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1.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(11): e783-e791, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606229

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Health care professionals and governmental agencies are in consensus regarding contact and droplet transmission of infectious diseases. However, personal protective equipment (PPE) efficacy is not considered for aerosol or airborne transmission of infectious diseases. This review discusses the inhalation of virus-laden aerosols as a viable mechanism of transmission of various respiratory infectious diseases and PPE efficacy. METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews, and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines was used. RESULTS: The transmission of infectious disease is of concern for all respirable diseases discussed (SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2, MERS, influenza, and tuberculosis), and the effectiveness of facemasks is dependent on the efficiency of the filter, fit, and proper use. CONCLUSION: PPE should be the last resort in preventing the spread of infectious disease and should only be used for protection and not to control the transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Aerosols , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 30: e20210097, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1599695

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to translate and transculturally adapt the Risk assessment and management of exposure of health care workers in the context of COVID-19 questionnaire. Method: this is a methodological study. The translation, back-translation, synthesis, evaluation by experts committee and pre-test stages were followed. The participants were invited by electronic means and answered an online questionnaire. The data were collected between June and September 2020. Content validation by the experts committee was verified using the Content Validity Index. The pre-test participants assessed the instrument's applicability by means of the "Assessment of Instruments' Feasibility" questionnaire. Results: the study participants were four translators, eight evaluators in the experts committee and 35 professionals who answered the pre-test. The changes suggested by the experts committee were accepted and consensus was reached in two evaluation rounds, obtaining a content validity index higher than 0.80 for all items of the instrument. The pre-test version presented good applicability and satisfactory reliability (0.76). Conclusion: the instrument was adapted for use in Brazil, which will allow international comparison of the results and using the data obtained for assessment and decision-making in relation to workers' health. In addition to that, its use may be expanded to assess other situations of health professionals' exposure to the risk of contamination by infectious agents.


RESUMEN Objetivo: realizar la traducción y adaptación transcultural del instrumento Risk assessment and management of exposure of healthcare workers in the context of COVID-19. Método: estudio metodológico en el que se desarrollaron las siguientes etapas: traducción, retrotraducción, síntesis, evaluación a cargo de un comité de expertos y prueba previa (pre-test). Se invitó a los participantes a través de medios electrónicos para que respondieran un formulario en línea. Los datos se recolectaron entre junio y septiembre de 2020. La validación del contenido a cargo del comité de expertos se verificó por medio del Índice de Validez del Contenido. Los participantes de la prueba previa evaluaron la aplicabilidad del instrumento por medio del cuestionario "Evaluación de la Viabilidad de Instrumentos". Resultados: los participantes del estudio fueron cuatro traductores, ocho evaluadores en el comité de expertos y 35 profesionales que respondieron la prueba previa. Las modificaciones sugeridas por el comité de expertos fueron acatadas y se llegó a un consenso en dos evaluaciones, obteniéndose un Índice de Validez del Contenido superior a 0,80 para todos los ítems del instrumento. La versión de la prueba previa presentó buena aplicabilidad y confiabilidad satisfactoria (0,76). Conclusión: el instrumento fue adaptado para su uso en Brasil, lo que permitirá realizar una comparación internacional de los resultados y emplear los datos obtenidos con fines de evaluación y toma de decisiones en relación con la salud de los trabajadores. Además, se podrá expandir su utilización para evaluar otras situaciones de exposición de profesionales de la salud al riesgo de contaminación a raíz de agentes infecciosos.


