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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(22)2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456323

ABSTRACT

Skill mix refers to the number and educational experience of nurses working in clinical settings. Authors have used several measures to determine the skill mix, which includes nurse-to-patient ratio and the proportion of baccalaureate-prepared nurses. Observational studies have tested the association between nursing skill mix and patient outcomes (mortality). To date, this body of research has not been subject to systematic review or meta-analysis. The aim of this study is to systematically review and meta-analyse observational and experimental research that tests the association between nursing skill mix and patient mortality in medical and surgical settings. We will search four key electronic databases-MEDLINE [OVID], EMBASE [OVID], CINAHL [EBSCOhost], and ProQuest Central (five databases)-from inception. Title, abstract, and full-text screening will be undertaken independently by at least two researchers using COVIDENCE review management software. We will include studies where the authors report an association between nursing skill mix and outcomes in adult medical and surgical inpatients. Extracted data from included studies will consist measures of nursing skill mix and inpatient mortality outcomes. A meta-analysis will be undertaken if there are at least two studies with similar designs, exposures, and outcomes. The findings will inform future research and workforce planning in health systems internationally.


Subject(s)
Nursing Staff, Hospital , Patients , Adult , Databases, Factual , General Surgery/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Nursing Staff, Hospital/standards , Nursing Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Patients/statistics & numerical data , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/statistics & numerical data , Workforce/statistics & numerical data
2.
Gerontologist ; 60(3): e200-e217, 2020 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In long-term care (LTC) facilities, nursing staff are important contributors to resident care and well-being. Despite this, the relationships between nursing staff coverage, care hours, and quality of resident care in LTC facilities are not well understood and have implications for policy-makers. This systematic review summarizes current evidence on the relationship between nursing staff coverage, care hours, and quality of resident care in LTC facilities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A structured literature search was conducted using four bibliographic databases and gray literature sources. Abstracts were screened by two independent reviewers using Covidence software. Data from the included studies were summarized using a pretested extraction form. The studies were critically appraised, and their results were synthesized narratively. RESULTS: The systematic searched yielded 15,842 citations, of which 54 studies (all observational) were included for synthesis. Most studies (n = 53, 98%) investigated the effect of nursing staff time on resident care. Eleven studies addressed minimum care hours and quality of care. One study examined the association between different nursing staff coverage models and resident outcomes. Overall, the quality of the included studies was poor. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Because the evidence was inconsistent and of low quality, there is uncertainty about the direction and magnitude of the association between nursing staff time and type of coverage on quality of care. More rigorously designed studies are needed to test the effects of different cutoffs of care hours and different nursing coverage models on the quality of resident care in LTC facilities.


Subject(s)
Homes for the Aged/standards , Nursing Homes/standards , Nursing Staff/statistics & numerical data , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Health Care , Aged , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Humans , Long-Term Care , Workforce
3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(8): e1009264, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374131

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic has forced most countries to impose contact-limiting restrictions at workplaces, universities, schools, and more broadly in our societies. Yet, the effectiveness of these unprecedented interventions in containing the virus spread remain largely unquantified. Here, we develop a simulation study to analyze COVID-19 outbreaks on three real-life contact networks stemming from a workplace, a primary school and a high school in France. Our study provides a fine-grained analysis of the impact of contact-limiting strategies at workplaces, schools and high schools, including: (1) Rotating strategies, in which workers are evenly split into two shifts that alternate on a daily or weekly basis; and (2) On-Off strategies, where the whole group alternates periods of normal work interactions with complete telecommuting. We model epidemics spread in these different setups using a stochastic discrete-time agent-based transmission model that includes the coronavirus most salient features: super-spreaders, infectious asymptomatic individuals, and pre-symptomatic infectious periods. Our study yields clear results: the ranking of the strategies, based on their ability to mitigate epidemic propagation in the network from a first index case, is the same for all network topologies (workplace, primary school and high school). Namely, from best to worst: Rotating week-by-week, Rotating day-by-day, On-Off week-by-week, and On-Off day-by-day. Moreover, our results show that below a certain threshold for the original local reproduction number [Formula: see text] within the network (< 1.52 for primary schools, < 1.30 for the workplace, < 1.38 for the high school, and < 1.55 for the random graph), all four strategies efficiently control outbreak by decreasing effective local reproduction number to [Formula: see text] < 1. These results can provide guidance for public health decisions related to telecommuting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Teleworking , Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Contact Tracing , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Distance/statistics & numerical data , France/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Biological , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/statistics & numerical data , Public Health , Schools , Stochastic Processes , Teleworking/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Workplace
4.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12254, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321673

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has forced many employees to alter both their work style and lifestyle. This study aimed to examine how the combination of changes in overtime working hours and social interaction affects the full-time employees' mental well-being, focusing on the difference in household composition. METHODS: In November 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional Internet survey that included 4388 Japanese men and women aged 25-64 years, who continued the same full-time job during the pandemic. We performed a logistic regression analysis using a combination of the changes in overtime working hours and social interaction as an independent variable, and the presence/absence of deterioration of mental well-being as the dependent variable. RESULTS: Overall, 44% of participants reported the deterioration of mental well-being compared to before the outbreak. The multivariate analysis revealed that the participants coded as "increased overtime/decreased interaction" were significantly associated with the deterioration of mental well-being compared to those with "unchanged overtime/unchanged interaction" (odds ratio [OR] 2.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.59-2.89). Moreover, this association was relatively stronger among single-person households (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.50-4.69). CONCLUSIONS: The negative combination of increasing overtime working hours and decreasing social interaction may have an impact on the deterioration of mental well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic, and this association was comparably strong among single-person households. In the pandemic, it is necessary to pay close attention to both overtime working hours and the presence of social interaction to address the mental well-being among employees.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Emotional Adjustment , Social Interaction , Social Isolation/psychology , Work Schedule Tolerance/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/statistics & numerical data , Single Person/psychology , Single Person/statistics & numerical data
6.
Inquiry ; 58: 46958021997223, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120843

ABSTRACT

In order to explore the rational use of nursing resources in the epidemic situation of COVID-19, we optimized the shift arrangement in COVID-19 isolation area and constructed a reasonable nursing schedule under the condition of limited human resources. Seventy-eight nurses were arranged in COVID-19 isolation area to work for 1 week according to 3 different shifts: 4 + 4 h, 6 h and 6 h (overlapping by 1 h). Through the form of questionnaire, the comprehensive job satisfaction of 3 different models were compared, and the nursing quality and the consumption of protective equipment under 3 different modes were analyzed. The results showed that the comprehensive job satisfaction and nursing quality of nurses in 6 h (overlapping by 1 h) shift mode were better than those in other shift modes, and the consumption of protective equipment was lower.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/statistics & numerical data , Work Schedule Tolerance/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Male , Time Factors , Workplace/psychology
9.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 39(6): 709-715, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059695

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whereas 5415 Intensive Care Unit (ICU) beds were initially available, 7148 COVID-19 patients were hospitalised in the ICU at the peak of the outbreak. The present study reports how the French Health Care system created temporary ICU beds to avoid being overwhelmed. METHODS: All French ICUs were contacted for answering a questionnaire focusing on the available beds and health care providers before and during the outbreak. RESULTS: Among 336 institutions with ICUs before the outbreak, 315 (94%) participated, covering 5054/5531 (91%) ICU beds. During the outbreak, 4806 new ICU beds (+95% increase) were created from Acute Care Unit (ACU, 2283), Post Anaesthetic Care Unit and Operating Theatre (PACU & OT, 1522), other units (374) or real build-up of new ICU beds (627), respectively. At the peak of the outbreak, 9860, 1982 and 3089 ICU, ACU and PACU beds were made available. Before the outbreak, 3548 physicians (2224 critical care anaesthesiologists, 898 intensivists and 275 from other specialties, 151 paediatrics), 1785 residents, 11,023 nurses and 6763 nursing auxiliaries worked in established ICUs. During the outbreak, 2524 physicians, 715 residents, 7722 nurses and 3043 nursing auxiliaries supplemented the usual staff in all ICUs. A total number of 3212 new ventilators were added to the 5997 initially available in ICU. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 outbreak, the French Health Care system created 4806 ICU beds (+95% increase from baseline), essentially by transforming beds from ACUs and PACUs. Collaboration between intensivists, critical care anaesthesiologists, emergency physicians as well as the mobilisation of nursing staff were primordial in this context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Bed Capacity/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Bed Conversion/statistics & numerical data , France/epidemiology , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/statistics & numerical data , Personnel, Hospital/supply & distribution , Retrospective Studies , Ventilators, Mechanical/supply & distribution
10.
Can J Surg ; 63(3): E302-E305, 2020 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892391

ABSTRACT

Summary: Surgical programs are facing major and fluctuating changes to the resident workforce because of decreased elective volumes and high exposure risk during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Rapid restructuring of a residency program to protect its workforce while maintaining educational value is imperative. We describe the experience of the Division of General Surgery at the University of Ottawa in Ontario, Canada. The residency program was restructured to feature alternating "on" and "off" weeks, maintaining a healthy resident cohort in case of exposure. Teams were restructured and subdivided to maximize physical distancing and minimize resident exposure to pathogens. Educational initiatives doubled, with virtual sessions targeting every resident year and incorporating intraoperative teaching. The divisional research day and oral exams proceeded uninterrupted, virtually. A small leadership team enabled fast and flexible restructuring of a system for patient care while prioritizing resident safety and maintaining a commitment to resident education in a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , General Surgery/education , Infection Control/organization & administration , Internship and Residency/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Educational Measurement , General Surgery/organization & administration , General Surgery/statistics & numerical data , Health Workforce/organization & administration , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Medical Oncology/education , Medical Oncology/organization & administration , Medical Oncology/statistics & numerical data , Ontario/epidemiology , Patient Safety , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/organization & administration , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities/organization & administration , Universities/statistics & numerical data
11.
Oncologist ; 26(1): e66-e77, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-845840

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The rapid spread of COVID-19 across the globe is forcing surgical oncologists to change their daily practice. We sought to evaluate how breast surgeons are adapting their surgical activity to limit viral spread and spare hospital resources. METHODS: A panel of 12 breast surgeons from the most affected regions of the world convened a virtual meeting on April 7, 2020, to discuss the changes in their local surgical practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. Similarly, a Web-based poll based was created to evaluate changes in surgical practice among breast surgeons from several countries. RESULTS: The virtual meeting showed that distinct countries and regions were experiencing different phases of the pandemic. Surgical priority was given to patients with aggressive disease not candidate for primary systemic therapy, those with progressive disease under neoadjuvant systemic therapy, and patients who have finished neoadjuvant therapy. One hundred breast surgeons filled out the poll. The trend showed reductions in operating room schedules, indications for surgery, and consultations, with an increasingly restrictive approach to elective surgery with worsening of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 emergency should not compromise treatment of a potentially lethal disease such as breast cancer. Our results reveal that physicians are instinctively reluctant to abandon conventional standards of care when possible. However, as the situation deteriorates, alternative strategies of de-escalation are being adopted. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study aimed to characterize how the COVID-19 pandemic is affecting breast cancer surgery and which strategies are being adopted to cope with the situation.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mastectomy/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Appointments and Schedules , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Disease Progression , Elective Surgical Procedures/standards , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Elective Surgical Procedures/trends , Female , Global Burden of Disease , Health Care Rationing/standards , Health Care Rationing/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Rationing/trends , Humans , Mastectomy/economics , Mastectomy/standards , Mastectomy/statistics & numerical data , Neoadjuvant Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Operating Rooms/economics , Operating Rooms/statistics & numerical data , Operating Rooms/trends , Patient Selection , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/economics , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/statistics & numerical data , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/economics , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/organization & administration , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Referral and Consultation/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surgeons/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment
13.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 30(8): 639-647, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724873

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Efforts to enact nurse staffing legislation often lack timely, local evidence about how specific policies could directly impact the public's health. Despite numerous studies indicating better staffing is associated with more favourable patient outcomes, only one US state (California) sets patient-to-nurse staffing standards. To inform staffing legislation actively under consideration in two other US states (New York, Illinois), we sought to determine whether staffing varies across hospitals and the consequences for patient outcomes. Coincidentally, data collection occurred just prior to the COVID-19 outbreak; thus, these data also provide a real-time example of the public health implications of chronic hospital nurse understaffing. METHODS: Survey data from nurses and patients in 254 hospitals in New York and Illinois between December 2019 and February 2020 document associations of nurse staffing with care quality, patient experiences and nurse burnout. RESULTS: Mean staffing in medical-surgical units varied from 3.3 to 9.7 patients per nurse, with the worst mean staffing in New York City. Over half the nurses in both states experienced high burnout. Half gave their hospitals unfavourable safety grades and two-thirds would not definitely recommend their hospitals. One-third of patients rated their hospitals less than excellent and would not definitely recommend it to others. After adjusting for confounding factors, each additional patient per nurse increased odds of nurses and per cent of patients giving unfavourable reports; ORs ranged from 1.15 to 1.52 for nurses on medical-surgical units and from 1.32 to 3.63 for nurses on intensive care units. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital nurses were burned out and working in understaffed conditions in the weeks prior to the first wave of COVID-19 cases, posing risks to the public's health. Such risks could be addressed by safe nurse staffing policies currently under consideration.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Nurses/psychology , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , New York/epidemiology , Quality of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Policy Polit Nurs Pract ; 21(3): 174-186, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637402

ABSTRACT

In the United States, 1.4 million nursing home residents have been severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic with at least 25,923 resident and 449 staff deaths reported from the virus by June 1, 2020. The majority of residents have chronic illnesses and conditions and are vulnerable to infections and many share rooms and have congregate meals. There was evidence of inadequate registered nurse (RN) staffing levels and infection control procedures in many nursing homes prior to the outbreak of the virus. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of nurse staffing in California nursing homes and compare homes with and without COVID-19 residents. Study data were from both the California and Los Angeles Departments of Public Health and as well as news organizations on nursing homes reporting COVID-19 infections between March and May 4, 2020. Results indicate that nursing homes with total RN staffing levels under the recommended minimum standard (0.75 hours per resident day) had a two times greater probability of having COVID-19 resident infections. Nursing homes with lower Medicare five-star ratings on total nurse and RN staffing levels (adjusted for acuity), higher total health deficiencies, and more beds had a higher probability of having COVID-19 residents. Nursing homes with low RN and total staffing levels appear to leave residents vulnerable to COVID-19 infections. Establishing minimum staffing standards at the federal and state levels could prevent this in the future.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/nursing , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , Nursing Staff/organization & administration , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , COVID-19 , California , Humans , Nursing Staff/supply & distribution , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Skilled Nursing Facilities/organization & administration , United States , Workforce
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