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PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264511, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793514

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has had a large impact on various aspects of life, but questions about its effects on close relationships remain largely unanswered. In the present study, we examined perceived changes in relationship satisfaction at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic by using an international sample of 3,243 individuals from 67 different countries, mostly from Italy, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. In April and May 2020, participants responded to an online survey that included questions about relationship satisfaction, their satisfaction before the pandemic, other relationship aspects (e.g., shared time), special circumstances (e.g., mobility restrictions), and enduring dispositions (e.g., insecure attachment). A decline in time shared with one's partner was most strongly associated with perceived decreases in relationship satisfaction, resulting in a different pattern of findings for cohabiting and non-cohabiting individuals. Among the most influential moderators were anxious and avoidant attachment. The findings offer insights into both aggravating and protecting factors in couples' responses to pandemic-related stressors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Interpersonal Relations , Personal Satisfaction , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family Characteristics , Female , Geography , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Personality/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sexual Partners , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
3.
Am Psychol ; 77(1): 145-146, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768781

ABSTRACT

Pfund and Hill (2022) suggest that individual resilience factors such as agreeableness and conscientiousness are likely to promote better relationship functioning as couples navigate the pandemic. Although we agree that more fully incorporating individual resilience factors would strengthen our adapted vulnerability-stress-adaptation (VSA) model, neither agreeableness nor conscientiousness reliably predict relationship functioning. In line with the VSA model, we emphasize the importance of a Person × Context approach that examines the potential effects of personality factors within couples' specific situational contexts during and after the pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Personality , Personality Disorders , Protective Factors
4.
Am Psychol ; 77(1): 143-144, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768780

ABSTRACT

Pietromonaco and Overall (2020) made an important contribution to the relationship literature when adapting Karney and Bradbury (1995) vulnerability-stress-adaptation model to include the COVID-19 pandemic. While the authors discussed ways in which enduring individual vulnerabilities may play a role in harming romantic relationships during the pandemic, only considering individual differences that may have negative implications for relationship functioning could lead to a limited perspective. The current comment discusses how conscientiousness and agreeableness may promote better relationship functioning during the COVID-19 pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Personality , Humans , Individuality , Pandemics
5.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265544, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745306

ABSTRACT

AIM: Our purpose was to clarify the level and correlates of empathy and altruism in the German population during the Covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: A nationally representative survey (n = 3,075) was conducted in August/September 2021. To measure empathy, a short scale based on the Interpersonality Reactivity Index (IRI; German version: Saarbrucken personality questionnaire, SPF) was used (SPF-K). Based on the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; IPIP-5F30F-R1), the subscale altruism was used to quantify altruism. RESULTS: The average altruism score was 3.3 (SD: 0.7), ranging from 1 to 5. Moreover, the average empathy score was 13.1 (SD: 2.8), ranging from 4 to 20. The level of empathy significantly differed between the subgroups. For example, high levels of empathy were identified among women (average: 13.7, SD: 2.7), individuals with children (average: 13.5, SD: 2.8), and individuals with migration background (average: 13.6, SD: 2.8). Effect sizes were mostly small. Similar differences (in terms of effect size) were identified between these groups regarding altruism. Additionally, regressions showed that higher levels of both empathy and altruism were associated with being female, younger age, having children, sports activities and having at least one chronic disease. Moreover, vaccination against Covid-19 was only associated with higher altruism, but not with higher empathy. CONCLUSION: Our study emphasized the moderately high level of empathy and altruism in Germany during times of the pandemic. Identifying the correlates of these factors may help to address individuals with very low levels of these factors.


