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2.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 144-146, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719347

ABSTRACT

This study reports the physical health, mental health, anxiety, depression, distress, and job satisfaction of healthcare staff in Iran when the country faced its highest number of total active COVID-19 cases. In a sample of 304 healthcare staff (doctors, nurses, radiologists, technicians, etc.), we found a sizable portion reached the cutoff levels of disorders in anxiety (28.0%), depression (30.6%), and distress (20.1%). Age, gender, education, access to PPE (personal protective equipment), healthcare institutions (public vs. private), and individual status of COVID-19 infection each predicted some but not all the outcome variables of SF-12, PHQ-4, K6, and job satisfaction. The healthcare workers varied greatly in their access to PPE and in their status of COVID-19 infection: negative (69.7%), unsure (28.0%), and positive (2.3%). The predictors were also different from those identified in previous studies of healthcare staff during the COVID-19 crisis in China. This study helps to identify the healthcare staff in need to enable more targeted help as healthcare staff in many countries are facing peaks in their COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Iran , Job Satisfaction , Male , Mental Health/trends , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262830, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690735

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been suggestions that various techniques could be employed to improve the fit and, therefore, the effectiveness of face masks. It is well recognized that improving fit tends to improve mask effectiveness, but whether these fit modifiers are reliable remains unexplored. In this study, we assess a range of common "fit hacks" to determine their ability to improve mask performance. METHODS: Between July and September 2020, qualitative fit testing was performed in an indoor living space. We used quantitative fit testing to assess the fit of both surgical masks and KN95 masks, with and without 'fit hacks', on four participants. Seven fit hacks were evaluated to assess impact on fit. Additionally, one participant applied each fit hack multiple times to assess how reliable hacks were when reapplied. A convenience of four participants took part in the study, three females and one male with a head circumference range of 54 to 60 centimetres. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The use of pantyhose, tape, and rubber bands were effective for most participants. A pantyhose overlayer was observed to be the most effective hack. High degrees of variation were noted between participants. However, little variation was noted within participants, with hacks generally showing similar benefit each time they were applied on a single participant. An inspection of the fit hacks once applied showed that individual facial features may have a significant impact on fit, especially the nose bridge. CONCLUSIONS: Fit hacks can be used to effectively improve the fit of surgical and KN95 masks, enhancing the protection provided to the wearer. However, many of the most effective hacks are very uncomfortable and unlikely to be tolerated for extended periods of time. The development of effective fit-improvement solutions remains a critical issue in need of further development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , N95 Respirators/trends , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Masks/trends , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Physical Functional Performance , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261439, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the first-wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, dentists were considered at high-risk of infection. In France, to stop the spread of SARS-CoV-2, a nationwide lockdown was enforced, during which dentists suspended their routine clinical activities, working solely on dental emergencies. This measure has had an indisputable mitigating effect on the pandemic. To continue protecting dentists after suspension of nationwide lockdown, implementation of preventive measures was recommended, including adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) and room aeration between patients. No study has explored whether implementation of such preventive measures since the end of the first-wave has had an impact on the contamination of dentists. METHODS: An online survey was conducted within a French dentist population between July and September 2020. To explore risk factors associated with COVID-19, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: The results showed that COVID-19 prevalence among the 3497 respondents was 3.6%. Wearing surgical masks during non-aerosol generating procedures was a risk factor of COVID-19, whereas reducing the number of patients was a protective factor. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the similar COVID-19 prevalence between dentists and the general population, such data suggest that dentists are not overexposed in their work environment when adequate preventive measures are applied. IMPACT: Dentists should wear specific PPE (FFP2, FFP3 or (K)N95 masks) including during non-aerosol generating procedures and reduce the number of patients to allow proper implementation of disinfection and aeration procedures. Considering the similarities between COVID-19 and other viral respiratory infections, such preventive measures may also be of interest to limit emerging variants spread as well as seasonal viral outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/trends , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Dentists/psychology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
World Neurosurg ; 155: e576-e587, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386731

