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1.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(9): 1003-1010, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-862242

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has been implicated in the largest recorded coronavirus outbreak to date. Initially, most COVID-19 cases were in China, but the virus has spread to more than 184 countries worldwide, and the United States currently has more cases than any other country. OBJECTIVE: With person-to-person spread expanding in the United States, we describe hospital preparedness for managing suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey focused on various elements of respiratory disease preparedness. SETTING: Critical access hospitals (CAHs) and acute-care hospitals (ACHs) in Idaho. METHODS: The electronic survey was sent to infection preventionists (IPs) and nurse administrators in 44 hospitals in Idaho. RESULTS: Overall, 32 (73%) hospitals responded to the survey. Participating facilities reported their preparedness with respect to existing, formalized structures for managing infectious disease incidents-specifically COVID-19-as well as availability of resources, such as isolation rooms and personal protective equipment, for safely managing suspected and confirmed COVID-19 cases. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitals covered by the survey had varying levels of preparedness for managing COVID-19 cases, with differences across the various categories of interest in this study. Although the study reveals strengths, including in application of emergency management and infection control frameworks, it also suggests that other areas, such as consistent implementation of federal guidelines and requirements for infection prevention, are potential areas for strengthening preparedness for SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory pathogens with pandemic potential.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Idaho , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data
2.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e50360, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-831603

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever as recomendações sobre o uso racional e seguro dos equipamentos de proteção individual (EPI) no transcorrer da cadeia assistencial de pessoas com suspeita ou confirmação de contaminação pelo novo coronavírus. Conteúdo: o novo coronavírus é responsável pela doença Covid-19, e dentre as pessoas com maior risco de desenvolver a infecção estão os trabalhadores de saúde, devido ao contato muito próximo a pacientes. Desse modo, a utilização de EPI é recomendação prioritária a estes trabalhadores. Todavia, em função do desabastecimento internacional e nacional relacionado a estes equipamentos, o uso racional é fundamental a fim de evitar que o impacto do desabastecimento seja ainda maior. Conclusão: o uso de EPI é indispensável aos trabalhadores de saúde durante a pandemia de Covid-19, contudo, é imprescindível coordenar a cadeia de fornecimento destes insumos, implementar estratégias que minimizem a necessidade de EPI e garantir o uso de maneira adequada.


Objective: to describe the recommendations on the rational, safe use of personal protective equipment (PPE) throughout the chain of care for people with suspected or confirmed contamination by the new coronavirus. Content: the new coronavirus is responsible for the disease Covid-19, and among those at high risk of infection are health workers in very close contact with patients. It is thus a priority recommendation for these workers to use PPE. However, international and national shortages of this equipment make rational use essential in order to prevent even greater impact from these shortages. Conclusion: it is essential that health workers use PPE during the Covid-19 pandemic, but it is also essential to coordinate the supply chain for these inputs, implement strategies that minimize the need for PPE and ensure proper use.


Objetivo: describir las recomendaciones sobre el uso racional y seguro del equipo de protección personal (EPP) en toda la cadena de atención para las personas con sospecha o confirmación de contaminación por el nuevo coronavirus. Contenido: el nuevo coronavirus es responsable de la enfermedad de Covid-19, y entre aquellos con alto riesgo de infección se encuentran los trabajadores de la salud en contacto muy cercano con los pacientes. Por lo tanto, es una recomendación prioritaria para estos trabajadores usar EPP. Sin embargo, la escasez internacional y nacional de este equipo hace que el uso racional sea esencial para evitar un impacto aún mayor de esta escasez. Conclusión: es esencial que los trabajadores de la salud usen EPP durante la pandemia de Covid-19, pero también es esencial coordinar la cadena de suministro para estos insumos, implementar estrategias que minimicen la necesidad de EPP y garantizar un uso adecuado.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Betacoronavirus , Masks/supply & distribution , Occupational Risks , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Masks/standards
3.
Biomed Eng Online ; 19(1): 75, 2020 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The world is facing an unprecedented outbreak affecting all aspects of human lives which is caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the virus novelty, healthcare systems are challenged by a high rate of patients and the shortage of medical products. To address an increased need for essential medical products, national authorities, worldwide, made various legislative concessions. This has led to essential medical products being produced by automotive, textile and other companies from various industries and approved under the emergency use authorizations or legal concessions of national regulatory bodies. This paper presents a narrative commentary of the available documentation on emergency use authorizations and legal concessions for medical products during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: The basis for narrative commentary includes scientific articles published in Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed and Embase databases, official publications of international organizations: Food and Drug Agency (FDA), World Health Organisation (WHO), World Bank and United Nations (UN), and national regulatory agency reports in native languages (English, German, Bosnian, and Croatian) published from November 1, 2019 to May 1, 2020. This paper focuses on three types of essential medical products: mechanical ventilators, personal protective equipment (PPE) and diagnostic tests. Evidence-informed commentary of available data and potential identified risks of emergency use authorizations and legal concessions is presented. DISCUSSION: It is recognized that now more than ever, raising global awareness and knowledge about the importance of respecting the essential requirements is needed to guarantee the appropriate quality, performance and safety of medical products, especially during outbreak situation, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Emergency use authorizations for production, import and approval of medical products should be strictly specified and clearly targeted from case to case and should not be general or universal for all medical products, because all of them are associated with different risk level. CONCLUSION: Presented considerations and experiences should be taken as a guide for all possible future outbreak situations to prevent improvised reactions of national regulatory bodies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence , Coronavirus Infections , Licensure/legislation & jurisprudence , Manufacturing Industry/legislation & jurisprudence , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/supply & distribution , Ventilators, Mechanical/supply & distribution , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Equipment Failure , European Union , Global Health , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/standards , Risk Assessment , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration , Ventilators, Mechanical/standards
4.
N Z Med J ; 133(1522): 144-148, 2020 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808368

ABSTRACT

In June 2020 the Office of the Auditor-General released its report on the management of personal protective equipment (PPE) in New Zealand during the COVID-19 pandemic. The report raises three issues of ethical concern: inadequate stock, inequity and complacency. Acting on the report's recommendations is a critical step in strengthening New Zealand's preparedness for future public health crises.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , New Zealand , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
5.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(suppl 2): e20200350, 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788931

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to report the experience of telemonitoring Brazilian nursing homes before coronavirus and COVID-19 infections. METHODS: a descriptive experience report that occurred between March 18 and April 25, 2020 through telemonitoring nursing homes in Salvador, Bahia, following a script previously prepared for first contact and follow-up. The telemonitoring was carried out by professors from the School of Nursing of Universidade Federal da Bahia and Graduate Program students for four weeks. RESULTS: thirty-two institutions were followed for four weeks. Some facilities and difficulties appeared during the monitoring. FINAL CONSIDERATIOS: as nursing homes are collective households, their residents are vulnerable to transmission of infections. In addition, the diversity of structures and economic, social and human resources needs of these locations reveal their fragility and urgency of public policies that address such diversities.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Homes for the Aged , Nursing Homes , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Telephone , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Population Surveillance/methods , Social Skills , Telephone/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors
6.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(suppl 2): e20200338, 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788930

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to identify publishing related to the mental health of health professionals working in the front line of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: an integrative review that included primary articles indexed in the Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Science Direct databases and US National Library of Medicine databases. The result analysis was performed descriptively, in four analytical categories. RESULTS: The publishing involved aspects related to insufficient personal protective equipment, feelings of fear and stigma, the need for psychological and psychiatric support and the possibility of post-outbreak mental disorders. CONCLUSION: All mentioned aspects have a direct impact on the mental health of professionals, demanding the creation of strategies that minimize the emotional burnout of workers, considering that each country and culture reacts differently to the disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear/psychology , Humans , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Diseases/psychology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Qualitative Research , Stereotyping
10.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(10): 594-602, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759596
11.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020005, 2020 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761237

ABSTRACT

ackground: During the pandemic of COVID-19, the overwhelm of infected patients created an exponential surge for ICU and ward beds. As a result, a major proportion of elective surgeries was postponed. However, various emergency and urgent procedures were allowed. Due to the mortality complications of hepatopancreatobiliary issues, we decided to afford urgent procedures under intensive protective arrangements. Method and results: In our ward (liver transplant), 4 ICU beds and 16 ward beds were allocated to non-COVID-19 patients. A total of 36 hepatopancreatobiliary procedures were managed for one month. All the surgeries were afforded under personal protective equipment and other intensive protective arrangements for personnel and patients. During 6 weeks following the surgery, all patients were followed up through telemedicine and no new case of COVID-19 was detected. Conclusion: In general, it appears that intensive protections could significantly reduce the number of COVID-19 incidence among patients with co-morbidities who undergo invasive procedures.


Subject(s)
Biliary Tract Diseases/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Liver Diseases/surgery , Pancreatic Diseases/surgery , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus , Biliary Tract Diseases/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Liver Diseases/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreatic Diseases/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
12.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3367, 2020 Sep 07.
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750915

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to identify the challenges pediatric nursing workers face as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: qualitative study, using a semi-structured electronic form applied to nursing workers from pediatric services in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were submitted to lexicographic analysis using the Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires, Word Cloud technique, and Similitude Analysis. RESULTS: different challenges concerning the COVID-19 pandemic were reported, including the need to promote comprehensive and quality care while being concerned with protecting oneself and others, with an emphasis on fear. A lack of protective equipment, training, diagnostic tests, and knowledge/information concerning the disease was also reported, in addition to a reduced number of nursing workers and a lack of appreciation for the profession. CONCLUSION: managerial guidelines need to be adopted for properly allocating human and material resources in the health field, including the pediatric services, in addition to providing training on standard precautions. Actions to encourage, value, motivate, and support the nursing staff are needed during and after the pandemic to protect the physical and mental health of these professionals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/nursing , Nursing Staff/psychology , Pediatric Nursing , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , Betacoronavirus , Brazil , Child , Fear , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution
13.
S Afr Med J ; 110(9): 835-836, 2020 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745266

ABSTRACT

The stated objective of the COVID-19 lockdown was to allow time to prepare healthcare facilities. Preparation must include administrative and environmental measures, which when combined with personal protective equipment, minimise the risk of the spread of infection to patients and healthcare workers (HCWs) in facilities, allowing HCWs to safely provide essential services during the pandemic and limit the indirect effects of COVID-19 caused by healthcare disruption. We present our model for facility preparation based on colour-coded zones, social distancing, hand hygiene, rapid triage and separate management of symptomatic patients, and attention to infection transmission prevention between HCWs in communal staff areas. This model specifically addresses the challenges in preparing a facility for COVID-19 in a low-resource setting and in rural areas. In addition, we include links to resources to allow workers in low-resource settings to prepare their facilities adequately.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Facilities , Health Personnel , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Betacoronavirus , Capacity Building , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disinfection , Environment Design , Hand Disinfection , Hospitals , Humans , Infection Control , Mobile Health Units , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , South Africa/epidemiology , Ventilators, Mechanical/supply & distribution
14.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 38(2): 139-143, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745214