Subject(s)
Altruism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Empathy , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Personality , Sex Characteristics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology , Young Adult
6.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 223: 103483, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1682833

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the relationship between the Light and Dark Core of personality and self-reported adherence to COVID-19 containment measures. A gender-balanced representative sample of 600 Slovaks participated in the study. We formulated a mediation model, hypothesising that the relationship between Light and Dark Core and self-reported adherence is mediated by the motivation to comply with the measures. The results of structural equation modelling showed that self-reported adherence was positively related to the Light Core and this relationship was also mediated by motivation. The Dark Core, in turn, showed a negative relationship with the adherence, while no mediation was found. Importantly, the findings of both Light and Dark Core models remained robust after including trust in government. The present study contributes to theory by providing first results corroborating the existence of Light Core of personality. The findings of this study can also help to better shape the communications about containment measures to address both individuals with high levels of benevolent and malevolent traits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Motivation , Government , Humans , Personality , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust
7.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 224: 103529, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670097

ABSTRACT

The first Italian lockdown during COVID-19 pandemic constituted an example of strong situation. Under this context, we investigated associations of HEXACO personality with COVID-19 mitigation behaviors (self-reported hygiene, distancing, going out). We tested unique associations through regularized regressions and out-of-sample prediction after establishing the best level of analysis (HEXACO traits, facets, items). Personality always explained out-of-sample variance over and above demographics, COVID-related knowledge, concern, impacts, and goals. Hygiene and distancing were best predicted by HEXACO traits, whereas facets constituted the best level for the prediction of going out. In general, honesty-humility (trait or facets) was the clearest predictor of safer behaviors. Results corroborate the relevance of personality even in strong situations, as well as its importance for COVID-19 mitigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Personality , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 28, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641939

ABSTRACT

Social integration is a major resilience factor for staying healthy. However, the COVID-19-pandemic led to unprecedented restrictions in social life. The consequences of these social lockdowns on momentary well-being are yet not fully understood. We investigated the affective benefit from social interactions in a longitudinal birth cohort. We used two real-time, real-life ecological momentary assessments once before and once during the initial lockdown of the pandemic (N = 70 participants; n~6800 observations) capturing the protective role of social interactions on well-being. Moreover, we used a multimethod approach to analyze ecological assessment data with individual risk and resilience factors, which are promising moderators in the relationship of social behavior, stress reactivity, and affective states (i.e., amygdala volume, neuroticism, polygenic risk for schizophrenia). Social contacts were linked to higher positive affect both during normal times and during the COVID-19-pandemic (beta coefficient = 0.1035), highlighting the beneficial role of social embedding. Interestingly, this relationship was differentially moderated by individual risk and resilience factors. In detail, participants with a larger left amygdala volume (beta coefficient = -0.0793) and higher neuroticism (beta coefficient = -0.0958) exhibited an affective benefit from more social interactions prior to the pandemic. This pattern changed during the pandemic with participants with smaller amygdala volumes and lower neurotic traits showing an affective gain during the pandemic. Moreover, participants with low genetic risk for schizophrenia showed an affective benefit (beta coefficient = -0.0528) from social interactions irrespective of the time point. Our results highlight the protective role of social integration on momentary well-being. Thereby, we offer new insights into how this relationship is differently affected by a person's neurobiology, personality, and genes under adverse circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurobiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Personality/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Interaction
9.
J Relig Health ; 61(1): 644-656, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611441

ABSTRACT

This study examined the association between spiritual quality of life (QoL), spiritual coping, emotional distress, and personality during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in a convenience sample of Croatian adults (n = 2,860, 80.6% women). Participants completed an online questionnaire that collected information on sociodemographic characteristics, distress (the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale 21), spiritual coping and spiritual QoL (the WHO Quality of Life-Spirituality, Religiousness, and Personal Beliefs), and personality (the International Personality Item Pool). The hierarchical regression analysis demonstrated that personality traits, especially emotional stability, were the most significant predictors of mental health outcomes. Spiritual coping styles were a predictor of worse, while spiritual QoL of better psychological outcomes. Results demonstrate the complex relations between different aspects of spirituality/religiosity with personality and emotional outcomes and suggest that distress motivates the engagement of spiritual coping in times of disaster.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Croatia , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Personality , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Spirituality , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 35(1): 73-77, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608059