RESUMO Objetivo: realizar a tradução e a adaptação transcultural do Risk assessment and management of exposure of healthcare workers in the context of COVID-19. Método: trata-se de estudo metodológico. Foram seguidas as etapas de tradução, retrotradução, síntese, avaliação por comitê de juízes e pré-teste. Os participantes foram convidados por meio eletrônico e responderam um formulário on-line. Os dados foram coletados entre junho e setembro de 2020. A validação de conteúdo pelo comitê de juízes foi verificada por meio do índice de validade de conteúdo. Os participantes do pré-teste avaliaram a aplicabilidade do instrumento por meio do questionário "Avaliação da Praticabilidade de Instrumentos". Resultados: participaram do estudo quatro tradutores, oito avaliadores no comitê de juízes e 35 profissionais responderam ao pré-teste. As modificações sugeridas pelo comitê de juízes foram acatadas e o consenso atingido em duas avaliações, obtendo índice de validade de conteúdo superior a 0,80 para todos os itens do instrumento. A versão pré-teste apresentou boa aplicabilidade e confiabilidade satisfatória (0,76). Conclusão: o instrumento foi adaptado para uso no Brasil, o que permitirá a comparação internacional dos resultados e o uso dos dados obtidos para a avaliação e tomada de decisão em relação à saúde do trabalhador. Além disso, seu uso poderá ser ampliado para avaliar outras situações de exposição de profissionais de saúde ao risco de contaminação por agentes infecciosos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Risk Management , Occupational Risks , Occupational Health , Validation Study , Personal Protective Equipment
4.
Arch Prev Riesgos Labor ; 24(3): 252-262, 2021 07 15.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599739

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe a strategy designed to avoid pressure-related skin lesions related to the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). METHODS: This was a prospective descriptive observational study. STUDY POPULATION: healthcare professionals at the Parc Salut Mar (Barcelona) who used PPE for protection against COVID-19 between March 30 and June 15, 2020. INTERVENTION: Each professional was provided with an individual kit to prevent PPE-induced lesions, friction, or moisture. A multidisciplinary surveillance team was deployed for the early detection of these adverse events. RESULTS: Individual kits were provided to 1044 professionals, 32 of whom were scheduled for in-person medical assessments. Six participants (0.57%) developed Stage III or IV pressure ulcers, 24 (2.3%) had dermatitis, folliculitis, eczema and two participants did not show for their appointments. The overall rate of pressure ulcers was 0.57%; for dermatitis it was 2.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The use of preventive measures appears to be effective in preventing facial pressure ulcers induced by EPIs among healthcare professionals. Our resultsalso underscore the importance of expanding preventive measures to include not only pressure ulcers but also dermatitis.


Objetivos: Describir los resultados de una estrategia diseñada para evitar lesiones cutáneas por presión relacionadas con la utilización de los equipos de protección individual (EPIs). Metodología: Estudio descriptivo observacional prospectivo realizado entre marzo y junio de 2020 en profesionales del Parc de Salut Mar (PSMAR) que utilizaron EPIs en áreas de pacientes diagnosticados de COVID-19. Un servicio de vigilancia multidisciplinar se activó con el fin de realizar una detección precoz. Se suministró de forma individualizada a 1044 profesionales materiales para prevención de lesiones por presión, fricción y humedad de los EPIs sobre la piel de la cara. Resultados: De todos los profesionales, 32 fueron citados para una valoración presencial por lesiones: 6 presentaron úlceras por presión en estadios III y IV, 24 dermatitis, foliculitis y eczemas. La tasa de presentación de úlceras fue del 0,57% y la de dermatitis del 2,30% de la población de estudio. Conclusión: Los resultados de la aplicación de las medidas especificadas indican que han sido eficaces para prevenir úlceras por presión en la región de la cara provocadas por los EPIs. La adopción de medidas de prevención no solo para prevenir ulceras por presión sino para la prevención de dermatitis se hacen imprescindibles en situaciones en las que se requiere el uso continuado de EPIs en la región de la cara.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Skin Diseases , Health Personnel , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 752899, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599649

ABSTRACT

The continued proliferation of superbugs in hospitals and the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has created an acute worldwide demand for sustained broadband pathogen suppression in households, hospitals, and public spaces. In response, we have created a highly active, self-sterilizing copper configuration capable of inactivating a wide range of bacteria and viruses in 30-60 seconds. The highly active material destroys pathogens faster than any conventional copper configuration and acts as quickly as alcohol wipes and hand sanitizers. Unlike the latter, our copper material does not release volatile compounds or leave harmful chemical residues and maintains its antimicrobial efficacy over sustained use; it is shelf stable for years. We have performed rigorous testing in accordance with guidelines from U.S. regulatory agencies and believe that the material could offer broad spectrum, non-selective defense against most microbes via integration into masks, protective equipment, and various forms of surface coatings.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24490, 2021 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594104

