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4.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3367, 2020 Sep 07.
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750915

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to identify the challenges pediatric nursing workers face as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: qualitative study, using a semi-structured electronic form applied to nursing workers from pediatric services in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were submitted to lexicographic analysis using the Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires, Word Cloud technique, and Similitude Analysis. RESULTS: different challenges concerning the COVID-19 pandemic were reported, including the need to promote comprehensive and quality care while being concerned with protecting oneself and others, with an emphasis on fear. A lack of protective equipment, training, diagnostic tests, and knowledge/information concerning the disease was also reported, in addition to a reduced number of nursing workers and a lack of appreciation for the profession. CONCLUSION: managerial guidelines need to be adopted for properly allocating human and material resources in the health field, including the pediatric services, in addition to providing training on standard precautions. Actions to encourage, value, motivate, and support the nursing staff are needed during and after the pandemic to protect the physical and mental health of these professionals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/nursing , Nursing Staff/psychology , Pediatric Nursing , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , Betacoronavirus , Brazil , Child , Fear , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution
5.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 18(1): 125, 2020 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745681

ABSTRACT

Incidents of viral outbreaks have increased at an alarming rate over the past decades. The most recent human coronavirus known as COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) has already spread around the world and shown R0 values from 2.2 to 2.68. However, the ratio between mortality and number of infections seems to be lower in this case in comparison to other human coronaviruses (such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)). These outbreaks have tested the limits of healthcare systems and have posed serious questions about management using conventional therapies and diagnostic tools. In this regard, the use of nanotechnology offers new opportunities for the development of novel strategies in terms of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 and other viral infections. In this review, we discuss the use of nanotechnology for COVID-19 virus management by the development of nano-based materials, such as disinfectants, personal protective equipment, diagnostic systems and nanocarrier systems, for treatments and vaccine development, as well as the challenges and drawbacks that need addressing.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Nanotechnology/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disinfection/methods , Drug Carriers , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Nanostructures/administration & dosage , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(35): 1221-1226, 2020 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745360

ABSTRACT

Health care personnel (HCP) caring for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) might be at high risk for contracting SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Understanding the prevalence of and factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among frontline HCP who care for COVID-19 patients are important for protecting both HCP and their patients. During April 3-June 19, 2020, serum specimens were collected from a convenience sample of frontline HCP who worked with COVID-19 patients at 13 geographically diverse academic medical centers in the United States, and specimens were tested for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Participants were asked about potential symptoms of COVID-19 experienced since February 1, 2020, previous testing for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in the past week. Among 3,248 participants, 194 (6.0%) had positive test results for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Seroprevalence by hospital ranged from 0.8% to 31.2% (median = 3.6%). Among the 194 seropositive participants, 56 (29%) reported no symptoms since February 1, 2020, 86 (44%) did not believe that they previously had COVID-19, and 133 (69%) did not report a previous COVID-19 diagnosis. Seroprevalence was lower among personnel who reported always wearing a face covering (defined in this study as a surgical mask, N95 respirator, or powered air purifying respirator [PAPR]) while caring for patients (5.6%), compared with that among those who did not (9.0%) (p = 0.012). Consistent with persons in the general population with SARS-CoV-2 infection, many frontline HCP with SARS-CoV-2 infection might be asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic during infection, and infection might be unrecognized. Enhanced screening, including frequent testing of frontline HCP, and universal use of face coverings in hospitals are two strategies that could reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Academic Medical Centers , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology
7.
J Law Med ; 27(4): 856-864, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743544

ABSTRACT

Front-line health care personnel, including anaesthetists, otolaryngologists, and other health professionals dealing with acute cases of coronavirus, face a high risk of infection and thus mortality. The scientific evidence establishes that to protect them, hospital protocols should require that wearing of the highest levels of personal protective equipment (PPE) be available for doctors and nurses performing aerosol-generating procedures, such as intubation, sputum induction, open suctioning of airways, bronchoscopy, etc. of COVID-19 patients. Although several international bodies have issued recommendations for a very high-level PPE to be used when these procedures are undertaken, the current PPE guidelines in Australia have tended to be more relaxed, and hospital authorities relying on them might not comply with legal obligations to their employee health care workers. Failure to provide high-level PPE in many hospitals is of concern for a large number of health care workers; this article examines the scientific literature on the topic and provides a legal perspective on hospital authorities' possible liability in negligence.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral , Australia , Betacoronavirus , Humans
8.
Trials ; 21(1): 754, 2020 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742452