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic has tested people's coping and resilience. This article reviews research and scholarly work aiming to shed more light on personality-based factors that account for adjustment to the pandemic situation. RECENT FINDINGS: Most studies relied on a cross-sectional design and were conducted using personality dimensions based on the Big Five personality model. Findings suggest that high levels of neuroticism constitute a risk for pandemic-induced distress and poor overall coping. People with prominent extraversion, conscientiousness or agreeableness have generally demonstrated a good adjustment to the pandemic, including compliance with containment and mitigation measures imposed by the authorities to limit the spread of COVID-19. A few studies of individuals with borderline personality disorder identified social isolation as the most destabilising factor for them. Poor compliance with containment and mitigation measures has been strongly associated with various antisocial personality traits. SUMMARY: Personality-based factors account for some individual differences in coping with both COVID-19-related threat and distress and requirements to comply with containment and mitigation measures. Better understanding of these factors could contribute to a more effective adjustment to the challenges of future public health crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Personality , SARS-CoV-2
11.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262319, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606225

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and the measures to counteract it have highlighted the role of individual differences in evaluating and reacting to emergencies, and the challenges inherent in promoting precautionary behaviours. We aimed to explore the psychological and cognitive factors modulating behaviour and intentions during the national lockdown in Italy. We administered an online questionnaire (N = 244) that included tests for assessing personality traits (Temperament and Character Inventory; Locus of Control of Behaviour) and moral judgment (Moral Foundations Questionnaire), alongside behavioural economics tasks addressing different facets of risk attitude (loss aversion, risk aversion and delay discounting). We then assessed the extent to which individual variations in these dimensions modulated participants' compliance with the lockdown norms. When assessing their joint contribution via multiple regressions, lockdown adherence was mostly predicted by internal locus of control, psycho-economic dimensions suggestive of long-sighted and loss-averse attitudes, as well as personality traits related to cautionary behaviour, such as harm avoidance, and the authority moral concern. These findings show that a multi-domain assessment of the factors underlying personal intentions, and thus driving compliance with government measures, can help predict individuals' actions during health emergencies. This evidence points to factors that should be considered when developing interventions and communication strategies to promote precautionary behaviours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Adult , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Personality , Risk , Risk Assessment , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596973

ABSTRACT

Research on personality in sport is very popular as it allows prediction of the behavior of players in the starting situation. Hence, verifications of players due to their sports level may turn out to be crucial. Due to the dynamic development of American football in Poland, we undertook research to verify the relationship between the sports level and the personality of these players. The Big Five personality study that we carried out involved players aged from 20 to 29-the representatives of American football clubs in Poland (N = 140) from three league games levels: LFA 1 (n = 75), LFA 2 (n = 40), and LFA 9 (n = 25). The NEO-FFI personality questionnaire was used as a research tool. The players from the top-level games were characterized by their openness to experience, the level of which decreases along with the decrease in the players' sports levels. The differences in openness to experience were revealed, first of all, in divergent thinking and creativity. It was ascertained that openness to experience is a characteristic personality trait for American football players in Poland. Therefore, systematic conduct of personality tests among American football players in Poland, in the process of selecting candidates for the highest levels of football competition, would be recommended. This might significantly affect the development of the sports level of this discipline in Poland. The obtained results of research on personality may, moreover, prove to be useful in selecting players and improving the predictions of important sports behaviors in American football in Poland.


Subject(s)
Football , Soccer , Humans , Personality , Personality Disorders , Poland
13.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0259253, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593920

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the association between personality traits and food stockpiling for disasters in predicted high-risk areas of food shortages due to the Nankai Trough Earthquake. This survey was conducted between December 18 and 20, 2019, using a web-based questionnaire. The participants were 1,200 individuals registered with an online survey company. This study analyzed the association between the Big Five personality traits and food stockpiling status (n = 1192). The Big Five personality traits assess five basic dimensions of personality (i.e., extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, and openness). To measure theses personality traits, we used the Japanese version of the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI-J). The Mann-Whitney test and a multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that none of the Big Five personality traits were significantly associated with having or not having stockpile food. However, interestingly, considering the stages of behavior change regarding stockpiling, high extraversion was significantly positively related to initiating stockpiling. Moreover, high neuroticism was significantly positively related to interrupted stockpiling. Therefore, it is crucial to focus on personality traits (especially low extraversion and high neuroticism) to promote food stockpiling for disasters.


Subject(s)
Disasters , Food , Personality , Adult , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
14.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(12)2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592354

ABSTRACT

The use of 'new psychoactive substances' appears to be increasingly common. The aim of this study was to examine biological and personality determinants in individuals who choose to use these substances, which may help in the prevention and treatment of psychoactive substance use disorders. The study group consisted of 374 male volunteers; all were users of 'new psychoactive substances' (NPS). The NPS users were recruited after they had abstained-for at least 3 months-from any substance of abuse in addiction treatment facilities. The NPS patients and the control subjects were examined by a psychiatrist using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.), the NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory (NEO-FFI), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scales. The real-time PCR method was used for genotyping. When we compared the controls with the study group, statistically significant interactions were found between DAT1 polymorphism, neuroticism, and NPS use. NPS use and DAT1 polymorphism were associated with a higher level of neuroticism on the NEO-FFI scale. The study group of NPS users showed a higher severity of anxiety symptoms, both in terms of trait and state, compared to the control group. The results may support the idea that neuroticism and anxiety correlate strongly with coping motives for using NPS.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/drug therapy , Anxiety Disorders/genetics , Designer Drugs/therapeutic use , Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Personality/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Substance-Related Disorders/genetics , Adult , Female , Genotype , Humans , Male , Motivation/genetics , Personality Inventory , Young Adult
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512345

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the mental health of healthcare workers (HCWs) since its outbreak, but little attention has been paid to person-level vulnerability and protective factors. This study aims to determine the prevalence of both general and pandemic-related psychological distress among HCWs between the first and second COVID-19 waves in Italy and analyze associations between psychological distress and personality traits, attachment style, and metacognitive functioning. Between June and October 2020, 235 Italian HCWs completed questionnaires concerning psychological stress, personality traits, attachment style, and metacognitive functioning; 26.5% of respondents presented with moderate to extremely severe levels of general psychological distress and 13.8% with moderate to extremely severe levels of pandemic-related psychological distress. After controlling for demographic and occupational variables, significant associations emerged among high emotional stability as a personality trait and both general (aOR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.41-0.79) and pandemic-related psychological stress (aOR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.41-0.90). Additionally, higher scores regarding one's ability to understand others' emotional states were associated with lower odds of developing psychological distress (aOR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.63-0.93). Lastly, when comparing those with fearful attachment styles to those with secure attachments, the aOR for psychological distress was 4.73 (95% CI: 1.45-17.04). These results highlight the importance of conducting baseline assessments of HCWs' person-level factors and providing regular screenings of psychological distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Personality , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Work ; 70(3): 695-700, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 emerged as a serious pandemic in 2019 and billions of people were infected. Various precautionary methods were taken to contain the spread of virus such as social distancing, public lockdown, sanitation, and closure of schools and colleges. Many colleges started online classes to resume their syllabus and to complete the course curriculum. These evening online sessions resulted in late night sleep, long term mobile/computer exposure, and disturbed sleep pattern. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to determine the impact of COVID-19 online classes on morningness- eveningness personality and to compare it with different age groups, gender, and body mass index. METHODS: The cluster sampling method was used to collect the subjects from the total of 1153 adult college students, 897 subjects were selected based on the selection criteria and instructed to submit an online survey consists of the Morningness-eveningness Questionnaire and demographic and anthropometric data through mail, social media, or through a researcher by direct interview. RESULTS: The mean score for the 897 participants is 56.7, indicating intermediate morningness-eveningness personality type. On comparing the different groups, the youngest group (18-20 years) scored 4.23%(mean = 46.7), female subjects scored 6.13%(mean = 58.1), the underweight 2.67%(mean = 59.2) and overweight groups scored 2.89%(mean = 59.7) indicating definite eveningness. Among the 897 collected samples of the population 8.13%of the subjects experienced definite eveningness, 14.93%has moderate eveningness, 17.38%are under intermediate category, 22.4%have moderate morningness, and 37.11%have definite morningness. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with eveningness personality have high risk of developing mental illness, thus it's important to determine the eveningness personality among student population to avoid serious complications in later age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Circadian Rhythm , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Personality , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Work ; 70(3): 713-721, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Under the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic, the problem of emotional burnout syndrome among nurses working under extremely stressful conditions has become particularly acute. It is therefore necessary to examine the characteristics of emotional burnout syndrome in nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic to develop effective measures to prevent and enhance their mental health. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to establish the features of emotional burnout syndrome and its connection with typological characteristics of the personality in nurses working with COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A total of 120 female nurses who worked with COVID-19 patients were surveyed, of whom 60 (50.0%) worked in outpatient settings along with general practitioners and 60 (50.0%) worked in the intensive care unit. The average age of the participants was 40.86±3.20 years, and the average length of medical service was 13.64±1.73 years. RESULTS: A burnout syndrome of varying severity was present in 50.0%of outpatient nurses and 73.3%of intensive care nurses (OR = 2.44, 95%CI [1.16-5.16]; p < 0.05). The tension phase predominated in outpatient nurses (53.3%), and the resistance phase was more typical for intensive care nurses (63.3%). CONCLUSIONS: The practice of nurses under COVID-19 pandemic conditions is characterized by the high prevalence of emotional burnout syndrome.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Nurses , Adult , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Psychological/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Personality , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480772

ABSTRACT

This study investigates travel behavior and psychosocial factors that influence it during the COVID-19 pandemic. In a cross-sectional study, using an online survey, we examined changes in travel behavior and preferences after lifting travel restrictions, and how these changes were influenced by exposure to COVID-19, COVID-19 travel-related risk and severity, personality, fear of travel, coping, and self-efficacy appraisals in the Romanian population. Our results showed that participants traveled less in the pandemic year than the year before-especially group and foreign travel-yet more participants reported individual traveling in their home county during the pandemic period. Distinct types of exposure to COVID-19 risk, as well as cognitive and affective factors, were related to travel behavior and preferences. However, fun-seeking personality was the only major predictor of travel intention, while fear of travel was the only predictor of travel avoidance. Instead, people traveled more cautiously when they perceived more risk of infection at the destination, and had higher levels of fear of travel, but also a high sense of efficacy in controlling the infection and problem-solving capacity. The results suggest that specific information about COVID-19, coping mechanisms, fear of travel, and neuropsychological personality traits may affect travel behavior in the pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Personality , SARS-CoV-2
20.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258606, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477536

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of the constructs proposed by two influential theoretical frameworks: the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and the Big Five (B5) model of personality in predicting health-related coping behavior during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Both adaptive (i.e., preventive) and maladaptive (i.e., avoidant behavior and wishful thinking) coping behavior was measured. The study was conducted during the first wave of the pandemic. The sample consisted of 397 persons from the general Polish population. The findings provided strong support for the PMT constructs' predictive value, especially with regard to pandemic-related adaptive behavior. The B5 personality traits accounted for a small proportion of the variability of coping behavior, especially when maladaptive behavior was the outcome. The PMT model showed incremental validity over and above demographic variables and personality traits in predicting preventive behavior, avoidant behavior, and wishful thinking; however, the patterns of relationships differ across the types of coping behavior. According to the current results, to increase adherence to preventive measures during an epidemic, all the PMT constructs should be considered while persuasive communication to the public is formulated.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Motivation , Pandemics , Personality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
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