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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264964, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745314

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We performed a longitudinal SARS-CoV-2 seroepidemiological study in healthcare personnel of the two largest tertiary COVID-19 referral hospitals in Mexico City. METHODS: All healthcare personnel, including staff physicians, physicians in training, nurses, laboratory technicians, researchers, students, housekeeping, maintenance, security, and administrative staff were invited to voluntarily participate, after written informed consent. Participants answered a computer-assisted self-administered interview and donated blood samples for antibody testing every three weeks from October 2020 to June 2021. RESULTS: A total of 883 participants (out of 3639 registered employees) contributed with at least one blood sample. The median age was 36 years (interquartile range: 28-46) and 70% were women. The most common occupations were nurse (28%), physician (24%), and administrative staff (22%). Two hundred and ninety participants (32.8%) had a positive-test result in any of the visits, yielding an overall adjusted prevalence of 33.5% for the whole study-period. Two hundred and thirty-five positive tests were identified at the baseline visit (prevalent cases), the remaining 55 positive tests were incident cases. Prevalent cases showed associations with both occupational (institution 2 vs. 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.54-3.25; laboratory technician vs. physician: aOR = 4.38, 95% CI: 1.75-10.93) and community (municipality of residence Xochimilco vs. Tlalpan: aOR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.09-3.79) risk-factors. The incidence rate was 3.0 cases per 100 person-months. Incident cases were associated with community-acquired risk, due to contact with suspect/confirmed COVID-19 cases (HR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.21-5.00). CONCLUSIONS: We observed that between October 2020 and June 2021, healthcare workers of the two largest tertiary COVID-19 referral centers in Mexico City had similar level of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 than the general population. Most variables associated with exposure in this setting pointed toward community rather than occupational risk. Our observations are consistent with successful occupational medicine programs for SARS-CoV-2 infection control in the participating institutions but suggest the need to strengthen mitigation strategies in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies
4.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262774, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643281

ABSTRACT

Recent studies on burnout (BO) have included both individual and situational factors, referred to as job-person fit (JPF). The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence rate of BO in the hospital staff working at a tertiary referral hospital in southwest Iran and then to highlight the importance of the person in the context of his/her work life. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2020 on all hospital staff using a three-part questionnaire comprised of personal and work-situational factors, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Psychological Empowerment Scale (PES). The partial least squares (PLS) path modelling and the neural network (NN) model were used to identify the significant variables within the BO dimensions. A total of 358 staff completed the questionnaire and were recruited for the study. Emotional exhaustion (EE) was seen in 137 medical staff (38.3%) and depersonalization (DP) was observed in 75 individuals (20.1%). Thinking about job change was the most important factor positively correlated with EE. Positive stress and work experience were among the most significant factors negatively associated with PA and DP, respectively. The hospital staff experienced BO in a way comparable to the national results. Work-situational and personal variables interacted with the three dimensions of BO in the hospital staff. More experienced staff also felt more accomplished and successful, resulting in the identification of a decreased level of DP and elevated PA.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Job Satisfaction , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Burnout, Professional/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Least-Squares Analysis , Male , Marital Status , Models, Statistical , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/etiology , Personnel Turnover/statistics & numerical data , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0258348, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633398

