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1.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 75: 140-143, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340555

ABSTRACT

The incidence of venous and arterial thromboembolic complications in COVID-19 patients is significant. The vast majority of COVID-19 patients spend their quarantine at home in a self-isolation condition. The occurrence of Acute limb ischemia (ALI) is a dangerous event that needs prompt diagnosis and management with time-dependent recanalization outcomes. We present a case series of three COVID-19 patients who suffered from ALI that occurred during home self-isolation, and that were diagnosed and treated with a significant time-delay due to COVID-19 social implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Delayed Diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amputation , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Embolectomy , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/surgery , Male , Peripheral Arterial Disease/etiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/surgery , Predictive Value of Tests , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
2.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102204, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306924

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Identify the prevalence, risk factors and outcomes of lower extremity ischemic complications. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching PubMed and SCOPUS databases for SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 and peripheral arterial complications. RESULTS: Overall 476 articles were retrieved and 31 articles describing 133 patients were included. The mean age was 65.4 years. Pain and gangrene were the most common presentation. Hypertension (51.3%), diabetes (31.9%) and hypercholesterolemia (17.6%) were associated co-morbidities. Overall, 30.1% of patients died and amputation was required in 11.8% patients. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with diabetes or hypertension are susceptible for lower limb complications and require therapeutic anti-coagulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetic Angiopathies , Hypertension , Aged , Amputation/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetic Angiopathies/complications , Diabetic Angiopathies/diagnosis , Diabetic Angiopathies/epidemiology , Diabetic Angiopathies/therapy , Female , Gangrene/diagnosis , Gangrene/epidemiology , Gangrene/etiology , Gangrene/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Lower Extremity , Male , Middle Aged , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnosis , Peripheral Arterial Disease/epidemiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/etiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/therapy , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
3.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 75: 140-143, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245849

ABSTRACT

The incidence of venous and arterial thromboembolic complications in COVID-19 patients is significant. The vast majority of COVID-19 patients spend their quarantine at home in a self-isolation condition. The occurrence of Acute limb ischemia (ALI) is a dangerous event that needs prompt diagnosis and management with time-dependent recanalization outcomes. We present a case series of three COVID-19 patients who suffered from ALI that occurred during home self-isolation, and that were diagnosed and treated with a significant time-delay due to COVID-19 social implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Delayed Diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amputation , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Embolectomy , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/surgery , Male , Peripheral Arterial Disease/etiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/surgery , Predictive Value of Tests , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
4.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 74: 80-87, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes thromboembolic complications during or post-infection period despite a lack of conventional risk factors. The study aims to learn fundamental changes in COVID-19 patients who underwent embolectomy in terms of clinical characteristics and clot composition. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study design, we evaluated 21 patients who underwent embolectomy in our clinic between March 12, 2020, and December 31, 2020. Demographics, characteristics, and laboratory values were abstracted and analyzed. Histopathological assessment was held in the pathology department. RESULTS: Of these 21 patients, 11 (52.3%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive and 10 (47.6%) were SARS-CoV-2 negative. There is no statistical difference in terms of anatomic distribution, diagnostic method, length of hospital stay, amputation or mortality levels. Thromboembolic material of COVID-19 patients include significantly less red blood cell (RBC) (21.2-32.6%; P= 0.01), more lymphocyte (14.1-2.6%; P< 0.001), and more leukocyte (27.1-22.1%; P= 0.05). There was no statistical difference between the fibrin ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory cells are prominent in arterial thromboembolic material of COVID-19 patients. A combination of hyperinflammation and prothrombotic status may be responsible for this phenomenon.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/pathology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/pathology , Thromboembolism/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amputation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Embolectomy , Female , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/mortality , Inflammation/surgery , Length of Stay , Limb Salvage , Male , Middle Aged , Peripheral Arterial Disease/etiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/mortality , Peripheral Arterial Disease/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/mortality , Thromboembolism/surgery , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 74: 88-94, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163381

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a multisystemic disorder. Hematologic and cardiovascular involvement of COVID-19 causes thromboembolic events across multiple organs which mainly manifest as venous thromboembolism, and rarely, peripheral arterial thromboembolic events. In-situ thrombosis of a healthy, non-atherosclerotic native artery is rare, and COVID-19 has been reported to be a cause of this phenomenon. We aimed to report our institutional experience with COVID-19 patients who developed acute limb ischemia (ALI) during hospitalization or after discharge. METHODS: This was a single-center cross-sectional study. Records of all patients ≥18 years of age admitted to a tertiary center with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 infection between September 1 and December 31, 2020 were retrospectively examined. Data regarding patient demographics, co-morbidities and outcomes were collected. Patients were followed-up during index hospitalization and for 30 days postdischarge. Acute limb ischemia was diagnosed by means of duplex ultrasound and computed tomography angiography in the presence of a clinical suspicion. RESULTS: A total of 681 consecutive patients (38.5% women) were hospitalized with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 during the study period. Median age was 63 years (IQR, 52-74). In-hospital mortality occurred in 94 (13.8%) patients. Ninety (13.2%) patients required intensive care unit admission at some point of their hospital stay. Six (0.9%) patients (one woman) with a median age of 62 years experienced ALI (IQR, 59-64.3). All patients were receiving low molecular weight heparin when they developed ALI. The median of duration between COVID-19 diagnosis and ALI symptom onset was 13 days (IQR, 11.3-14). Three patients underwent emergent surgical thrombectomy combined with systemic anticoagulation, and 3 received systemic anticoagulation alone. Two patients with ALI did not survive to hospital discharge. Among survivors, 1 patient underwent bilateral major amputations, and another underwent a minor amputation within 1 month of hospital discharge. Symptoms of ALI completely resolved in 2 patients without sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is a multisystemic disorder with involvement of hematologic and cardiovascular systems. Despite widespread use of thromboprophylaxis, hospitalized patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk of ALI, and subsequent limb loss or even death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Ischemia/etiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/etiology , Acute Disease , Aged , Amputation , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/mortality , Ischemia/therapy , Limb Salvage , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnostic imaging , Peripheral Arterial Disease/mortality , Peripheral Arterial Disease/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thrombectomy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(3): 974-979, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163124

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a pandemic across the world. Hypercoagulability status in COVID-19 is one of the causes of complication from severe COVID-19 with a high risk of arterial thrombosis. Acute Limb Ischemia is a vascular emergency caused by sudden decrease in the arterial perfusion. We report the case of a 53-year-old male patient with COVID-19 Pneumonia, diagnosed with Acute Limb Ischemia. From clinical examination, which included anamnesis, physical examination, and laboratory results as well as chest X-rays, a suspicion of Acute Limb Ischemia was found in a patient with COVID-19 pneumonia. The SARS-CoV-2 real time PCR examination showed positive results. In this patient, the diagnosis of Acute Limb Ischemia with Covid-19 Pneumonia was established through a multidisciplinary approach covering the fields of pulmonology, cardiology, and thoracic and cardiovascular surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemia/etiology , Lower Extremity/blood supply , Peripheral Arterial Disease/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Acute Disease , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Ischemia/diagnosis , Ischemia/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnosis , Peripheral Arterial Disease/therapy , Thrombectomy , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/therapy , Treatment Outcome
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(8)2020 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693991

ABSTRACT

We describe a patient with COVID-19 who developed simultaneous pulmonary, intracardiac and peripheral arterial thrombosis. A 58-year-old man, without major comorbidity, was admitted with a 14-day history of breathlessness. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was confirmed by laboratory testing. Initial imaging revealed COVID-19 pneumonia but no pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) on CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). The patient subsequently developed respiratory failure and left foot ischaemia associated with a rising D-dimer. Repeat CTPA and lower limb CT angiography revealed simultaneous bilateral PTE, biventricular cardiac thrombi and bilateral lower limb arterial occlusions. This case highlights a broad range of vascular sequalae associated with COVID-19 and the fact that these can occur despite a combination of prophylactic and treatment dose anticoagulation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Heart Diseases , Pandemics , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Pneumonia, Viral , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Clinical Deterioration , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/therapy , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnosis , Peripheral Arterial Disease/etiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/therapy , Treatment Outcome
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