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) crisis led to many restrictions in daily life and protective health care actions in all hospitals to ensure basic medical supply. This questionnaire-based study among spinal surgeons in central Europe was generated to investigate the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and consecutively the differences in restrictions in spinal surgery units. METHODS: An online survey consisting of 32 questions on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the related restrictions on spinal surgery units was created. Surgical fellows and consultants from neurosurgical, orthopedic, and trauma departments were included in our questionnaire-based study with the help of Austrian, German, and Swiss scientific societies. RESULTS: In a total of 406 completed questionnaires, most participants reported increased preventive measurements at daily clinical work (split-team work schedule [44%], cancellation of elective and/or semielective surgeries [91%]), reduced occurrence of emergencies (91%), decreased outpatient work (45%) with increased telemedical care (73%) and a reduced availability of medical equipment (75%) as well as medical staff (30%). Although most physicians considered the political restrictive decisions to be not suitable, most considered the medical measures to be appropriate. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in comparable restrictive measures for spinal surgical departments in central Europe. Elective surgical interventions were reduced, providing additional resources reserved for severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2-positive patients. Although similar restrictions were introduced in most participants' departments, the supply of personal protective equipment and the outpatient care remained insufficient and should be re-evaluated intensively for future global health care crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neurosurgeons/trends , Neurosurgical Procedures/trends , Spinal Diseases/epidemiology , Spinal Diseases/surgery , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Ambulatory Care/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Personal Protective Equipment/trends
7.
Infect Dis Health ; 26(3): 214-217, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364067

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented global demand for personal protective equipment (PPE). A paucity of data on PPE burn rate (PPE consumption over time) in pandemic situations exacerbated these issues as there was little historic research to indicate volumes of PPE required to care for surges in infective patients and thus plan procurement requirements. METHODS: To better understand PPE requirements for care of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients in our Australian quaternary referral hospital, the number of staff-to-patient interactions in a 24-h period for three patient groups (ward-based COVID suspect, ward-based COVID confirmed, intensive care COVID confirmed) was audited prospectively from 1st to 30th April 2020. RESULTS: The average number of staff-to-patient interactions in a 24-h period was: 13.1 ± 5.0 (mean ± SD) for stable ward-managed COVID-19 suspect patients; 11.9 ± 3.8 for stable ward-managed confirmed COVID-19 patients; and 30.0 ± 5.3 for stable, mechanically ventilated, ICU-managed COVID-19 patients. This data can be used in PPE demand simulation modelling for COVID-19 and potentially other respiratory illnesses. CONCLUSION: Data on the average number of staff-to-patient interactions needed for the care of COVID-19 patients is presented. This data can be used for PPE demand simulation modelling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , New South Wales/epidemiology , Patient-Centered Care , Personal Protective Equipment/trends
8.
World Neurosurg ; 155: e142-e149, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease identified in 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic changed neurosurgery protocols to provide ongoing care for patients while ensuring the safety of health care workers. In Brazil, the rapid spread of the disease led to new challenges in the health system. Neurooncology practice was one of the most affected by the pandemic due to restricted elective procedures and new triage protocols. We aim to characterize the impact of the pandemic on neurosurgery in Brazil. METHODS: We analyzed 112 different types of neurosurgical procedures, with special detail in 11 neurooncology procedures, listed in the Brazilian Hospital Information System records in the DATASUS database between February and July 2019 and the same period in 2020. Linear regression and paired t-test analyses were performed and considered statistically significant at P < 0.05. RESULTS: There was an overall decrease of 21.5% (28,858 cases) in all neurosurgical procedures, impacting patients needing elective procedures (-42.46%) more than emergency surgery (-5.93%). Neurooncology procedures decreased by 14.89%. Nonetheless, the mortality rate during hospitalization increased by 21.26%. Linear regression analysis in hospitalizations (Slope = 0.9912 ± 0.07431; CI [95%] = 0.8231-1.159) and total cost (Slope = 1.03 ± 0.03501; CI [95%] = 0.9511-1.109) in the 11 different types of neurooncology procedures showed a P < 0.0001. The mean cost per type of procedure showed an 11.59% increase (P = 0.0172) between 2019 and 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has increased mortality, decreased hospitalizations, and therefore decreased overall costs, despite increased costs per procedure for a variety of neurosurgical procedures. Our study serves as a stark example of the effect of the pandemic on neurosurgical care in settings of limited resources and access to care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Developing Countries , Hospital Information Systems/trends , Neurosurgical Procedures/trends , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Developing Countries/economics , Health Personnel/economics , Health Personnel/trends , Hospital Information Systems/economics , Humans , Neurosurgical Procedures/economics , Personal Protective Equipment/economics , Personal Protective Equipment/trends
9.
Continuum (Minneap Minn) ; 27(3): 652-664, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344140