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, there have been concerns related to the preparedness of healthcare workers (HCWs). This study aimed to describe the level of awareness and preparedness of hospital HCWs at the time of the first wave. METHODS: This multinational, multicenter, cross-sectional survey was conducted among hospital HCWs from February to May 2020. We used a hierarchical logistic regression multivariate analysis to adjust the influence of variables based on awareness and preparedness. We then used association rule mining to identify relationships between HCW confidence in handling suspected COVID-19 patients and prior COVID-19 case-management training. RESULTS: We surveyed 24,653 HCWs from 371 hospitals across 57 countries and received 17,302 responses from 70.2% HCWs overall. The median COVID-19 preparedness score was 11.0 (interquartile range [IQR] = 6.0-14.0) and the median awareness score was 29.6 (IQR = 26.6-32.6). HCWs at COVID-19 designated facilities with previous outbreak experience, or HCWs who were trained for dealing with the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, had significantly higher levels of preparedness and awareness (p<0.001). Association rule mining suggests that nurses and doctors who had a 'great-extent-of-confidence' in handling suspected COVID-19 patients had participated in COVID-19 training courses. Male participants (mean difference = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.22, 0.46; p<0.001) and nurses (mean difference = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.81; p<0.001) had higher preparedness scores compared to women participants and doctors. INTERPRETATION: There was an unsurprising high level of awareness and preparedness among HCWs who participated in COVID-19 training courses. However, disparity existed along the lines of gender and type of HCW. It is unknown whether the difference in COVID-19 preparedness that we detected early in the pandemic may have translated into disproportionate SARS-CoV-2 burden of disease by gender or HCW type.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Personnel, Hospital , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Medical, Continuing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e3, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616906

ABSTRACT

Hand hygiene (HH) performance on entering intensive care units (ICUs) is commonly accepted but often inadequately performed. We developed a simple, inexpensive module that connects touchless dispensers of alcohol sanitiser (TDAS) to the automatic doors of a paediatric ICU, and assessed the impact of this intervention on HH compliance of hospital staff and visitors. A prospective observational study was conducted over a 3-week period prior to the intervention, followed by a 4-week period post intervention. HH performance was monitored by a research assistant whose office location enabled direct and video-assisted observation of the ICU entrance. A total of 609 entries to the ICU was recorded. Overall HH performance was 46.9% (92/196) before and 98.5% (406/413) after the intervention. Our findings suggest that HH performance on entering an ICU can be improved via a mechanism that makes operation of an automatic door dependent on use of a TDAS system, and thus contribute to infection control.


Subject(s)
Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/methods , Visitors to Patients/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/standards , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/standards , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies
7.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 170, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582005

ABSTRACT

A survey of hospitals on three continents was performed to assess their infection control preparedness and measures, and their infection rate in hospital health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. All surveyed hospitals used similar PPE but differences in preparedness, PPE shortages, and infection rates were reported.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Internationality , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(1): 102361, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vaccine hesitancy is an ongoing major challenge. We aimed to assess the uptake and hesitancy of the COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: A short online survey was posted between April 12 to July 31, 2021 targeted at health and social care workers (HCWs) across the globe. RESULTS: 275 from 37 countries responded. Most were hospital or primary care physicians or nurses, 59% women, aged 18-60 years, and 21% had chronic conditions with most prevalent being diabetes, hypertension, and asthma. We found that most HCWs (93%) had taken or willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. While 7% were vaccine hesitant (mainly women aged 30-39 years), respondents main concerns was the safety or potential side effects. Vaccine willing respondents raised concerns of unequal access to the COVID-19 vaccination in some countries, and highlighted that the only solution to overcoming COVID-19 infections was the vaccine booster doses given annually and free mass vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the majority of the frontline HCWs are willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Further promotion of the COVID-19 vaccine would reassure and persuade HCWs to become vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel , Social Workers , Adolescent , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , Culture , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Geography , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Participation/psychology , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Social Workers/psychology , Social Workers/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , /statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
9.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(3): 327-331, may.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1552060

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Ante la pandemia de COVID-19, el apego a las medidas de higiene es un objetivo para disminuir la morbimortalidad. Objetivo: Evaluar el apego a la higiene de manos y medidas de protección durante la pandemia de COVID-19 en un hospital de tercer nivel. Métodos: Estudio transversal acerca del lavado de manos del personal de salud en los cinco tiempos recomendados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, así como sobre el uso del equipo de protección personal específico. Resultados: Fueron observadas 117 oportunidades de higiene de manos en personal de salud: 40 (34 %) respecto al lavado de manos y 76 (65 %) respecto a su omisión; sobre el apego al uso de careta en cinco (4 %) y sobre la falta de apego en 112 (96 %). Se identificó apego al uso de mascarilla en 65 profesionales de enfermería (87 %), uso adecuado de mascarilla en 56 de ellos (60 %) y uso de careta en uno (1 %.) Conclusión: El personal mostró baja proporción de apego a la higiene de manos y al uso de equipo para la protección específica durante la pandemia de COVID-19.