ABSTRACT

During the first wave of Covid-19 infections in Germany in April 2020, clinics reported a shortage of filtering face masks with aerosol retention> 94% (FFP2 & 3, KN95, N95). Companies all over the world increased their production capacities, but quality control of once-certified materials and masks came up short. To help identify falsely labeled masks and ensure safe protection equipment, we tested 101 different batches of masks in 993 measurements with a self-made setup based on DIN standards. An aerosol generator provided a NaCl test aerosol which was applied to the mask. A laser aerosol spectrometer measured the aerosol concentration in a range from 90 to 500 nm to quantify the masks' retention. Of 101 tested mask batches, only 31 batches kept what their label promised. Especially in the initial phase of the pandemic in Germany, we observed fluctuating mask qualities. Many batches show very high variability in aerosol retention. In addition, by measuring with a laser aerosol spectrometer, we were able to show that not all masks filter small and large particles equally well. In this study we demonstrate how important internal and independent quality controls are, especially in times of need and shortage of personal protection equipment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Aerosols , Filtration/instrumentation , Germany , Humans , Masks/standards , Masks/trends , N95 Respirators/standards , N95 Respirators/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Quality Control , Respiratory Protective Devices/standards , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 765501, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591734

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic there have been much publicised shortages in Personal Protective Equipment for frontline health care workers, from masks to gowns. Recent previous airborne pandemics provide an opportunity to learn how to effectively lead and manage supply chains during crisis situations. Identifying and plotting this learning against time will reveal what has been learnt, when and, significantly, what can be learnt for the future. Aims: (i) To identify the temporal trajectory of leadership and management learning in health supply chain management through pandemics and (ii) to identify leadership and management lessons to enable the resilient supply of key items such as PPE in future pandemics. Methods: We undertook a scoping review in line with PRISMA (scoping review extension) searching Business Source Premier, Health Business Elite, Medline, ProQuest Business Collection and PubMed. Search terms were focused on recent airborne pandemics (SARS; Ebola; Zika virus; H1N1 swine flu, COVID-19), supply chain management, PPE, leadership, learning, inhibitors and facilitators and resilience e.g., SARS AND supply chain* AND ("personal protective equipment" OR PPE) (leaders* OR manage*) Titles and abstracts were downloaded to Endnote and duplicates removed. Two authors independently screened all of the titles and abstracts. Inclusion criteria focused on leadership and management in health supply chains during pandemics, peer reviewed or grey literature (either from business journals or reports): exclusion criteria included not in English and not focused on a named pandemic. Once interrater reliability was assured, authors completed a title and abstract screening independently. Ten percent of the resultant full text articles were screened by both authors, once agreement was reached the full text articles were screened independently noting reasons for exclusion. A data extraction tool was designed to capture findings from the final articles included in the review. Results/Discussion: We found 92 articles and, after screening, included 30 full text articles. The majority were focused on COVID-19 (N = 27) and most were from the USA (N = 13). We identified four themes related to leadership and management of pandemic PPE supply chains, (i) Leadership and management learning for pandemic PPE supply chain management, (ii) Inhibitors of PPE supply chain resilience during a pandemic, (iii) Facilitators employed to manage the immediate impacts of PPE supply chain demands during a pandemic,and (iv) Facilitators proposed to ensure longer term resilience of PPE supply chains during pandemics Our study suggests there has been limited leadership and management learning for PPE supply chains from previous pandemics, however there has been extensive learning through the COVID-19 pandemic. Lessons included the importance of planning, the significance of collaboration and relationship building. Resilience of PPE supply chains was reported to be dependent on multiple levels from individuals to organisation level and also interdependent on (i) sustainability, (ii) the practise of PPE and (iii) long term environmental impact of PPE suggesting the need, long term, to move to a circular economy approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Animals , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Leadership , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine
8.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 170, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582005

ABSTRACT

A survey of hospitals on three continents was performed to assess their infection control preparedness and measures, and their infection rate in hospital health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. All surveyed hospitals used similar PPE but differences in preparedness, PPE shortages, and infection rates were reported.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Internationality , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 782705, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581106

