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3.
World Neurosurg ; 155: e142-e149, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease identified in 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic changed neurosurgery protocols to provide ongoing care for patients while ensuring the safety of health care workers. In Brazil, the rapid spread of the disease led to new challenges in the health system. Neurooncology practice was one of the most affected by the pandemic due to restricted elective procedures and new triage protocols. We aim to characterize the impact of the pandemic on neurosurgery in Brazil. METHODS: We analyzed 112 different types of neurosurgical procedures, with special detail in 11 neurooncology procedures, listed in the Brazilian Hospital Information System records in the DATASUS database between February and July 2019 and the same period in 2020. Linear regression and paired t-test analyses were performed and considered statistically significant at P < 0.05. RESULTS: There was an overall decrease of 21.5% (28,858 cases) in all neurosurgical procedures, impacting patients needing elective procedures (-42.46%) more than emergency surgery (-5.93%). Neurooncology procedures decreased by 14.89%. Nonetheless, the mortality rate during hospitalization increased by 21.26%. Linear regression analysis in hospitalizations (Slope = 0.9912 ± 0.07431; CI [95%] = 0.8231-1.159) and total cost (Slope = 1.03 ± 0.03501; CI [95%] = 0.9511-1.109) in the 11 different types of neurooncology procedures showed a P < 0.0001. The mean cost per type of procedure showed an 11.59% increase (P = 0.0172) between 2019 and 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has increased mortality, decreased hospitalizations, and therefore decreased overall costs, despite increased costs per procedure for a variety of neurosurgical procedures. Our study serves as a stark example of the effect of the pandemic on neurosurgical care in settings of limited resources and access to care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Developing Countries , Hospital Information Systems/trends , Neurosurgical Procedures/trends , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Developing Countries/economics , Health Personnel/economics , Health Personnel/trends , Hospital Information Systems/economics , Humans , Neurosurgical Procedures/economics , Personal Protective Equipment/economics , Personal Protective Equipment/trends
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(1): 81-87, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236889

ABSTRACT

Shortages of essential supplies used to prevent, diagnose, and treat COVID-19 have been a global concern, and price speculation and hikes may have negatively influenced access. This study identifies variability in prices of products acquired through government-driven contracts in Ecuador during the early pandemic response, when the highest mortality rates were registered in a single day. Data were obtained from the National Public Procurement Service (SERCOP) database between March 1 and July 31, 2020. A statistical descriptive analysis was conducted to extract relevant measures for commonly purchased products, medical devices, pharmaceutical drugs, and other goods. Among the most frequently purchased products, the greatest amounts were spent on face masks (US$4.5 million), acetaminophen (US$2.2 million), and reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay kits (US$1.8 million). Prices varied greatly, depending on each individual contract and on the number of units purchased; some were exceptionally higher than their market value. Compared with 2019, the mean price of medical examination gloves increased up to 1,307%, acetaminophen 500 mg pills, up to 796%, and oxygen flasks, 30.8%. In a context of budgetary constraints that actually required an effective use of available funds, speculative price hikes may have limited patient access to health care and the protection of the general population and health care workers. COVID-19 vaccine allocations to privileged individuals have also been widely reported. Price caps and other forms of regulation, as well as greater scrutiny and transparency of government-driven purchases, and investment in local production, are warranted in Ecuador for improved infectious disease prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment/economics , SARS-CoV-2 , Acetaminophen/economics , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/economics , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Economics, Hospital , Ecuador/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Masks/economics , Time Factors
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(5): e28845, 2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215244

