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BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 225, 2022 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745478

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Exclusive breastmilk feeding during the delivery hospitalization, a Joint Commission indicator of perinatal care quality, is associated with longer-term breastfeeding success. Marked racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding exclusivity and duration existed prior to COVID-19. The pandemic, accompanied by uncertainty regarding intrapartum and postpartum safety practices, may have influenced disparities in infant feeding practices. Our objective was to examine whether the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City was associated with a change in racial and ethnic disparities in exclusive breastmilk feeding during the delivery stay. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of electronic medical records from 14,964 births in two New York City hospitals. We conducted a difference-in-differences (DID) analysis to compare Black-white, Latina-white, and Asian-white disparities in exclusive breastmilk feeding in a pandemic cohort (April 1-July 31, 2020, n=3122 deliveries) to disparities in a pre-pandemic cohort (January 1, 2019-February 28, 2020, n=11,842). We defined exclusive breastmilk feeding as receipt of only breastmilk during delivery hospitalization, regardless of route of administration. We ascertained severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection status from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests from nasopharyngeal swab at admission. For each DID model (e.g. Black-white disparity), we used covariate-adjusted log binomial regression models to estimate racial and ethnic risk differences, pandemic versus pre-pandemic cohort risk differences, and an interaction term representing the DID estimator. RESULTS: Exclusive breastmilk feeding increased from pre-pandemic to pandemic among white (40.8% to 46.6%, p<0.001) and Asian (27.9% to 35.8%, p=0.004) women, but not Black (22.6% to 25.3%, p=0.275) or Latina (20.1% to 21.4%, p=0.515) women overall. There was an increase in the Latina-white exclusive breastmilk feeding disparity associated with the pandemic (DID estimator=6.3 fewer cases per 100 births (95% CI=-10.8, -1.9)). We found decreased breastmilk feeding specifically among SARS-CoV-2 positive Latina women (20.1% pre-pandemic vs. 9.1% pandemic p=0.013), and no change in Black-white or Asian-white disparities. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a pandemic-related increase in the Latina-white disparity in exclusive breastmilk feeding, urging hospital policies and programs to increase equity in breastmilk feeding and perinatal care quality during and beyond this health emergency.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/ethnology , COVID-19/ethnology , Hospitalization , Adult , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Milk, Human , New York City , Perinatal Care , Quality Indicators, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742442

ABSTRACT

The objective of this scoping review is to determine to what extent the recommendations on perinatal care protect breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic. The review follows the PRISMA ScR Extension guidelines. The research was conducted in Scopus, Medline via Pubmed, and Web of Science databases from 1 March 2020 to 31 May 2021, using 392 combinations of keywords. We searched for reviews and original papers published in English providing recommendations on delivery mode, companion during labor, the possibility of skin-to-skin contact (SSC), breastfeeding, and visitors policy. After screening, 86 out of 8416 publications qualified for data extraction. The majority of them indicated that COVID-19 infection is not a sufficient reason for a cesarean section; however, on a national level, cesarean births in severely ill patients were overrepresented. A significant number of recommendations deprived mothers of the necessary support during their labor and stay in the maternity ward. A shared decision-making model was hardly visible. Only the earliest COVID-19 recommendations suspended direct breastfeeding; in later publications, decisions were related to the mother's health, but other options of natural feeding were rarely discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant Welfare , Perinatal Care , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mothers , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690253

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Approximately one in five women will experience mental health difficulties in the perinatal period. Women from ethnic minority backgrounds face a variety of barriers that can prevent or delay access to appropriate perinatal mental health care. COVID-19 pandemic restrictions created additional obstacles for this group of women. This study aims to explore minority ethnic women's experiences of perinatal mental health services during COVID-19 in London. (2) Methods: Eighteen women from ethnic minority backgrounds were interviewed, and data were subject to a thematic analysis. (3) Results: Three main themes were identified, each with two subthemes: 'Difficulties and Disruptions to Access' (Access to Appointments; Pandemic Restrictions and Disruption), 'Experiences of Remote Delivery' (Preference for Face-to-Face Contact; Advantages of Remote Support); and 'Psychosocial Experiences' linked to COVID-19 (Heightened Anxiety; Social Isolation). (4) Conclusions: Women from ethnic minority backgrounds experienced disrupted perinatal mental health care and COVID-19 restrictions compounding their mental health difficulties. Services should take women's circumstances into account and provide flexibility regarding remote delivery of care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , London/epidemiology , Mental Health , Minority Groups , Pandemics , Perinatal Care , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 119, 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The provision of care to pregnant persons and neonates must continue through pandemics. To maintain quality of care, while minimizing physical contact during the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-related Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2) pandemic, hospitals and international organizations issued recommendations on maternity and neonatal care delivery and restructuring of clinical and academic services. Early in the pandemic, recommendations relied on expert opinion, and offered a one-size-fits-all set of guidelines. Our aim was to examine these recommendations and provide the rationale and context to guide clinicians, administrators, educators, and researchers, on how to adapt maternity and neonatal services during the pandemic, regardless of jurisdiction. METHOD: Our initial database search used Medical subject headings and free-text search terms related to coronavirus infections, pregnancy and neonatology, and summarized relevant recommendations from international society guidelines. Subsequent targeted searches to December 30, 2020, included relevant publications in general medical and obstetric journals, and updated society recommendations. RESULTS: We identified 846 titles and abstracts, of which 105 English-language publications fulfilled eligibility criteria and were included in our study. A multidisciplinary team representing clinicians from various disciplines, academics, administrators and training program directors critically appraised the literature to collate recommendations by multiple jurisdictions, including a quaternary care Canadian hospital, to provide context and rationale for viable options. INTERPRETATION: There are different schools of thought regarding effective practices in obstetric and neonatal services. Our critical review presents the rationale to effectively modify services, based on the phase of the pandemic, the prevalence of infection in the population, and resource availability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Maternal-Child Health Services/organization & administration , Perinatal Care , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/therapy , Canada , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Inpatients , Organizational Policy , Outpatients , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 104, 2022 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666638