ABSTRACT

Objective: The use of personal protective equipment and hand hygiene are often the most recommended line of defense against coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). The purpose of this study is to determine the magnitude of compliance and associated factors of personal protective equipment (PPE) utilization and hand hygiene practice among healthcare workers in public hospitals of South Wollo Zone, Northeastern Ethiopia. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 489 healthcare workers in public hospitals of South Wollo Zone, Northeastern Ethiopia from June 15 to July 30, 2021. Proportional sample size allocation to each selected hospital followed by simple random sampling techniques were used to select the study participants using human resource records from each hospital. A pre-tested and structured self-administered questionnaire with WHO's standardized hand hygiene and PPE utilization observational checklist were used to collect data. Bivariate and multivariable analyses with 95% CI and p-value < 0.05 were employed to identify the associated factors of personal protective equipment utilization. Results: About 32 and 22.3% of healthcare workers were compliant with personal protective equipment utilization and hand hygiene practice, respectively. Feedback for safety (AOR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.26-3.35), training on COVID-19 prevention (AOR = 3.43; 95% CI: 2.01-5.86), and perception to infection risk (AOR = 1.98; 95% CI: 1.18-3.33) were significant factors of good compliance with personal protective equipment utilization. Conclusion: The magnitude of good compliance with personal protective equipment utilization and hand hygiene was low. Interventions to promote personal protective equipment utilization and hand hygiene should focus on feedback for safety, training on COVID-19 prevention, and perception of infection risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , Health Personnel , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl_5): S454-S464, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS), a postmortem procedure that uses core needle biopsy samples and does not require opening the body, may be a valid alternative to complete autopsy (CA) in highly infectious diseases such as coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). This study aimed to (1) compare the performance of MITS and CA in a series of COVID-19 deaths and (2) evaluate the safety of the procedure. METHODS: From October 2020 to February 2021, MITS was conducted in 12 adults who tested positive before death for COVID-19, in a standard, well-ventilated autopsy room, where personnel used reinforced personal protective equipment. In 9 cases, a CA was performed after MITS. A thorough histological evaluation was conducted, and the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was evaluated by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The diagnoses provided by MITS and CA matched almost perfectly. In 9 patients, COVID-19 was in the chain of events leading to death, being responsible for diffuse alveolar damage and mononuclear T-cell inflammatory response in the lungs. No specific COVID-19 features were identified. Three deaths were not related to COVID-19. All personnel involved in MITS repeatedly tested negative for COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 was identified by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in the MITS samples, particularly in the lungs. CONCLUSIONS: MITS is useful for evaluating COVID-19-related deaths in settings where a CA is not feasible. The results of this simplified and safer technique are comparable to those of CA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Autopsy , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Physiother ; 68(1): 8-25, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587161

ABSTRACT

This document provides an update to the recommendations for physiotherapy management for adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the acute hospital setting. It includes: physiotherapy workforce planning and preparation; a screening tool for determining requirement for physiotherapy; and recommendations for the use of physiotherapy treatments and personal protective equipment. New advice and recommendations are provided on: workload management; staff health, including vaccination; providing clinical education; personal protective equipment; interventions, including awake proning, mobilisation and rehabilitation in patients with hypoxaemia. Additionally, recommendations for recovery after COVID-19 have been added, including roles that physiotherapy can offer in the management of post-COVID syndrome. The updated guidelines are intended for use by physiotherapists and other relevant stakeholders caring for adult patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 in the acute care setting and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitals , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Physical Therapy Modalities , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23957, 2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau provided updates on the novel coronavirus and the government's responses to the pandemic in his daily briefings from March 13 to May 22, 2020, delivered on the official Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) YouTube channel. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine comments on Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau's COVID-19 daily briefings by YouTube users and track these comments to extract the changing dynamics of the opinions and concerns of the public over time. METHODS: We used machine learning techniques to longitudinally analyze a total of 46,732 English YouTube comments that were retrieved from 57 videos of Prime Minister Trudeau's COVID-19 daily briefings from March 13 to May 22, 2020. A natural language processing model, latent Dirichlet allocation, was used to choose salient topics among the sampled comments for each of the 57 videos. Thematic analysis was used to classify and summarize these salient topics into different prominent themes. RESULTS: We found 11 prominent themes, including strict border measures, public responses to Prime Minister Trudeau's policies, essential work and frontline workers, individuals' financial challenges, rental and mortgage subsidies, quarantine, government financial aid for enterprises and individuals, personal protective equipment, Canada and China's relationship, vaccines, and reopening. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to longitudinally investigate public discourse and concerns related to Prime Minister Trudeau's daily COVID-19 briefings in Canada. This study contributes to establishing a real-time feedback loop between the public and public health officials on social media. Hearing and reacting to real concerns from the public can enhance trust between the government and the public to prepare for future health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Federal Government , Natural Language Processing , Public Health , Public Opinion , Social Media , COVID-19 Vaccines , Canada , Emigration and Immigration , Financial Stress , Financing, Government , Government , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Public Policy , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Unsupervised Machine Learning
13.
Adv Emerg Nurs J ; 43(4): 355-362, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575321

ABSTRACT

Emergency departments (EDs) are the point of entry for infectious diseases, making it necessary to reevaluate current practices and make adjustments to decrease transmission when presented with a novel viral infection. This article discusses strategies implemented in the ED to prevent transmission of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) while identifying areas of needed change in creating a safe environment for patients, health care workers, and ancillary staff. A team approach is ultimately necessary for success; therefore, development of interprofessional teams was formed to mitigate any obstacles. Dissemination of the most current information regarding proper personal protective equipment use, triaging, patient flow, and treatment areas were implemented with weekly emails, videoconferencing, and daily huddles. Developing an efficient triage screening process, redesigning patient flow, and cohorting of patients and staff to a geographical location are essential to minimize transmission. Constant reevaluation of processes is necessary to meet all the needs of patients and health care staff to prevent the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitals , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
14.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247575, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573727

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to widespread shortages of N95 respirators and other personal protective equipment (PPE). An effective, reusable, locally-manufactured respirator can mitigate this problem. We describe the development, manufacture, and preliminary testing of an open-hardware-licensed device, the "simple silicone mask" (SSM). METHODS: A multidisciplinary team developed a reusable silicone half facepiece respirator over 9 prototype iterations. The manufacturing process consisted of 3D printing and silicone casting. Prototypes were assessed for comfort and breathability. Filtration was assessed by user seal checks and quantitative fit-testing according to CSA Z94.4-18. RESULTS: The respirator originally included a cartridge for holding filter material; this was modified to connect to standard heat-moisture exchange (HME) filters (N95 or greater) after the cartridge showed poor filtration performance due to flow acceleration around the filter edges, which was exacerbated by high filter resistance. All 8 HME-based iterations provided an adequate seal by user seal checks and achieved a pass rate of 87.5% (N = 8) on quantitative testing, with all failures occurring in the first iteration. The overall median fit-factor was 1662 (100 = pass). Estimated unit cost for a production run of 1000 using distributed manufacturing techniques is CAD $15 in materials and 20 minutes of labor. CONCLUSION: Small-scale manufacturing of an effective, reusable N95 respirator during a pandemic is feasible and cost-effective. Required quantities of reusables are more predictable and less vulnerable to supply chain disruption than disposables. With further evaluation, such devices may be an alternative to disposable respirators during public health emergencies. The respirator described above is an investigational device and requires further evaluation and regulatory requirements before clinical deployment. The authors and affiliates do not endorse the use of this device at present.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Equipment Design/instrumentation , Filtration/instrumentation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Respiratory Protective Devices , Ventilators, Mechanical , Equipment Reuse , Face , Humans , Materials Testing/instrumentation , N95 Respirators , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Printing, Three-Dimensional/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
15.
Polim Med ; 51(2): 91-102, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575456