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the combination of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and standard personal protective equipment (PPE) compared to the use of standard personal protective equipment alone on the proportion of laboratory confirmed COVID-19 infections among frontline healthcare workers(HCWs) in India TRIAL DESIGN: HOPE is an investigator initiated multi-centre open-label parallel group randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: All HCWs currently working in an environment with direct exposure to patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection are eligible to participate in the trial. The trial aims to be conducted across 20-30 centres (public and private hospitals) in India. HCWs who decline consent, who have a confirmed COVID-19 infection, those who are already on chloroquine/HCQ for any indication, or if pregnant or breast-feeding, or have known QT prolongation or are on medications that when taken with HCQ can prolong the QTc will be excluded. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: The interventions to be compared in this trial are standard practice (use of recommended PPE) and HCQ plus standard practice. In the standard practice arm, HCWs will use recommended PPE as per institutional guidelines and based on their roles. They will be discouraged from taking HCQ to prevent contamination and contacted every week for the duration of the study to ascertain if they have taken any HCQ. Any such use will be reported as a protocol violation. In the intervention arm, HCWs will be administered 800mg of HCQ as a loading dose on the day of randomization (as two 400mg doses 12hrs apart) and subsequently continued on 400mg once a week for 12 weeks. This will be in addition to the use of recommended PPE as per institutional guidelines and based on their roles. HCWs will collect the drug once every week from designated research and pharmacy staff at site. A weekly phone reminder will be provided to participants in this arm to ensure compliance. An ECG will be performed between 4-6 weeks in this arm and if the QTc is prolonged (greater than 450milliseconds), the drug will be stopped. Follow-up will however continue. Participants in both arms will receive a weekly phone call for evaluation of the primary outcome, to monitor protocol compliance and development of any adverse events (in the HCQ group). MAIN OUTCOMES: Participants will be followed on a weekly basis. The primary outcome is the proportion of HCWs developing laboratory confirmed COVID-19 infection within 6 months of randomization. We will also evaluate a number of secondary outcomes, including hospitalization related to suspected/confirmed COVID-19 infection, intensive care unit or high-dependency unit admission due to suspected/confirmed COVID-19 infection, all-cause mortality, need for organ support ( non-invasive or invasive ventilation, vasopressors and renal replacement therapy), ICU and hospital length of stay, readmission, days off work and treatment-related adverse events. RANDOMISATION: Randomisation will be conducted through a password-protected, secure website using a central, computer-based randomisation program. Randomisation will be stratified by participating institutions and by the role of HCW - nursing, medical and other. Participants will be randomised 1:1 to either standard practice only or HCQ plus standard practice. Allocation concealment is maintained by central web-based randomisation BLINDING (MASKING): This is an unblinded study: study assigned treatment will be known to the research team and participant. Bias will be mitigated through an objective end point (laboratory confirmed COVID-19 infection). NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total of 6,950 HCWs will be enrolled (3475 to the intervention) and (3475 to the standard practice group) to detect a 25% relative reduction, or 2.5% absolute reduction, in the infection rate from an estimated baseline infection rate of 10%, with 80% statistical power using a two-sided test at 5% level of significance. Available data from China and Italy indicate that the rate of infection among frontline healthcare workers varies between 4% to 12%. We therefore assumed a baseline infection rate of 10% among HCWs. This sample size allows for a potential loss to follow-up rate of 10% and a potential non-compliance rate of 10% in both the treatment and control arms. TRIAL STATUS: HOPE protocol version 3.0 dated June 3rd 2020. Recruitment started on 29th June 2020 and currently 56 participants have been enrolled. Planned completion of enrolment is January 31st 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials Registry of India: CTRI/2020/05/025067 (prospectively registered) Date of registration: 6th May 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expedited dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Health Personnel , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Chemoprevention , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , India , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
10.
Adv Biol Regul ; 77: 100745, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741319