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This article provides an overview of a diverse group of primary headache disorders that are categorized in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd Edition (ICHD-3), as "other primary headache disorders." This article provides clinicians with a distilled understanding of the diagnoses and their epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Cough-induced headache requires neuroimaging to exclude posterior fossa pathology and recently has been reported as a common symptom in patients with CSF-venous fistula. Clinical overlap is observed between patients with primary exercise headache and primary headache associated with sexual activity. Patients with recurrent thunderclap headache associated with sexual activity should be presumed to have reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome until proven otherwise. De novo external-pressure headache is a common sequela among health care workers using personal protective equipment during the COVID-19 pandemic. New daily persistent headache is an important mimicker of chronic migraine or chronic tension-type headache and is distinguished by a daily-from-onset progression of persistent headache; a treatment-refractory course is often observed, and early involvement of a multidisciplinary team, including a psychotherapist, is advised. SUMMARY: Patients with primary headache disorders that are classified as "other primary headache disorders" have presentations with unique diagnostic and management considerations. The disorders are highly recognizable, and an appreciation of the diagnoses will aid clinicians in providing safe and effective care for patients presenting with headache.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Headache Disorders, Primary/epidemiology , Headache Disorders, Primary/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cough/complications , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/physiopathology , Exercise/physiology , Headache Disorders, Primary/etiology , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Sexual Behavior/physiology
10.
Neuron ; 109(12): 1918-1920, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272636

ABSTRACT

Worldwide use of face masks as personal protective equipment (PPE) during the COVID-19 pandemic has changed interpersonal interactions in myriad ways, likely permanently. Creative strategies like the PPE Portrait Project serve to mitigate social disconnection resulting from facial feature obstruction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Facial Expression , Interpersonal Relations , Masks/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Expressed Emotion/physiology , Forecasting , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment/trends
11.
Nurs Health Sci ; 23(3): 708-714, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258979

