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J Neurol ; 268(3): 879-890, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-756085


The history of mankind is marked by numerous epidemics, some of which involved diseases of the peripheral nervous system, either infectious or otherwise. We describe here the three main infectious causes of epidemics that affect the peripheral nervous system: leprosy, poliomyelitis and diphtheria. We then discuss the main epidemics of immune-mediated origin.

Epidemics , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Leprosy , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Poliomyelitis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Humans , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology
J Neurol ; 268(3): 892-902, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-756084


Peripheral neuropathies have various causes, both infectious and non-infectious. When we think of "epidemics", we often refer to an infectious or even post-infectious origin. Nevertheless, the history of mankind is marked by episodes of epidemics of peripheral neuropathies of non-infectious nature, either of nutritional or toxic origin: we present here the main causes of such epidemics.

Communicable Diseases , Epidemics , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Causality , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/etiology
Neuroepidemiology ; 55(2): 109-118, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102234


BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can be accompanied by acute neurological complications of both central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS and PNS). In this study, we estimate the frequency of such complications among hospital inpatients with COVID-19 in Assiut and Aswan university hospitals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We screened all patients with suspected COVID-19 admitted from 1 June to 10 August 2020 to the university hospitals of Assiut and Aswan in Upper Egypt. Clinical and laboratory tests, CT/MRI of the chest and brain, and neurophysiology study were performed for each patient if indicated. RESULTS: 439 patients had confirmed/probable COVID-19; neurological manifestations occurred in 222. Of these, 117 had acute neurological disease and the remainder had nonspecific neuropsychiatric symptoms such as headache, vertigo, and depression. The CNS was affected in 75 patients: 55 had stroke and the others had convulsions (5), encephalitis (6), hypoxic encephalopathy (4), cord myelopathy (2), relapse of multiple sclerosis (2), and meningoencephalitis (1). The PNS was affected in 42 patients: the majority had anosmia and ageusia (31) and the others had Guillain-Barré syndrome (4), peripheral neuropathy (3), myasthenia gravis (MG, 2), or myositis (2). Fever, respiratory symptoms, and headache were the most common general symptoms. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and ischemic heart disease were the most common comorbidities in patients with CNS affection. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19, both the CNS and PNS are affected. Stroke was the most common complication for CNS, and anosmia and/or ageusia were common for PNS diseases. However, there were 6 cases of encephalitis, 2 cases of spinal cord myelopathy, 2 cases of MG, and 2 cases of myositis.

Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Central Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Stroke/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Anosmia/epidemiology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Egypt/epidemiology , Encephalitis/epidemiology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hypoxia, Brain/epidemiology , Hypoxia, Brain/physiopathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/physiopathology , Myasthenia Gravis/epidemiology , Myasthenia Gravis/physiopathology , Myositis/epidemiology , Myositis/physiopathology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Spinal Cord/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Cord Diseases/epidemiology , Spinal Cord Diseases/physiopathology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed