Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 3 de 3
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305444


Periodontitis as a highly prevalent chronic infection/inflammatory disease can eventually lead to tooth loss and masticatory dysfunction. It also has a negative impact on general health and largely impairs quality of life. The tissue destruction during periodontitis is mainly caused by the excessive immune-inflammatory response; hence, how to modulate the host's reaction is of profound importance for effective periodontal treatment and tissue protection. Melatonin, as an endogenous hormone exhibiting multiple biological functions such as circadian rhythm regulation, antioxidant, and anti-inflammation, has been widely used in general healthcare. Notably, the past few years have witnessed increasing evidence for the application of melatonin as an adjunctive approach in the treatment of periodontitis and periodontitis-related systemic comorbidities. The detailed underlying mechanisms and more verification from clinical practice are still lacking, however, and further investigations are highly required. Importantly, it is essential to establish standard guidelines in the near future for the clinical administration of melatonin for periodontal health and general wellbeing.

Melatonin , Periodontitis , Humans , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology
J Dent Res ; 100(8): 798-809, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115185


Periodontitis is the sixth-most prevalent disease in the world and the first cause for tooth loss in adults. With focus shifted to the inflammatory/immune response in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, there is a critical need to evaluate host modulatory agents. Synthetic and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are a cornerstone for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Recent prospective cohort studies showed that synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs improved periodontal clinical parameters following nonsurgical periodontal treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment with recombinant humanized monoclonal antibodies against CD20 (rituximab) and IL-6 receptor (tocilizumab), the latter also in clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia, resulted in decreased periodontal inflammation and improved periodontal status. Studies on the effect of TNF-α inhibitors in patients with periodontitis yielded inconsistent results. Recent data suggest that probiotics provide anti-inflammatory clinical benefit, as do nutritional supplements, such as n-3 fatty acids, when combined with periodontal therapy. Probiotics reduce the production of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines by suppressing NF-κB pathways and promote the accumulation of T regulatory cells. Statins, like aspirin, have been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and bone-preserving actions by upregulating production of Specialized Proresolving Mediators (SPMs). Currently, there is insufficient scientific support for the topical delivery of statins or bisphosphonates as adjuncts to periodontal therapy. Here, we present a critical review of the most recent host modulatory agents applied in humans and the key immune pathways that they target. Emerging evidence from novel drug candidates, including SPMs and complement inhibitors as previously studied in animal models and currently in human clinical trials, suggests future availability of adjunctive therapeutic strategies for the management of periodontitis.

COVID-19 , Periodontal Diseases , Periodontitis , Adult , Animals , Humans , Periodontal Diseases/drug therapy , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Biofactors ; 47(1): 6-18, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950385


Specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) are endogenous lipid metabolites of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that are involved in promoting the resolution of inflammation. Many disease conditions characterized by excessive inflammation have impaired or altered SPM biosynthesis, which may lead to chronic, unresolved inflammation. Exogenous administration of SPMs in infectious conditions has been shown to be effective at improving infection clearance and survival in preclinical models. SPMs have also shown tremendous promise in the context of inflammatory lung conditions, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mostly in preclinical settings. To date, SPMs have not been studied in the context of the novel Coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), however their preclinical efficacy in combatting infections and improving acute respiratory distress suggest they may be a valuable resource in the fight against Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Overall, while the research on SPMs is still evolving, they may offer a novel therapeutic option for inflammatory conditions.

Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Docosahexaenoic Acids/therapeutic use , Lipoxins/therapeutic use , Lung Injury/drug therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpes Simplex/metabolism , Herpes Simplex/pathology , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/metabolism , Influenza, Human/pathology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung Injury/metabolism , Lung Injury/pathology , Lung Injury/virology , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Periodontitis/metabolism , Periodontitis/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sepsis/metabolism , Sepsis/pathology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/metabolism , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/pathology