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 pandemic has raised public awareness around disease protection. The aims in this study were to recruit participants from Australia and Germany to determine their use of personal protective equipment and COVID-19 avoidance strategies using scales designed for this study. Principal components analysis with the Australian data revealed two factors in the Protection from Infection Scale, Self-Care and Protective Behaviors, and a single factor in the Infection Avoidance Scale, with each scale demonstrating strong internal reliability. Data from German participants were used to confirm the scales' structure using confirmatory factor analysis. A comparison of the two data sets data revealed that Australian participants scored higher overall on protection and avoidance strategies but at the item level there were several commonalities, including self-care behaviors people adopted to avoid contracting COVID-19. With no foreseeable end to this pandemic, it is important that follow-up studies ascertain whether the public continues to adopt high levels of PPE use and follows government advice or if pandemic fatigue sets in.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 16(1): 336, 2021 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report our experiences with COVID-19 in one of the largest referral orthopedic centers in the Middle East and aimed to describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of these patients. METHODS: During February 20 and April 20, 2020, patients who underwent orthopedic surgery and healthcare staff who were in contact with these patients were screened for COVID-19. To identify patients who were in the incubation period of COVID-19 during their hospital stay, all patients were tested again for COVID-19 4 weeks after discharge. RESULTS: Overall, 1244 patients underwent orthopedic surgery (1123 emergency and 121 elective) during the study period. Overall, 17 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 during hospital admission and seven after discharge. Among the total 24 patients with COVID-19, 15 were (62.5%) males with a mean (SD) age of 47.0±1.6 years old. Emergency surgeries were performed in 20 (83.3%) patients, and elective surgery was done in the remaining 4 patients which included one case of posterior spinal fusion, spondylolisthesis, acromioclavicular joint dislocation, and one case of leg necrosis. A considerable number of infections occurred in patients with intertrochanteric fractures (n=7, 29.2%), followed by pelvic fractures (n=2, 8.3%), humerus fractures (n=2, 8.3%), and tibial plateau fractures (n=2, 8.3%). Fever (n=11, 45.8%) and cough (n=10, 37.5%) were the most common symptoms among patients. Laboratory examinations showed leukopenia in 2 patients (8.3%) and lymphopenia in 4 (16.7%) patients. One patient with a history of cancer died 2 weeks after discharge due to myocardial infarction. Among hospital staff, 26 individuals contracted COVID-19 during the study period, which included 13 (50%) males. Physicians were the most commonly infected group (n = 11), followed by operation room technicians (n = 5), nurses (n = 4), and paramedics (n = 4). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who undergo surgical treatment for orthopedic problems, particularly lower limb fractures with limited ambulation, are at a higher risk of acquiring COVID-19 infections, although they may not be at higher risks for death compared to the general population. Orthopedic surgeons in particular and other hospital staff who are in close contact with these patients must be adequately trained and given appropriate personal protective equipment during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Health Personnel/trends , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Orthopedic Procedures/trends , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Orthopedic Procedures/methods
13.
Infect Dis Health ; 26(3): 214-217, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented global demand for personal protective equipment (PPE). A paucity of data on PPE burn rate (PPE consumption over time) in pandemic situations exacerbated these issues as there was little historic research to indicate volumes of PPE required to care for surges in infective patients and thus plan procurement requirements. METHODS: To better understand PPE requirements for care of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients in our Australian quaternary referral hospital, the number of staff-to-patient interactions in a 24-h period for three patient groups (ward-based COVID suspect, ward-based COVID confirmed, intensive care COVID confirmed) was audited prospectively from 1st to 30th April 2020. RESULTS: The average number of staff-to-patient interactions in a 24-h period was: 13.1 ± 5.0 (mean ± SD) for stable ward-managed COVID-19 suspect patients; 11.9 ± 3.8 for stable ward-managed confirmed COVID-19 patients; and 30.0 ± 5.3 for stable, mechanically ventilated, ICU-managed COVID-19 patients. This data can be used in PPE demand simulation modelling for COVID-19 and potentially other respiratory illnesses. CONCLUSION: Data on the average number of staff-to-patient interactions needed for the care of COVID-19 patients is presented. This data can be used for PPE demand simulation modelling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , New South Wales/epidemiology , Patient-Centered Care , Personal Protective Equipment/trends
14.
A A Pract ; 15(4): e01449, 2021 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204121

ABSTRACT

Snorkel masks have become an option for personal protective equipment (PPE) due to the shortage of air filtration at least 95% of airborne particle (N95) masks as a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We developed a 3D design of a triheaded adapter that connects a snorkel mask to 3 different National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved air filtration at least 99% of airborne particles (N99) filters with the aim of improving wearer comfort. We measured the resistance of the new triheaded adapter to be one-third the resistance of the single adapter. Interdepartmental survey of anesthesiologists showed an improvement in perceived comfort when using the triheaded adapter as compared to the single adapter.