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused an increase in the demand for personal protective equipment (PPE) and disruptions in production chains, resulting in an acute shortage of PPE. A possible solution to this problem was additive manufacturing (AM) technology - allowing for a quick start of the production of PPE and potentially able to meet the demand until the production is restored. In addition, AM allows for the production of PPE prototypes with potentially greater comfort of use or degree of protection. In order to assess the production of PPE in AM during the COVID-19 pandemic, previously published articles in this field were analyzed. After analyzing abstracts and full texts, 30 original works were selected from the initially collected 487 articles. Based on the analyzed literature, it was found that there are not enough studies comparing traditional and AM PPE as well as not enough comparisons of the different types of AM PPE with each other. In many cases, researchers focused only on the subjective assessment of the comfort of using PPE, without assessing their effectiveness in preventing infections. Despite that, AM has a great potential to quickly produce lacking PPE. Respirators and shields made by AM were rated by the vast majority of users as comfortable to wear. Some of the respirators could be adapted to a specific user, by designing on the basis of a face scan or after warming up the finished print and modeling the shape.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Personal Protective Equipment , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilators, Mechanical
16.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 198, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the delivery of immunisation services globally. Many countries have postponed vaccination campaigns out of concern about infection risks to the staff delivering vaccination, the children being vaccinated, and their families. The World Health Organization recommends considering both the benefit of preventive campaigns and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when making decisions about campaigns during COVID-19 outbreaks, but there has been little quantification of the risks. METHODS: We modelled excess SARS-CoV-2 infection risk to vaccinators, vaccinees, and their caregivers resulting from vaccination campaigns delivered during a COVID-19 epidemic. Our model used population age structure and contact patterns from three exemplar countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Brazil). It combined an existing compartmental transmission model of an underlying COVID-19 epidemic with a Reed-Frost model of SARS-CoV-2 infection risk to vaccinators and vaccinees. We explored how excess risk depends on key parameters governing SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility, and aspects of campaign delivery such as campaign duration, number of vaccinations, and effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) and symptomatic screening. RESULTS: Infection risks differ considerably depending on the circumstances in which vaccination campaigns are conducted. A campaign conducted at the peak of a SARS-CoV-2 epidemic with high prevalence and without special infection mitigation measures could increase absolute infection risk by 32 to 45% for vaccinators and 0.3 to 0.5% for vaccinees and caregivers. However, these risks could be reduced to 3.6 to 5.3% and 0.1 to 0.2% respectively by use of PPE that reduces transmission by 90% (as might be achieved with N95 respirators or high-quality surgical masks) and symptomatic screening. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection risks to vaccinators, vaccinees, and caregivers during vaccination campaigns can be greatly reduced by adequate PPE, symptomatic screening, and appropriate campaign timing. Our results support the use of adequate risk mitigation measures for vaccination campaigns held during SARS-CoV-2 epidemics, rather than cancelling them entirely.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Brazil , Burkina Faso , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Ethiopia , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment
17.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(11): 1615-1617, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572706

ABSTRACT

The impacts of COVID -19 pandemic have been quite significant on healthcare providers. I was particularly challenging for those in Low and Middle-Income Countries including Sudan . Unfortunately, the pandemic has hit Sudan on extremely difficult time for the country and its people. The country was coming out of long-brutal and devastating dictatorship and transitioning to new democracy with civilian leadership. In addition to the pandemic related issues, trying to rebuild the health system during socioeconomic crisis, healthcare providers  in the country were challenged personally and professionally. These challenges include the stress of working in under-resourced settings with limited access to personal-protection equipment and testing kits raised the fear of contracting the virus and spreading it to their families. The professional, social, and personal life of healthcare providers have been dramatically changed by the ongoing pandemic, however, they are heroically accepting this change in a hope that, this will save the life of many more people. Nevertheless, their fights and sacrifices should at least be rewarded by governments and communities altogether strictly enforce the implementation of other preventive measures including vaccination, face masking, and social distancing and get all protected. We should all understand that, unless we are all protected no one is protected, so all must adapt to the new norm of life and collaborate not only on ending this pandemic but to prevent similar ones in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Sudan/epidemiology , Vaccination
20.
Curr Opin Gastroenterol ; 38(1): 55-60, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556154

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 global pandemic resulted in a radical change in the provision and delivery of endoscopy services worldwide. As we emerge from this pandemic, various strategies were advocated to resume endoscopy whilst prioritizing the safety and wellbeing of patients and staff. RECENT FINDINGS: This review summarizes the main changes including infection control and prevention measures in endoscopy and explores the overarching impact of the pandemic on the gastrointestinal lab. Various solutions are outlined to enable the well tolerated resumption of endoscopy services including retention of certain infection control measures, use of personal protective equipment, testing and vaccination. Strategies to deal with the mounting backlog of cases are also discussed. SUMMARY: The COVID-19 pandemic wreaked havoc on healthcare systems worldwide and affected the provision and delivery of gastrointestinal diagnostic services, such as endoscopy necessitating a new way of working and an emphasis on infection control and better use of technology that are likely to be here to stay in the post pandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Infection Control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
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