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic and shortage of adequate personal protective equipment (PPE), hospitals implemented inpatient telemedicine measures to ensure operational readiness and a safe working environment for clinicians. The utility and sustainability of inpatient telemedicine initiatives need to be evaluated as the number of COVID-19 inpatients is expected to continue declining. In this viewpoint, we describe the use of a rapidly deployed inpatient telemedicine workflow at a large academic medical center and discuss the potential impact on PPE savings. In early 2020, videoconferencing software was installed on patient bedside iPads at two academic medical center teaching hospitals. An internal website allowed providers to initiate video calls with patients in any patient room with an activated iPad, including both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients. Patients were encouraged to use telemedicine technology to connect with loved ones via native apps or videoconferencing software. We evaluated the use of telemedicine technology on patients' bedside iPads by monitoring traffic to the internal website. Between May 2020 and March 2021, there were a total of 1240 active users of the Video Visits website (mean 112.7, SD 49.0 connection events per month). Of these, 133 (10.7%) connections were made. Patients initiated 63 (47.4%) video calls with family or friends and sent 37 (27.8%) emails with videoconference connection instructions. Providers initiated a total of 33 (24.8%) video calls with the majority of calls initiated in August (n=22, 67%). There was a low level of adoption of inpatient telemedicine capability by providers and patients. With sufficient availability of PPE, inpatient providers did not find a frequent need to use the bedside telemedicine technology, despite a high census of patients with COVID-19. Compared to providers, patients used videoconferencing capabilities more frequently in September and October 2020. We did not find savings of PPE associated with the use of inpatient telemedicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment/economics , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Telemedicine/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
World Neurosurg ; 153: e1-e10, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213564

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed health care delivery across the United States. Few analyses have specifically looked at quantifying the financial impact of the pandemic on practicing neurosurgeons. A survey analysis was performed to address this need. METHODS: A 19-question survey was distributed to practicing neurosurgeons in the United States and its territories. The questions evaluated respondents' assessments of changes in patient and procedural volume, salary and benefits, practice expenses, staffing, applications for government assistance, and stroke management. Responses were stratified by geographic region. RESULTS: The response rate was 5.1% (267/5224). Most respondents from each region noted a >50% decrease in clinic volume. Respondents from the Northeast observed a 76% decrease in procedure volume, which was significantly greater than that of other regions (P = 0.003). Northeast respondents were also significantly more likely to have been reassigned to nonneurosurgical clinical duties during the pandemic (P < 0.001). Most respondents also noted decreased salary and benefits but experienced no changes in overall practice expenses. Most respondents did not experience significant reductions in nursing or midlevel staffing. These trends were not significantly different between regions. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to decreases in patient and procedural volume and physician compensation despite stable practice expenses. Significantly more respondents in the Northeast region noted decreases in procedural volume and reassignment to nonneurosurgical COVID-related medical duties. Future analysis is necessary as the pandemic evolves and the long-term clinical and economic implications become clear.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Neurosurgeons/economics , Neurosurgery/economics , Personal Protective Equipment/economics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Neurosurgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
7.
World Neurosurg ; 150: 153-160, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211169

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Present guidelines on reducing aerosol generation during neurosurgical procedures are futile. The aim of this article was to describe a novel device to contain aerosol within a small localized environment around the operative field-the negative pressure assisted microenvironment surgical hood (NEPA-MESH). METHODS: This device can be assembled using easily available materials-steel wires, image intensifier cover, surgical drape, and three-dimensional-printed self-locking copolyester double hoops. Large-bore pipes in continuity with a high-volume suction apparatus create a constant negative pressure microenvironment around the operative field. The CEM DT-9880 particle counter was used to estimate particle concentration inside the NEPA-MESH during various stages of a neurosurgical procedure as well as outside. The NEPA-MESH was tested in different craniotomies and endoscopic procedures. RESULTS: Mean particle concentration inside the NEPA-MESH and outside during drilling in various procedures was calculated and compared using unpaired t test. Significant reduction in particle concentrations was recorded for particles sized 0.3 µm (t = 17.55, P < 0.0001), 0.5 µm (t = 11.39, P < 0.0001), 1 µm (t = 6.36, P = 0.0002), 2.5 µm (t = 2.04, P = 0.074), 5.0 µm (t = 7.026, P = 0.0008), and 10 µm (t = 4.39, P = 0.0023). CONCLUSIONS: As definitive evidence demonstrating the presence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in aerosol particles is awaited, we describe a cost-effective strategy to reduce aerosol contamination. Significant reduction in particle concentrations was seen outside the NEPA-MESH compared with inside it during various stages of neurosurgical procedures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Neurosurgeons , Neurosurgery/methods , Personal Protective Equipment/economics , Aerosols , Air Pressure , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Craniotomy , Environmental Monitoring , Equipment Design , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/economics , Neuroendoscopy , Neurosurgery/economics , Surgical Drapes
11.
Anaesthesia ; 76(5): 617-622, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066603