Abstract Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, adherence to hygiene measures is an objective aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality. Objective: To evaluate adherence to hand hygiene and protection measures during the COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: Cross-sectional study on health personnel handwashing at the five moments recommended by the World Health Organization, as well as on the use of specific personal protective equipment. Results: One hundred and seventeen hand hygiene opportunities were observed in health personnel. Hand washing was observed in 40 (34 %) and omission in 76 (65 %). Adherence to the use of face shield was observed in five (4 %), and lack of adherence in 112 (96%). Adherence to the use of face mask was observed in 65 nursing professionals (87 %), with appropriate use of the mask in 56 of them (60 %) and use of face shield in one (1 %). Conclusion: Health personnel showed low proportions of adherence to hand hygiene and use of equipment for specific protection during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Personnel, Hospital/standards , Time Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Hand Hygiene/standards
10.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 313-317, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535087

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, adherence to hygiene measures is an objective aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate adherence to hand hygiene and protection measures during the COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Cross-sectional study on health personnel handwashing at the five moments recommended by the World Health Organization, as well as on the use of specific personal protective equipment. RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen hand hygiene opportunities were observed in health personnel. Hand washing was observed in 40 (34 %) and omission in 76 (65 %). Adherence to the use of face shield was observed in five (4 %), and lack of adherence in 112 (96%). Adherence to the use of face mask was observed in 65 nursing professionals (87 %), with appropriate use of the mask in 56 of them (60 %) and use of face shield in one (1 %). CONCLUSION: Health personnel showed low proportions of adherence to hand hygiene and use of equipment for specific protection during the COVID-19 pandemic.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Ante la pandemia de COVID-19, el apego a las medidas de higiene es un objetivo para disminuir la morbimortalidad. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el apego a la higiene de manos y medidas de protección durante la pandemia de COVID-19 en un hospital de tercer nivel. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal acerca del lavado de manos del personal de salud en los cinco tiempos recomendados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, así como sobre el uso del equipo de protección personal específico. RESULTADOS: Fueron observadas 117 oportunidades de higiene de manos en personal de salud: 40 (34 %) respecto al lavado de manos y 76 (65 %) respecto a su omisión; sobre el apego al uso de careta en cinco (4 %) y sobre la falta de apego en 112 (96 %). Se identificó apego al uso de mascarilla en 65 profesionales de enfermería (87 %), uso adecuado de mascarilla en 56 de ellos (60 %) y uso de careta en uno (1 %). CONCLUSIÓN: El personal mostró baja proporción de apego a la higiene de manos y al uso de equipo para la protección específica durante la pandemia de COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Hygiene/standards , Humans , Male , Personnel, Hospital/standards , Prospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Time Factors
11.
S Afr Med J ; 111(11): 1092-1097, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The availability of well and functional healthcare workers (HCWs) and support staff is pivotal to a country's ability to manage the COVID-19 pandemic effectively. While HCWs have been identified as being at increased risk for acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection, there is a paucity of data pertaining to South African (SA) HCW-related infection rates. Global and provincial disparities in these numbers necessitate local data in order to mitigate risks. OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the overall SARS-CoV-2 infection rates and outcomes among all hospital staff at three hospitals in the Tshwane district of Gauteng Province, SA, and further determine associations with the development of severe COVID-19 disease. METHODS: This retrospective audit was conducted across three academic hospitals in the Tshwane district for the period 1 June - 31 August 2020. Deidentified data from occupational health and safety departments at each hospital were used to calculate infection rates. A more detailed analysis at one of the three hospitals included evaluation of demographics, work description, possible source of SARS-CoV-2 exposure (community or hospital), comorbidities and outcomes. RESULTS: The period prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections ranged from 6.1% to 15.4% between the three hospitals, with the average period prevalence being 11.1%. The highest incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections was observed among administrative staff (2.8 cases per 1 000 staff days), followed by nursing staff (2.7 cases per 1 000 staff days). Medical doctors had the lowest incidence of 1.1 cases per 1 000 staff days. SARS-CoV-2 infections were categorised as either possibly community or possibly healthcare facility acquired for 26.6% and 73.4% of the infections, respectively. The administrative group had the highest proportion of possible community-acquired infections (41.8%), while doctors had the lowest (6.1%). The mean age of individuals with mild and severe disease was 41 years and 46.1 years, respectively (p=0.004). The presence of comorbidities was significantly associated with severity of disease (p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that hospital staff, including administrative staff, are clearly at high risk for acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection during a surge.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Distribution , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , South Africa/epidemiology
12.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 210(2): 98-103, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504110