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Infection control measures during the Covid-19 pandemic have focused on limiting physical contact and decontamination by observing cleaning and hygiene rituals. Breastfeeding requires close physical contact and observance of hygienic measures like handwashing. Worries around contamination increase during the perinatal period and can be expressed as increase in obsessive compulsive symptoms. These symptoms have shown to impact breastfeeding rates. This study attempts to explore any relationship between the Covid-19 pandemic and perinatal obsessive-compulsive symptomatology and whether the Covid-19 pandemic has any impact on intent to breastfeed. METHODS: A cross sectional survey of perinatal women attending largest maternity centre in Qatar was carried out during the months of October to December 2020. Socio-demographic information, intent to breastfeed and information around obsessive compulsive thoughts around Covid-19 pandemic were collected using validated tools. RESULTS: 15.7% respondents report intent to not breastfeed. 21.4% respondents reported obsessive-compulsive symptoms. 77.3% respondents believed the biggest source of infection was from others while as only 12% of the respondents believed that the source of infection was through breastfeeding and 15.7% believed the vertical transmission as the main source of risk of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were increased and the rates of intent to breastfeed were decreased when compared with pre pandemic rates. The obsessive-compulsive symptoms and the intent to not breastfeed were significantly associated with fear of infection to the new-born. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were not significantly correlated with intent to breastfeed and can be seen as adaptive strategies utilized by women to continue breastfeeding in the context of fear of infection.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Intention , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hygiene , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Perinatal Care , Pregnancy , Qatar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Obstet Gynecol ; 139(2): 269-276, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608113

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the empirical research evidence about the association between Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and increasing perinatal care access and utilization among low-income women. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE through PubMed (1966-present), EMBASE (Ovid), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (1982-present), PAIS Index (ProQuest), Web of Science (1900-present), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Our review focuses on the association between Medicaid expansion under the ACA and perinatal care access and utilization, which cannot be subjected to randomized controlled trials, therefore ClinicalTrials.gov was not included in our search. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: A comprehensive search of the research literature was performed using Covidence. Studies were eligible if they were based on population data and research designs ensuring that the exposure (ie, Medicaid expansion under the ACA) preceded the perinatal care access or utilization outcome, had an appropriate comparison group, presented quantitative data, and examined pregnant or postpartum women. The search in six bibliographic databases returned 1,243 records, with 855 abstracts reviewed, 34 full-text articles screened for eligibility, and nine eligible studies included in the systematic review. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Stata 16 software was used to generate summary estimates, forest plots, funnel plots, and heterogeneity statistics. Random effects modeling based on pooled data revealed that Medicaid expansion was associated with a 6.1% increase in Medicaid enrollment for pregnant women (95% CI 1.3-10.9%) and a 3.3% increase in perinatal care utilization (95% CI 0.2-6.3%). CONCLUSION: Medicaid expansion under the ACA is associated with a modest and statistically significant increase in perinatal care access and utilization among low-income women.


Subject(s)
Health Services Accessibility , Medicaid , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Perinatal Care , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , United States
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463638

ABSTRACT

There is a paucity of research exploring how relationships with household pets may impact maternal mental health. We are unaware of any study to date that has examined associations between individuals' relationships with their pets and psychological adjustment in the perinatal period. Using a biobehavioral lens, this paper provides a narrative overview of the literature on perinatal mental health and human-animal interaction (HAI). We focus on the role of social relationships, stress, and stress reduction in relation to perinatal mental health; the role of HAI in perceptions of social support, stressors, and stress reduction; and gaps in empirical knowledge concerning the role of HAI in perinatal mental health. Finally, we integrate contemporary biobehavioral models of perinatal mental health and HAI (i.e., Comprehensive Model of Mental Health during the Perinatal Period and the HAI-HPA Transactional Model) to propose a new conceptual framework that depicts ways in which HAI during the perinatal period may influence maternal and child health and wellbeing. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to consider the role of HAI in biobehavioral responses and mental health during the perinatal period. We conclude with recommendations for future research and improved perinatal care.