Subject(s)
Anesthesiologists/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Equipment Design/trends , Masks/trends , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Anesthesiologists/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Equipment Design/standards , Humans , Masks/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/standards
15.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248272, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150539

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease, which caused by a novel coronavirus. The disease disrupts health systems and resulting in social, political, and economic crises. Health professionals are in front of this pandemic and always work in a high-risk environment. The best prevention for COVID-19 is avoiding exposure to the virus. Some studies reported health professional's practice of precautionary measures for COVID-19. Nevertheless, a few have identified factors affecting. As such, this study aimed to fill those research gaps in the study setting. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 428 health professionals involved from the public health facilities of the Gamo zone, southern Ethiopia. A simple random sampling method employed, and the data collected by the interviewer-administered Open Data Kit survey tool and observational checklist. The data analyzed in Stata version 15, and a binary logistic regression model used to identify factors. In this study, a statistically significant association declared at P< 0.05. RESULTS: In this study, 35.3% (95%CI: 30.7%, 39.8%) of health professionals' had a good practice on precautionary measures for the COVID-19 pandemic. Use hand sanitizer or wash hands continuously with soap and water (68.9%), cover nose and mouth with a tissue during sneezing or coughing (67.3%), and use facemask in crowds (56.8%) were the most common practice reported by study participants. Marital status, being married (AOR = 1.84, 95%CI: 1.06, 3.18), good knowledge on the COVID-19 pandemic (AOR = 2.02, 95%CI: 1.02, 3.18), and positive attitude towards precautionary measures for the COVID-19 were factors showed significant association with the practice. CONCLUSIONS: The magnitude of good practice of precautionary measures for the COVID-19 pandemic among health professionals was low. As such, different interventions to improve the knowledge and attitude of health professionals in the health care system are highly needed to boost the practice and to advance service delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Health Facilities , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Knowledge , Male , Masks/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248282, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124945

ABSTRACT

Compliance with infection prevention and control (IPC) protocols is critical in minimizing the risk of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection among healthcare workers. However, data on IPC compliance among healthcare workers in COVID-19 treatment centers are unknown in Ghana. This study aims to assess IPC compliance among healthcare workers in Ghana's COVID-19 treatment centers. The study was a secondary analysis of data, which was initially collected to determine the level of risk of COVID-19 virus infection among healthcare workers in Ghana. Quantitative data were conveniently collected using the WHO COVID-19 risk assessment tool. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses. We observed that IPC compliance during healthcare interactions was 88.4% for hand hygiene and 90.6% for Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) usage; IPC compliance while performing aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs), was 97.5% for hand hygiene and 97.5% for PPE usage. For hand hygiene during healthcare interactions, lower compliance was seen among nonclinical staff [OR (odds ratio): 0.43; 95% CI (Confidence interval): 0.21-0.89], and healthcare workers with secondary level qualification (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08-0.71). Midwives (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.09-0.93) and Pharmacists (OR: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.02-0.92) compliance with hand hygiene was significantly lower than registered nurses. For PPE usage during healthcare interactions, lower compliance was seen among healthcare workers who were separated/divorced/widowed (OR: 0.08; 95% CI: 0.01-0.43), those with secondary level qualifications (OR 0.08; 95% CI 0.01-0.43), non-clinical staff (OR 0.16 95% CI 0.07-0.35), cleaners (OR: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.05-0.52), pharmacists (OR: 0.07; 95% CI: 0.01-0.49) and among healthcare workers who reported of insufficiency of PPEs (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.14-0.77). Generally, healthcare workers' infection prevention and control compliance were high, but this compliance differs across the different groups of health professionals in the treatment centers. Ensuring an adequate supply of IPC logistics coupled with behavior change interventions and paying particular attention to nonclinical staff is critical in minimizing the risk of COVID-19 transmission in the treatment centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Guideline Adherence/trends , Health Personnel/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Knowledge , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Virus Diseases/transmission
17.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248099, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115311