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly contagious new ß-coronavirus that primarily affects the lungs. Because of its unprecedented spread, in a relatively short interval, it is declared a global pandemic. Binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors, SARS-CoV-2 is easily disseminated through air. Apart from the established clinical panel, individuals exposed to prolonged chronic stress also manifest gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms similar to those exhibited by SARS-CoV-2-infected patients.The present study aims to assess the incidence of GI deficiencies and prevalence of anxiety among healthy medical staff by applying the Visual Analog Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) during this global crisis.We found significant differences on several items of the VAS-IBS: regarding the incidence of diarrhea (p = 0.04), bloating/gases (p = 0.02), and nausea/vomiting (p = 0.01) from the physical spectrum. After stratification based on age of the participants and after we applied Kruskal-Wallis test because of heterogeneity between groups, we noted two situations in which the null hypothesis is rejected: nausea/vomiting in women between 20 and 30 years, and between 30 and 40, and between 40 and 50 years, respectively (p = 0.026/0.029). Anxiety was prevalent among young and middle-class people after the centralization of HAM-A data, where 40.4% of the participants had various forms of anxiety: mild (n = 13; 13.82%), severe (n = 13; 13.82%), and moderate (n = 12; 12.76%).This study demonstrates that VAS-IBS is a reliable tool for assessing the incidence of GI deficiencies, as well as HAM-A for anxiety.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Constipation/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/epidemiology , Nausea/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Vomiting/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Psychometrics , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 39, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502776

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads, sleep problems are expected to increase among healthcare workers. Therefore, we aimed to assess the knowledge of COVID-19, sleep problem and identify sociodemographic factors associated with sleep problems among healthcare workers in a Nigerian neuropsychiatric hospital. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 healthcare workers in a neuropsychiatric hospital using self-administered questionnaires to assess knowledge of COVID-19, sleep problem, social support, and sociodemographic factors that affect sleep. Chi-square test and Spearman's correlation were applied to assess the association between sociodemographic factors and sleep problems. RESULTS: about 23.9% of the healthcare workers reported having a sleep problem. However, there was no association of sleep problems with any sociodemographic factors except age (r=0.26) and social support (r=-0.18). CONCLUSION: the study offered insight into the occurrence of sleep problems among healthcare workers and suggested a guide for planning interventions targeted at improving the psychological well-being of healthcare workers in the face of current global pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals, Psychiatric , Humans , Male , Nigeria , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Neuropsychopharmacol Rep ; 41(4): 544-547, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499302