Subject(s)
Human-Animal Interaction , Mental Health , Animals , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Parturition , Perinatal Care , Pregnancy , Social Support
10.
Semin Perinatol ; 45(5): 151431, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454526

ABSTRACT

We discuss the use of tele-mental health in settings serving expectant parents in fetal care centers and parents with children receiving treatment in neonatal intensive care units within a pediatric institution. Our emphasis is on the dramatic rise of tele-mental health service delivery for this population in the wake of the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S., including relevant practice regulations, challenges and advantages associated with the transition to tele-mental health in these perinatal settings.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/trends , Mental Health/trends , Perinatal Care , Psychosocial Intervention , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Female , Humans , Infection Control , Male , Parents/education , Parents/psychology , Perinatal Care/methods , Perinatal Care/organization & administration , Pregnancy , Prenatal Education/trends , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , Psychosocial Intervention/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , United States/epidemiology
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 670, 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus currently cause a lot of pressure on the health system. Accordingly, many changes occurred in the way of providing health care, including pregnancy and childbirth care. To our knowledge, no studies on experiences of maternity care Providers during the COVID-19 Pandemic have been published in Iran. We aimed to discover their experiences on pregnancy and childbirth care during the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study was a qualitative research performed with a descriptive phenomenological approach. The used sampling method was purposive sampling by taking the maximum variation possible into account, which continued until data saturation. Accordingly, in-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted by including 12 participants, as 4 gynecologists, 6 midwives working in the hospitals and private offices, and 2 midwives working in the health centers. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi's seven stage method with MAXQDA10 software. RESULTS: Data analysis led to the extraction of 3 themes, 9 categories, and 25 subcategories. The themes were as follows: "Fear of Disease", "Burnout", and "Lessons Learned from the COVID-19 Pandemic", respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal health care providers experience emotional and psychological stress and work challenges during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, comprehensive support should be provided for the protection of their physical and mental health statuses. By working as a team, utilizing the capacity of telemedicine to care and follow up mothers, and providing maternity care at home, some emerged challenges to maternal care services can be overcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Maternal Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Perinatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Burnout, Psychological/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Emotions/physiology , Female , Gynecology/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Interviews as Topic , Iran/epidemiology , Maternal Health Services/trends , Middle Aged , Midwifery/statistics & numerical data , Perinatal Care/organization & administration , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Telemedicine/methods
12.
Nursing ; 51(10): 50-54, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440655

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Recommendations for social distancing and avoidance of mass gatherings during the COVID-19 pandemic have correlated with increased depressive symptoms in some individuals, such as loss of interest in daily activities, sleeplessness, or sadness. Perinatal depression screening using established, validated tools can aid with early diagnosis, guide management strategies, and optimize outcomes for pregnant women and their families. Identifying at-risk patients early in pregnancy and implementing a plan of care with appropriate mental health resources such as counseling or therapy have been shown to decrease clinical depression by more than 40%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Mass Screening/nursing , Perinatal Care , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Nursing Diagnosis , Nursing Evaluation Research , Pregnancy , Young Adult
14.
Prim Care Companion CNS Disord ; 23(5)2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438793