ABSTRACT

Disposable N95 respirator masks are the current standard for healthcare worker respiratory protection in the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to shortages, qualitative fit testing can have low sensitivity for detecting poor fit, leading to inconsistent protection. Multiple groups have developed alternative solutions such as modified snorkel masks to overcome these limitations, but validation of these solutions has been lacking. We sought to determine if N95s and snorkel masks with attached high-efficiency filters provide consistent protection levels in healthcare workers and if the addition of positive pressure via an inexpensive powered-air purifying respirator to the snorkel mask would provide enhanced protection. Fifty-one healthcare workers who were qualitatively fitted with N95 masks underwent quantitative mask fit testing according to a simulated workplace exercise protocol. N95, snorkel masks with high-efficiency filters and snorkel masks with powered-air purifying respirators were tested. Respiratory filtration ratios were collected for each step and averaged to obtain an overall workplace protocol fit factor. Failure was defined as either an individual filtration ratio or an overall fit factor below 100. N95s and snorkel masks with high-efficiency filters failed one or more testing steps in 59% and 20% of participants, respectively, and 24% and 12% failed overall fit factors, respectively. The snorkel masks with powered-air purifying respirators had zero individual or overall failures. N95 and snorkel masks with high-efficiency filter respirators were found to provide inconsistent respiratory protection in healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cost-Benefit Analysis/standards , Health Personnel/standards , Masks/standards , N95 Respirators/standards , Adult , COVID-19/economics , Cohort Studies , Equipment Design/economics , Equipment Design/standards , Female , Health Personnel/economics , Humans , Male , Masks/economics , Middle Aged , N95 Respirators/economics , Occupational Exposure/economics , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/economics , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results
12.
Int J Surg ; 85: 10-18, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has become a public health emergency and raised global concerns in about 213 countries without vaccines and with limited medical capacity to treat the disease. The COVID-19 has prompted an urgent search for effective interventions, and there is little information about the money value of treatments. The present study aimed to summarize economic evaluation evidence of preventing strategies, programs, and treatments of COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science Core Collection, Embase, Scopus, Google Scholar, and specialized databases of economic evaluation from December 2019 to July 2020 to identify relevant literature to economic evaluation of programs against COVID-19. Two researchers screened titles and abstracts, extracted data from full-text articles, and did their quality assessment by the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist. Then, quality synthesis of results was done. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies of economic evaluations met our inclusion criteria. The CHEERS scores for most studies (n = 9) were 85 or higher (excellent quality). Eight studies scored 70 to 85 (good quality), eight studies scored 55 to 70 (average quality), and one study < %55 (poor quality). The decision-analytic modeling was applied to twenty-three studies (88%) to evaluate their services. Most studies utilized the SIR model for outcomes. In studies with long-time horizons, social distancing was more cost-effective than quarantine, non-intervention, and herd immunity. Personal protective equipment was more cost-effective in the short-term than non-intervention. Screening tests were cost-effective in all studies. CONCLUSION: The results suggested screening tests and social distancing to be cost-effective alternatives in preventing and controlling COVID-19 on a long-time horizon. However, evidence is still insufficient and too heterogeneous to allow any definite conclusions regarding costs of interventions. Further research as are required in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Global Health/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing/economics , Humans , Pandemics/economics , Personal Protective Equipment/economics , Physical Distancing
14.
Front Public Health ; 8: 585832, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004710