ABSTRACT

AIM: Depression is a frequent outcome of long-term stress, but no studies have examined depression rates among Japanese healthcare workers fighting the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, we conducted a web-based interview of hospital employees to assess depression prevalence and factors. METHODS: This observational cohort study was conducted from July to August, 2020, as part of a mandatory health checkup of Juntendo University Hospital employees (Tokyo, Japan). A total of 4239 participants completed a web-based questionnaire on medical history and current health status. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used for self-assessment, with a score of ≥16 considered to indicate depression. RESULTS: Among all employees, the proportion of depression was 31.3% in 2020, the highest measured in the last 10 years and substantially greater than the pre-pandemic value in 2019 (27.5%). The proportion of depression for 2020 was significantly higher in new recruits than in employees with more than 2 years of experience (47.0% vs 29.9%, respectively, P < .0001) and in new recruits in 2019 (26.4%, P < .0001). When subdivided by occupation, nurses demonstrated the highest depression rate (43.2%), followed by paramedics (35.1%) and clerks (31.6%), whereas residents (22.9%), doctors (20.4%), teaching staff (18.0%), and part-time staff (15.3%) reported lower depression rates. The positive CES-D score significantly correlated with age (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Younger and newer employees demonstrated the highest rates of depression independent of occupation. Therefore, mental healthcare programs focusing on these vulnerable groups need to be established.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(11): e1517-e1527, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over 1 year since the first reported case, the true COVID-19 burden in Ethiopia remains unknown due to insufficient surveillance. We aimed to investigate the seroepidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 among front-line hospital workers and communities in Ethiopia. METHODS: We did a population-based, longitudinal cohort study at two tertiary teaching hospitals involving hospital workers, rural residents, and urban communities in Jimma and Addis Ababa. Hospital workers were recruited at both hospitals, and community participants were recruited by convenience sampling including urban metropolitan settings, urban and semi-urban settings, and rural communities. Participants were eligible if they were aged 18 years or older, had provided written informed consent, and were willing to provide blood samples by venepuncture. Only one participant per household was recruited. Serology was done with Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid assay in three consecutive rounds, with a mean interval of 6 weeks between tests, to obtain seroprevalence and incidence estimates within the cohorts. FINDINGS: Between Aug 5, 2020, and April 10, 2021, we did three survey rounds with a total of 1104 hospital workers and 1229 community residents participating. SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among hospital workers increased strongly during the study period: in Addis Ababa, it increased from 10·9% (95% credible interval [CrI] 8·3-13·8) in August, 2020, to 53·7% (44·8-62·5) in February, 2021, with an incidence rate of 2223 per 100 000 person-weeks (95% CI 1785-2696); in Jimma Town, it increased from 30·8% (95% CrI 26·9-34·8) in November, 2020, to 56·1% (51·1-61·1) in February, 2021, with an incidence rate of 3810 per 100 000 person-weeks (95% CI 3149-4540). Among urban communities, an almost 40% increase in seroprevalence was observed in early 2021, with incidence rates of 1622 per 100 000 person-weeks (1004-2429) in Jimma Town and 4646 per 100 000 person-weeks (2797-7255) in Addis Ababa. Seroprevalence in rural communities increased from 18·0% (95% CrI 13·5-23·2) in November, 2020, to 31·0% (22·3-40·3) in March, 2021. INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 spread in Ethiopia has been highly dynamic among hospital worker and urban communities. We can speculate that the greatest wave of SARS-CoV-2 infections is currently evolving in rural Ethiopia, and thus requires focused attention regarding health-care burden and disease prevention. FUNDING: Bavarian State Ministry of Sciences, Research, and the Arts; Germany Ministry of Education and Research; EU Horizon 2020 programme; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft; and Volkswagenstiftung.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
16.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e225, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467028