ABSTRACT

Since the appearance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the question regarding the efficacy of various hygiene measures and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) has become the focus of scientific and above all public discussion. To compare respirators, medical face masks, and cloth masks and determine if it is recommendable to wear face masks to protect the individual wearer of the mask from inhaling airborne particles, we challenged 29 different masks with aerosols and tested the pressure drop as a surrogate for breathing resistance owing to the mask material. We found that Type II medical face masks showed the lowest pressure drop (12.9±6.8 Pa/cm2) and therefore additional breathing resistance, whereas respirators such as the KN95 (32.3±7.0 Pa/cm2) and FFP2 (26.8±7.4 Pa/cm2) showed the highest pressure drops among the tested masks. The filtration efficacy of the mask material was the lowest for cloth masks (28±25%) followed by non-certified face masks (63±19%) and certified medical face masks (70±10%). The materials of the different respirators showed very high aerosol retentions (KN95 [94±4%] and FFP2 [98±1%]). For evaluating the as-worn filtration performance simulating real live conditions each mask type was also tested on a standardized dummy head. Cloth masks and non-EN-certified face masks had the worst as-worn filtration efficacies among the tested masks, filtering less than 20% of the test aerosol. Remarkably, certified type II medical face masks showed similar (p>0.5) as-worn filtration results (47±20%) than KN95 masks (41±4%) and FFP2 masks (65±27%), despite having a lower pressure drop. Face shields did not show any significant retention function against aerosols in our experiment. Our results indicate that it seems recommendable to wear face masks for providing base protection and risk reduction against inhaling airborne particles, in low-risk situations. In our study, especially EN 14683 type II certified medical face masks showed protective effectiveness against aerosols accompanied by minimal additional breathing resistance. FFP2 Respirators, on the other hand, could be useful in high-risk situations but require greater breathing effort and therefore physical stress for users.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Masks/trends , Aerosols , COVID-19/epidemiology , Filtration , Humans , Models, Statistical , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Respiratory Protective Devices/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
18.
Nurs Leadersh (Tor Ont) ; 33(4): 62-67, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094388

ABSTRACT

This case study outlines the journey of a home-care organization to support practice change during the COVID-19 crisis. The leadership attributes and organizational structures and processes required for a nimble knowledge-to-action response are explored in relation to client screening, personal protective equipment and development of virtual care. A home and community practice lens was often not evident in the literature or guidance documents. This added complexity to the process of rapidly evaluating evidence and guidance across two provinces and issuing practice direction to a widely dispersed and mobile workforce. A cross-functional clinical response team has been invaluable in the organization's pandemic response.


Subject(s)
Community Health Services/trends , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Evidence-Based Practice/methods , Home Care Services/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Community Health Services/methods , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Evidence-Based Practice/trends , Home Care Services/organization & administration , Home Care Services/trends , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/trends
19.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e51, 2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078263

ABSTRACT

Ever since the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic, there has been a public health debate concerning medical resources and supplies including hospital beds, intensive care units (ICU), ventilators and protective personal equipment (PPE). Forecasting COVID-19 dissemination has played a key role in informing healthcare professionals and governments on how to manage overburdened healthcare systems. However, forecasting during the pandemic remained challenging and sometimes highly controversial. Here, we highlight this challenge by performing a comparative evaluation for the estimations obtained from three COVID-19 surge calculators under different social distancing approaches, taking Lebanon as a case study. Despite discrepancies in estimations, the three surge calculators used herein agree that there will be a relative shortage in the capacity of medical resources and a significant surge in PPE demand if the social distancing policy is removed. Our results underscore the importance of implementing containment interventions including social distancing in alleviating the demand for medical care during the COVID-19 pandemic in the absence of any medication or vaccine. The paper also highlights the value of employing several models in surge planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Forecasting , Lebanon/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment/trends
20.
J Emerg Med ; 59(6): 946-951, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergency departments (EDs) need to be prepared to manage crises and disasters in both the short term and the long term. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has necessitated a rapid overhaul of several aspects of ED operations in preparation for a sustained response. OBJECTIVE: We present the management of the COVID-19 crisis in 3 EDs (1 large academic site and 2 community sites) within the same health care system. DISCUSSION: Aspects of ED throughput, including patient screening, patient room placement, and disposition are reviewed, along with departmental communication procedures and staffing models. Visitor policies are also discussed. Special considerations are given to airway management and the care of psychiatric patients. Brief guidance around the use of personal protective equipment is also included. CONCLUSIONS: A crisis like the COVID-19 pandemic requires careful planning to facilitate urgent restructuring of many aspects of an ED. By sharing our departments' responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, we hope other departments can better prepare for this crisis and the next.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Emergency Medicine/methods , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Environment Design , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/trends
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