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 as a pandemic has spanned across all continents. With the increasing numbers in cases worldwide, even the countries with the best of healthcare facilities are reeling under the burden of the disease. Therefore, in countries with limited access to resources and poor healthcare infrastructure, the low and middle-income countries (LMICs), limiting spread becomes even more challenging. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are severely hit by any outbreak and pandemics and face the lack of infrastructure and problem of overcrowding. Health facilities are compromised and almost exhausted at the time of emergency. There is disruption of normal supply chain, and consumables are not in sufficient quantity. In the current situation, rationalized use of available supplies is important. This paper presents the perspective on the basis of current literature on gaps in various infection prevention and control (IPC) strategies that are being followed currently in LMICs and suggestions for bridging these gaps.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Community-Acquired Infections , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Developing Countries , Disinfection/methods , Health Facilities/supply & distribution , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic
15.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 128(9): 597-598, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743640
17.
Adv Biol Regul ; 77: 100745, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741319

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 caused by SARS-CoV-2 originated from China and spread across every corner of the world. The scientific interest on COVID-19 increased after WHO declared it a pandemic in the early February of 2020. In fact, this pandemic has had a worldwide impact on economy, health, and lifestyle like no other in the last 100 years. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Coronaviridae family and causes the deadliest clinical manifestations when compared to other viruses in the family. COVID-19 is an emerging zoonotic disease that has resulted in over 383,000 deaths around the world. Scientists are scrambling for ideas to develop treatment and prevention strategies to thwart the disease condition. In this review, we have attempted to summarize the latest information on the virus, disease, prevention, and treatment strategies. The future looks promising.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ataxia/diagnosis , Ataxia/physiopathology , Ataxia/virology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Nausea/diagnosis , Nausea/physiopathology , Nausea/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/organization & administration , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Social Distance , Vomiting/diagnosis , Vomiting/physiopathology , Vomiting/virology
19.
J Int Med Res ; 48(8): 300060520949077, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737978

ABSTRACT

The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019 has resulted in over 20 million cases and 741,808 deaths globally, affecting more than 200 countries. COVID-19 was declared a pandemic on 11 March 2020 by the World Health Organization. The disease is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is limited information on COVID-19, and treatment has so far focused on supportive care and use of repurposed drugs. COVID-19 can be transmitted via person-to-person contact through droplet spread. Some of the recommended precautionary measures to reduce the rate of disease spread include social distancing, good hygiene practices, and avoidance of crowded areas. These measures are effective because the droplets are heavy and can only travel approximately 1 meter in the air, settling quickly on fixed surfaces. Promising strategies to combat SARS-CoV-2 include discovery of therapeutic targets/drugs and vaccines. In this review, we summarize the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis of COVID-19. We also address the mechanisms of action of approved repurposed drugs for therapeutic management of the disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Age Factors , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Incidence , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/organization & administration , Severity of Illness Index , Social Distance , Survival Analysis
20.
ANZ J Surg ; 90(9): 1558-1565, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737625

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, caused the COVID-19 global pandemic. In response, the Australian and New Zealand governments activated their respective emergency plans and hospital frameworks to deal with the potential increased demand on scarce resources. Surgical triage formed an important part of this response to protect the healthcare system's capacity to respond to COVID-19. METHOD: A rapid review methodology was adapted to search for all levels of evidence on triaging surgery during the current COVID-19 outbreak. Searches were limited to PubMed (inception to 10 April 2020) and supplemented with grey literature searches using the Google search engine. Further, relevant articles were also sourced through the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons COVID-19 Working Group. Recent government advice (May 2020) is also included. RESULTS: This rapid review is a summary of advice from Australian, New Zealand and international speciality groups regarding triaging of surgical cases, as well as the peer-reviewed literature. The key theme across all jurisdictions was to not compromise clinical judgement and to enable individualized, ethical and patient-centred care. The topics reported on include implications of COVID-19 on surgical triage, competing demands on healthcare resources (surgery versus COVID-19 cases), and the low incidence of COVID-19 resulting in a possibility to increase surgical caseloads over time. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, urgent and emergency surgery must continue. A carefully staged return of elective surgery should align with a decrease in COVID-19 caseload. Combining evidence and expert opinion, schemas and recommendations have been proposed to guide this process in Australia and New Zealand.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures/standards , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Triage/methods , Australia/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , New Zealand/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
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