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 caused by SARS-CoV-2 originated from China and spread across every corner of the world. The scientific interest on COVID-19 increased after WHO declared it a pandemic in the early February of 2020. In fact, this pandemic has had a worldwide impact on economy, health, and lifestyle like no other in the last 100 years. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Coronaviridae family and causes the deadliest clinical manifestations when compared to other viruses in the family. COVID-19 is an emerging zoonotic disease that has resulted in over 383,000 deaths around the world. Scientists are scrambling for ideas to develop treatment and prevention strategies to thwart the disease condition. In this review, we have attempted to summarize the latest information on the virus, disease, prevention, and treatment strategies. The future looks promising.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ataxia/diagnosis , Ataxia/physiopathology , Ataxia/virology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Nausea/diagnosis , Nausea/physiopathology , Nausea/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/organization & administration , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Social Distance , Vomiting/diagnosis , Vomiting/physiopathology , Vomiting/virology
11.
J Bras Nefrol ; 42(2 suppl 1): 22-31, 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740462

ABSTRACT

We produced this document to bring pertinent information to the practice of nephrology, as regards to the renal involvement with COVID-19, the management of acute kidney injury cases, and practical guidance on the provision of dialysis support.As information on COVID-19 evolves at a pace never before seen in medical science, these recommendations, although based on recent scientific evidence, refer to the present moment. The guidelines may be updated when published data and other relevant information become available.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renal Replacement Therapy/standards , Vascular Access Devices/standards , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Clinical Decision-Making , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Critical Care , Humans , Kidney/drug effects , Nephrology/standards , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Recovery of Function , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Societies, Medical
12.
J Bras Nefrol ; 42(2 suppl 1): 18-21, 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740461

ABSTRACT

Considering the new coronavirus epidemic (Covid-19), the Brazilian Society of Nephrology, represented by the Peritoneal Steering Committee, in agreement with the and the Dialysis Department, developed a series of recommendations for good clinical practices for peritoneal dialysis (PD) clinics, to be considered during the period of the Covid-19 epidemic. We aim to minimize the disease spread, protecting patients and staff, and ensuring the quality of the treatment provided and adequate follow-up for PD patients. The recommendations suggested at this moment must be adapted to each clinic's reality and the conditions of the structural and human resources, dependent on the adequate financial provision of the public health system for its full implementation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peritoneal Dialysis/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Brazil , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Masks , Nephrology/standards , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Patient Care Team , Patient Education as Topic , Patient Isolation/methods , Patient Isolation/standards , Peritoneal Dialysis/instrumentation , Peritoneal Dialysis/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Societies, Medical , Telemedicine/legislation & jurisprudence , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/standards , Urology Department, Hospital/organization & administration , Urology Department, Hospital/standards
13.
J Bras Nefrol ; 42(2 suppl 1): 15-17, 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740460

ABSTRACT

Dialysis units are environments potentially prone to the spread of Covid-19. Patients cannot suspend treatment, and they often have comorbidities, which assigns them a higher risk and worse prognosis. The Brazilian Society of Nephrology prepared this document of good practices, whose technical recommendations deal with general measures that can be implemented to reduce the risk of transmission and prevent the spread of the disease in the unit.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Renal Dialysis/standards , Urology Department, Hospital/standards , Brazil , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Humans , Masks , Nephrology/standards , Patient Isolation/methods , Patient Isolation/standards , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Societies, Medical/standards , Symptom Assessment
14.
J Bras Nefrol ; 42(2 suppl 1): 9-11, 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740458