ABSTRACT

Background: Countries have introduced a variety of measures to prevent and treat COVID-19 with medicines and personal protective equipment (PPE), with some countries adopting preventative strategies earlier than others. However, there has been considerable controversy surrounding some treatments. This includes hydroxychloroquine where the initial hype and misinformation lead to shortages, price rises and suicides. Price rises and shortages have also been seen for PPE. Such activities can have catastrophic effects on patients where there are high co-payment levels and issues of affordability. Consequently, there is a need to investigate this further. Objective: Assess changes in the availability, utilization and prices of relevant medicines and PPE during the pandemic among a range of Asian countries. Our approach: Narrative literature review combined with interviews among community pharmacists to assess changes in consumption, prices and shortages of medicines and PPE from the beginning of March 2020 until end of May 2020. In addition, suggestions on ways to reduce misinformation. Results: 308 pharmacists took part from five Asian countries. There was an appreciable increase in the utilization of antimicrobials in Pakistan (in over 88% of pharmacies), with lower increases or no change in Bangladesh, India, Malaysia and Vietnam. Encouragingly, there was increased use of vitamins/immune boosters and PPE across the countries, as well as limited price rises for antimicrobials in India, Malaysia and Vietnam, although greater price rises seen for analgesics and vitamin C/immune boosters. Appreciable price increases were also seen for PPE across some countries. Conclusion: Encouraging to see increases in utilization of vitamins/immune boosters and PPE. However, increases in the utilization and prices of antimicrobials is a concern that needs addressing alongside misinformation and any unintended consequences from the pandemic. Community pharmacists can play a key role in providing evidence-based advice, helping to moderate prices, as well as helping address some of the unintended consequences of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Costs and Cost Analysis , Drugs, Essential , Public Health , Asia , Drugs, Essential/economics , Drugs, Essential/supply & distribution , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/supply & distribution , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Personal Protective Equipment/economics , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pharmacies/supply & distribution
15.
Emerg Med J ; 38(3): 224-228, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Personal protective equipment (PPE) used by healthcare workers was scarce during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to assess whether telemedicine (using iPads) reduced PPE use in emergency department (ED) patients who were treated in contact isolation, and whether telemedicine had a positive effect on patient anxiety and satisfaction. METHODS: We conducted a prospective single centre before-and-after study including ED patients ≥18 years who were treated in contact isolation. PPE use, the Hospital Anxiety Scale and the 15-item Picker Patient Experience Questionnaire were compared between the control period (8 April to 14 April 2020) and intervention period (15 April to 24 April 2020). RESULTS: We included 25 patients in each period. PPE use per patient was higher for physicians in the control period (mean 1.7; 95% CI 1.5 to 1.9) compared with the intervention period (mean 1.2; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.3, p<0.01). Total PPE use per patient contact for ED physicians decreased from 42 out of 42 patient contacts in the control period, to 29 out of 66 patient contacts in the intervention period (difference 54.3%; 95% CI 50.1% to 58.6%, p<0.01). Reported anxiety and satisfaction were not significantly different. CONCLUSION: PPE use by physicians can successfully be reduced by using telemedicine in the ED without increasing anxiety or dissatisfaction. This study was a first step to gain experience with telemedicine in the ED which has the potential to reduce PPE use in future pandemics or other patients with an indication for contact isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Patient Satisfaction , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/economics , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 35(3): 293-306, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987182