ABSTRACT

Women are at high risk for and more vulnerable to perinatal mood and anxiety disorders (PMADs) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. While access to specialized perinatal mental health services is limited, clinicians with whom women have ongoing relationships are in a unique position to counsel about prevention of PMADs. These clinicians include primary care, obstetric, and general mental health clinicians. By providing a woman with practical guidance and psychoeducation for perinatal planning (eg, about sleep, exercise, nutrition, and the importance of social supports), clinicians can mitigate a woman's risk of PMADs. This practical guidance must be modified to fit the social context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This guidance can prevent or attenuate unnecessary suffering on the part of the mother and have a long-lasting impact on her child. This review provides a perinatal planning guide that outlines important topics to discuss and problem solve with women in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , COVID-19 , Perinatal Care , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int Breastfeed J ; 16(1): 66, 2021 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the positive effects of good clinical quality standards in perinatal care and breastfeeding support for women, newborns and families have been already demonstrated, many of these practices were disrupted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this study was to analyse the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on perinatal care and breastfeeding support practices offered by the Spanish maternity hospitals committed to the UNICEF Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), to women with and without COVID-19. METHODS: Implementation of perinatal practices was assessed by a cross-sectional survey conducted in May 2020 using an online questionnaire. Comparison with pre-pandemic situation and level of commitment to BFHI practices was performed. RESULTS: Response rate was 50% (58/116). Mothers with COVID-19 suffered greater restrictions in the practices compared to women without COVID-19, with lower rates of companion of choice during labour (84% vs 100%; p = 0.003), skin-to-skin contact (32% vs 52%; p = 0.04), rooming-in (74% vs 98%; p <  0.001), companion of choice during hospital stay (68% vs 90%; p = 0.006), and breastfeeding support (78% vs 94%; p = 0.02). Practices were significantly less prevalent in COVID-19 mothers compared to pre-pandemic situation. A lower accompaniment rate was observed in non-COVID-19 group during delivery (24% vs 47.9%; p <  0.01). Hospitals with higher commitment to BFHI practices reported higher rates of skin-to-skin contact (45.2% vs 10.5%; p = 0.01) and rooming-in (83.9% vs 57.9%; p <  0.05) in COVID mothers. Fewer restrictions were observed in hospitals located in the regions where the pandemic hit harder. In these regions there was a significantly higher level of BFHI commitment of the hospitals, but no significant differences were observed in the average size of the hospital. All the practices suffered even more restrictions during the first weeks of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: All mothers suffered restrictions in perinatal care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Women with COVID-19 infection suffered more restrictions in perinatal practices than women without infection. The degree of commitment to WHO-UNICEF perinatal quality standards, integrated into the BFHI, was associated with maintenance of good clinical practices.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Hospitals, Maternity , Perinatal Care/standards , Quality of Health Care , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 587, 2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has caused ongoing challenges in health services worldwide. Despite the growing body of literature on COVID-19, reports on perinatal care in COVID-19 cases are limited. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in a 36-year-old G5/P2 pregnant woman with morbid obesity, confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, and fulminant respiratory failure. At 28+ 1 gestational weeks, the patient delivered an uninfected newborn. Using ImmunoCAP ISAC® technology, we found no immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibodies, suggesting that no mother-to-child viral transmission occurred during pregnancy or delivery. The maternal respiratory state improved rapidly after delivery; both maternal and neonatal outcomes were encouraging given the early gestational age and fulminant course of respiratory failure in our patient. CONCLUSIONS: The management of ARDS in pregnant women with COVID-19 is complex and requires an individualized, multidisciplinary approach, while considering maternal and fetal outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cesarean Section/methods , Pneumonia, Viral , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Fetal Monitoring/methods , Gestational Age , Humans , Obesity, Morbid/diagnosis , Obesity, Morbid/physiopathology , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Perinatal Care/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/etiology , Premature Birth/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
18.
J Midwifery Womens Health ; 66(5): 579-588, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371832

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Quality perinatal care is recognized as an important birth process and outcome. During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, quality of perinatal care was compromised as the health care system grappled with adapting to an ever-changing, uncertain, and unprecedented public health crisis. METHODS: The aim of this study was to explore the quality of perinatal care received during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Data were collected via an online questionnaire completed by people who gave birth in the United States after March 15, 2020. The questionnaire included the Mothers on Respect Index and the Mothers Autonomy in Decision Making validated measures. Low-quality perinatal care was defined as decreased respect and/or autonomy in the perinatal care received. Responses were geocoded by zip code to determine COVID-19 case-load in the county on the date of birth. Multivariate regression analyses described associations between respect and autonomy in decision-making for perinatal care and levels of COVID-19 outbreak across the United States. RESULTS: Participants (N = 707) from 46 states and the District of Columbia completed the questionnaire. As COVID-19 cases increased, participants' experiences of autonomy in decision-making for perinatal care decreased significantly (P = .04). Participants who identified as Black, Indigenous, and people of color, those who had an obstetrician provider, and those who gave birth in a hospital were more likely to experience low-quality perinatal care. Those with a midwife provider or who had a home birth were more likely to experience high-quality perinatal care in adjusted models. DISCUSSION: Variability in experiences of high-quality perinatal care by sociodemographic characteristics, birth setting, and provider type may relate to implicit bias, structural racism, and inequities in maternal health and COVID-19 outcomes for birthing people from marginalized communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Perinatal Care , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Parturition , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
20.
JAAPA ; 34(8): 1-4, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328939

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: This literature review assesses recent research highlighting the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in pregnant patients and children. With better understanding, clinicians can offer risk assessment for those planning pregnancies amid the pandemic while using the best practice guidelines to reassure and assist pregnant patients throughout all spectrums of perinatal care, delivery, and postpartum care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Maternal Health/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prenatal Education/methods , Adaptation, Psychological , Female , Humans , Maternal Health Services , Perinatal Care/methods , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
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