The outcomes of interest were 6-month all-cause mortality, hospitalisation, cardiac arrest, incident heart failure, incident atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction, comparing patients with and without myocarditis/pericarditis. Of 718,365 patients with COVID-19, 35,820 (5.0%) developed new-onset myocarditis and 10,706 (1.5%) developed new-onset pericarditis. Six-month all-cause mortality was 3.9% (n = 702) in patients with myocarditis and 2.9% (n = 523) in matched controls (p < .0001), odds ratio 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21-1.53). Six-month all-cause mortality was 15.5% (n = 816) for pericarditis and 6.7% (n = 356) in matched controls (p < .0001), odds ratio 2.55 (95% CI: 2.24-2.91). Receiving critical care was associated with significantly higher odds of mortality for patients with myocarditis and pericarditis. Patients with pericarditis seemed to associate with more new-onset cardiovascular sequelae than those with myocarditis. This finding was consistent when looking at pre-COVID-19 data with pneumonia patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 who present with myocarditis/pericarditis associate with increased odds of major adverse events and new-onset cardiovascular sequelae.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/complications , Pericarditis/complications , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
16.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(32): e232, 2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Korean health authority plans to vaccinate adolescents against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) starting high school seniors during the summer vacation of 2021. However, the myocarditis/pericarditis following COVID-19 vaccine has been reported recently in adolescents and young adults. This study was performed to answer the urgent questions about the basic epidemiology and clinical course of myocarditis/pericarditis in hospitalized patients prior to the introduction of COVID-19 vaccines in pediatric population. METHODS: A retrospective medical record analysis including frequency, clinical characteristics, etiology and outcome of myocarditis/pericarditis was conducted in 17 years and younger patients who were hospitalized in two referral hospitals in Korea between 2010 and 2019. RESULTS: Total 142 patients with myocarditis (n = 119) and/or pericarditis (n = 23) were identified. Median age was 5.4 years (interquartile range, 0.6-12.9 years; range, 11 days-17.8 years), and male was 61%. In adolescents aged 12-17 years, the male to female ratio was 3.2. Myocarditis/pericarditis occurred 0.70 per 1,000 in-patients during the study period: 0.96 (< 1 year), 0.50 (1-5 years), 0.67 (6-11 years) and 1.22 (12-17 years) per 1,000 in-patients, respectively. There was an increasing tendency for the annual frequency from 0.34 in 2010 to 1.25 per 1,000 in-patients in 2019 (P = 0.021). Among the 56 (40%) proven pathogens at admission, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n = 11, 8%) and enterovirus (n = 10, 7%) were most common. Of the 142 patients, 99 (70%) required pediatric intensive care unit care and 10 (7%) received heart transplantation. In addition, 61 patients (61/131, 47%) without heart medication at admission needed heart medication when they were discharged. Eleven (7.7%) patients died, of which five patients were previously healthy. The median age of deceased patients was lower than the survival group (0.8 vs. 6.3 years, P = 0.014). CONCLUSION: The frequency of myocarditis/pericarditis was highest among male adolescent in-patients; however, the outcome was favorable in this group without any mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/pathology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/pathology , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination/adverse effects
18.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 9(8): 817-823, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939994

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To determine the frequency and pattern of cardiac complications in patients hospitalised with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS AND RESULTS: CAPACITY-COVID is an international patient registry established to determine the role of cardiovascular disease in the COVID-19 pandemic. In this registry, data generated during routine clinical practice are collected in a standardised manner for patients with a (highly suspected) severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection requiring hospitalisation. For the current analysis, consecutive patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 registered between 28 March and 3 July 2020 were included. Patients were followed for the occurrence of cardiac complications and pulmonary embolism from admission to discharge. In total, 3011 patients were included, of which 1890 (62.8%) were men. The median age was 67 years (interquartile range 56-76); 937 (31.0%) patients had a history of cardiac disease, with pre-existent coronary artery disease being most common (n=463, 15.4%). During hospitalisation, 595 (19.8%) patients died, including 16 patients (2.7%) with cardiac causes. Cardiac complications were diagnosed in 349 (11.6%) patients, with atrial fibrillation (n=142, 4.7%) being most common. The incidence of other cardiac complications was 1.8% for heart failure (n=55), 0.5% for acute coronary syndrome (n=15), 0.5% for ventricular arrhythmia (n=14), 0.1% for bacterial endocarditis (n=4) and myocarditis (n=3), respectively, and 0.03% for pericarditis (n=1). Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in 198 (6.6%) patients. CONCLUSION: This large study among 3011 hospitalised patients with COVID-19 shows that the incidence of cardiac complications during hospital admission is low, despite a frequent history of cardiovascular disease. Long-term cardiac outcomes and the role of pre-existing cardiovascular disease in COVID-19 outcome warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Endocarditis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Female , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Registries
19.
Kardiologiia ; 60(8): 27-32, 2020 Sep 17.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-903123

ABSTRACT

The article describes a clinical case of myopericarditis as a late manifestation of possible COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Myocarditis , Pandemics , Pericarditis , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/diagnosis , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(3): e2172, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-777664

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 causes the clinical syndrome of coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) which has become a global pandemic resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. While the virus primarily affects the respiratory system, it also causes a wide variety of complex cardiac manifestations such as acute myopericarditis, acute coronary syndrome, congested heart failure, cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrhythmias. There are numerous proposed mechanisms of cardiac injury, including direct cellular injury, pro-inflammatory cytokine storm, myocardial oxygen-demand mismatch, and systemic inflammation causing multi-organ failure. Additionally, medications commonly used to treat COVID-19 patients have various cardiovascular side effects. We aim to provide a succinct review about the pathophysiology and cardiac manifestations of COVID-19, as well as treatment considerations and the various adaptations made to the current healthcare structure as a result of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Heart Failure/therapy , Pandemics , Pericarditis/therapy , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/pathology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/virology , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/pathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Comorbidity , Disease Management , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/pathology , Heart Failure/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/pathology , Pericarditis/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Shock, Cardiogenic/epidemiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/pathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/virology , Texas/epidemiology
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