ABSTRACT

These recommendations were created after the publication of informative note 3/2020- CGGAP/DESF/SAPS/MS, of April 4, 2020, in which the Brazilian Ministry of Health recommended the use of a cloth mask by the population, in public places. Taking into account the necessary prioritization of the provision of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for patients with suspected or confirmed disease, as well as for healthcare professionals, the SBN is favorable concerning the wear of cloth masks by chronic kidney patients in dialysis, in public settings, except in the dialysis setting. The present recommendations have eleven items, related to this rationale, the procedures, indications, contraindications, as well as appropriate fabrics for the mask, and hygiene care to be adopted. These recommendations may change, at any time, in the light of new evidence.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Masks/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Renal Dialysis , Textiles , Brazil , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Nephrology/standards , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Protective Clothing/standards , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Societies, Medical , Urology Department, Hospital/standards
15.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200358, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740414

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The spread of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has generated the collapse of health care systems and significant impacts on the health of the workers involved in combatting the disease worldwide. METHODS: We conducted an integrative literature review focusing on the alternatives implemented to develop care for frontline health care workers in times of COVID-19. RESULTS: Fifteen articles disclosed the importance of physical and mental care for workers. CONCLUSIONS: A sensitive view of the health care worker's care is urgently needed to maintain the quality of health service offered to the population and preserve the health of frontline workers.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus , Health Personnel/psychology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
16.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(6): e660-e661, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740209

ABSTRACT

During the USNS Comfort mobilization to New York City in response to the pandemic, the ship's medical team cared for over 35 mechanically ventilated corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infected patients. Due to the better than expected mortality rates of these patients, tracheotomy for prolonged intubation or other indicated interventional bronchoscopies were performed on 7 COVID positive patients, as well as 2 with negative screening tests. No member of the health care team subsequently became symptomatic or tested positive for COVID-19. This was in part due to the formation of a dedicated surgical airway team, use of standardized procedural techniques and personal protective equipment (PPE), and construction of a negative pressure operating room within the COVID-19 isolation ward on the ship. This experience shows that tracheotomies and other aerosolizing procedures can be performed with due concern for patient and provider safety, regardless of patient's COVID status.


Subject(s)
Airway Management , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , New York City , Operating Rooms , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiratory System , Tracheostomy , Tracheotomy
18.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(8): 1192-1194, 2020 Aug 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739121

ABSTRACT

As an emerging infectious disease, the COVID-19 threatened the safety of personnel in the prevention and control during the COVID-19 pandemic. Beijing Association of Preventive Medicine organizes the Beijing CDC and other organizations drafted the group standard entitled "Guidelines for personal protection against coronavirus disease 2019 for diseases control person (T/BPMA 0002-2020)" , according to years of scientific research on personal protection. Based on the principles of emphasizing the scientific, normative and safe nature, the standard was drafted to put forward the reasonable selection and correct use of personal protective equipment for disease control personnel, as well as the procedures for personal protective equipment. The standard provided a standardized basis for ensuring the safety of disease control personnel in contacting and handling of the new coronary pneumonia outbreaks with high risks.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus , Guidelines as Topic , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , China , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
19.
J Int Med Res ; 48(8): 300060520949077, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737978

ABSTRACT

The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019 has resulted in over 20 million cases and 741,808 deaths globally, affecting more than 200 countries. COVID-19 was declared a pandemic on 11 March 2020 by the World Health Organization. The disease is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is limited information on COVID-19, and treatment has so far focused on supportive care and use of repurposed drugs. COVID-19 can be transmitted via person-to-person contact through droplet spread. Some of the recommended precautionary measures to reduce the rate of disease spread include social distancing, good hygiene practices, and avoidance of crowded areas. These measures are effective because the droplets are heavy and can only travel approximately 1 meter in the air, settling quickly on fixed surfaces. Promising strategies to combat SARS-CoV-2 include discovery of therapeutic targets/drugs and vaccines. In this review, we summarize the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis of COVID-19. We also address the mechanisms of action of approved repurposed drugs for therapeutic management of the disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Age Factors , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Incidence , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/organization & administration , Severity of Illness Index , Social Distance , Survival Analysis
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