ABSTRACT

International hospitals and healthcare facilities are facing catastrophic financial challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The American Hospital Association estimates a financial impact of $202.6 billion in lost revenue for America's hospitals and healthcare systems, or an average of $50.7 billion per month. Furthermore, it could cost low- and middle-income countries ~ US$52 billion (equivalent to US$8.60 per person) each four weeks to provide an effective healthcare response to COVID-19. In the setting of the largest daily COVID-19 new cases in the US, this burden will influence patient care, surgeries, and surgical outcomes. From a global economic standpoint, The World Bank projects that global growth is projected to shrink by almost 8% with poorer countries feeling most of the impact, and the United Nations projects that it will cost the global economy around 2 trillion dollars this year. Overall, a lack of preparedness was a major contributor to the struggles experienced by healthcare facilities around the world. Items such as personal protective equipment (PPE) for healthcare workers, hospital equipment, sanitizing supplies, toilet paper, and water were in short supply. These deficiencies were exposed by COVID-19 and have prompted healthcare organizations around the world to invent new essential plans for pandemic preparedness. In this paper, we will discuss the economic impact of COVID-19 on US and international hospitals, healthcare facilities, surgery, and surgical outcomes. In the future, the US and countries around the world will benefit from preparing a plan of action to use as a guide in the event of a disaster or pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Global Health/economics , COVID-19/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Global Health/trends , Health Personnel/economics , Health Personnel/trends , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/economics , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , United States/epidemiology
17.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 102(13): e66, 2020 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-981469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) of supracondylar humeral fractures is one of the most common procedures performed in pediatric orthopaedics. The use of full, standard preparation and draping with standard personal protective equipment (PPE) may not be necessary during this procedure. This is of particular interest in the current climate as we face unprecedented PPE shortages due to the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of 1,270 patients treated with CRPP of a supracondylar humeral fracture at 2 metropolitan pediatric centers by 10 fellowship-trained pediatric orthopaedic surgeons. One surgeon in the group did not wear a mask when performing CRPP of supracondylar humeral fractures, and multiple surgeons in the group utilized a semisterile preparation technique (no sterile gown or drapes). Infectious outcomes were compared between 2 groups: full sterile preparation and semisterile preparation. We additionally analyzed a subgroup of patients who had semisterile preparation without surgeon mask use. Hospital cost data were used to estimate annual cost savings with the adoption of the semisterile technique. RESULTS: In this study, 1,270 patients who underwent CRPP of a supracondylar humeral fracture and met inclusion criteria were identified. There were 3 deep infections (0.24%). These infections all occurred in the group using full sterile preparation and surgical masks. No clinically relevant pin-track infections were noted. There were no known surgeon occupational exposures to bodily fluid. It is estimated that national adoption of this technique in the United States could save between 18,612 and 22,162 gowns and masks with costs savings of $3.7 million to $4.4 million annually. CONCLUSIONS: We currently face critical shortages of PPE due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Data from this large series suggest that a semisterile technique during CRPP of supracondylar humeral fractures is a safe practice. We anticipate that this could preserve approximately 20,000 gowns and masks in the United States over the next year. Physicians are encouraged to reevaluate their daily practice to identify safe opportunities for resource preservation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Fracture Fixation/standards , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Humeral Fractures/surgery , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Bone Nails , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Closed Fracture Reduction/adverse effects , Closed Fracture Reduction/standards , Female , Fracture Fixation/adverse effects , Health Care Rationing/economics , Health Care Rationing/methods , Humans , Infection Control/economics , Infection Control/standards , Male , Personal Protective Equipment/economics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Wound Infection/etiology , United States/epidemiology
18.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 35(3): 369-376, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962786

ABSTRACT

Hospitals face catastrophic financial challenges in light of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Acute shortages in materials such as masks, ventilators, intensive care unit capacity, and personal protective equipment (PPE) are a significant concern. The future success of supply chain management involves increasing the transparency of where our raw materials are sourced, diversifying of our product resources, and improving our technology that is able to predict potential shortages. It is also important to develop a proactive budgeting strategy to meet supply demands through early designation of dependable roles to support organizations and through the education of healthcare staff. In this paper, we discuss supply chain management, governance and financing, emergency protocols, including emergency procurement and supply chain, supply chain gaps and how to address them, and the importance of communication in the times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Crew Resource Management, Healthcare/methods , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital/supply & distribution , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Civil Defense/economics , Civil Defense/methods , Crew Resource Management, Healthcare/economics , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital/economics , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment/economics
20.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240503, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840859

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this paper, we predict the health and economic consequences of immediate investment in personal protective equipment (PPE) for health care workers (HCWs) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: To account for health consequences, we estimated mortality for HCWs and present a cost-effectiveness and return on investment (ROI) analysis using a decision-analytic model with Bayesian multivariate sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. Data sources included inputs from the World Health Organization Essential Supplies Forecasting Tool and the Imperial College of London epidemiologic model. RESULTS: An investment of $9.6 billion USD would adequately protect HCWs in all LMICs. This intervention would save 2,299,543 lives across LMICs, costing $59 USD per HCW case averted and $4,309 USD per HCW life saved. The societal ROI would be $755.3 billion USD, the equivalent of a 7,932% return. Regional and national estimates are also presented. DISCUSSION: In scenarios where PPE remains scarce, 70-100% of HCWs will get infected, irrespective of nationwide social distancing policies. Maintaining HCW infection rates below 10% and mortality below 1% requires inclusion of a PPE scale-up strategy as part of the pandemic response. In conclusion, wide-scale procurement and distribution of PPE for LMICs is an essential strategy to prevent widespread HCW morbidity and mortality. It is cost-effective and yields a large downstream return on investment.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Health Workforce/economics , Personal Protective Equipment/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Bayes Theorem , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Developing Countries , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Monte Carlo Method , Pandemics/economics , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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