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy remains a serious global threat to achieve herd immunity, and this study aimed to assess the magnitude and associated factors of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Amhara regional referral hospitals. A web-based anonymised survey was conducted among 440 HCWs in the Amhara region referral hospitals. The questionnaire was designed using Google Forms and distributed using telegram and e-mail from 15 May to 10 June 2021 to the randomly selected participants in each hospital. The data were analysed with Stata 14.0 and described using frequency tables. A multivariable binary logistic regression model was fitted and model fitness was checked with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test. Out of 440 participants, 418 were willing to participate in the study and the mean age was about 30 years. Overall, 45.9% (n = 192) of participants reported vaccine hesitancy. After applying multivariate analysis, age ≤25 years (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 5.6); do not wear a mask (aOR = 2.4); not compliance with physical distancing (aOR = 3.6); unclear information by public health authorities (aOR = 2.5); low risk of getting COVID-19 infection (aOR = 2.8); and not sure about the tolerability of the vaccine (aOR = 3.76) were associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. A considerable proportion of HCWs were hesitant towards COVID-19 vaccine, and this can be tackled with the provision of clear information about the vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Adult , Attitude to Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Health Status , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Risk Factors , Secondary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 227, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449269

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: as the COVID-19 pandemic rages on, sub-Saharan Africa remains at high risk given the poor adherence to pandemic control protocols. Misconceptions about the contagion may have given rise to adverse risk behaviours across population groups. This study evaluates risk perception among 2,244 residents of seven countries in sub-Saharan Africa (Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe) in relation to socio-demographic determinants. METHODS: an online survey was conducted via social media platforms to a random sample of participants. Risk perception was evaluated across six domains: loss of income, food scarcity, having a relative infected, civil disorder, criminal attacks, or losing a friend or relative to COVID-19. A multivariable ordinal logistic regression was conducted to assess socio-demographic factors associated with the perceived risk of being affected by COVID-19. RESULTS: 595 (27%) respondents did not consider themselves to be at risk, while 33% perceived themselves to be at high risk of being affected by the pandemic with respect to the six domains evaluated. Hospital-based workers had the highest proportional odds (3.5; 95%CI: 2.3-5.6) high perceived risk. Teenage respondents had the highest predictive probability (54.6%; 95% CI: 36.6-72.7%) of perceiving themselves not to be at risk of being affected by COVID-19, while Zambia residents had the highest predictive probability (40.7%; 95% CI: 34.3-47.0%) for high-risk perception. CONCLUSION: this study reveals the need to increase awareness of risks among socio-demographic groups such as younger people and the unemployed. Targeted risk communication strategies will create better risk consciousness, as well as adherence to safety measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Guideline Adherence , Risk-Taking , Adult , Africa South of the Sahara , Age Factors , COVID-19/psychology , Communication , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Perception , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Probability , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Unemployment , Young Adult
18.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257002, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy seems to be universal across countries and subgroups, and so are its determinants. We studied the willingness and factors associated with the decision to be vaccinated against COVID-19 in healthcare workers (HCW) in a Spanish tertiary hospital. Furthermore, we compared the percentage of willingness to vaccinate against COVID with actual vaccination rates among HCW in our hospital. METHODS: From December 21, 2020 to January 4, 2021, before initiation of the COVID-19 HCW vaccination campaign at Germans Trias i Pujol University Hospital (HUGTiP), an anonymous self-administered questionnaire was administered to HCW. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression of the association of variables with the outcome "intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccine as soon as possible" was conducted. Vaccination rates were extracted from the hospital information systems. RESULTS: Forty-four percent of HCW included in the study declared a willingness to be vaccinated against COVID-19 as soon as possible. This was associated with male sex [1.66 (95%CI 1.13-2.43); p = 0.009], older age [1.02 (95%CI 1.00-1.03); p = 0.014], belonging to the occupational groups "physician" or "other" [5.76 (95%CI 3.44-9.63) and 2.15 (95%CI 1.25-3.70); p<0.001], respectively, and reporting influenza vaccination during the last three seasons or at least one of the last three seasons [3.84 (95%CI 2.56-5.75) and 2.49 (95%CI 1.71-3.63); p<0.001]. One in ten hospital workers reported they were unwilling to receive COVID-19 vaccination. Actual COVID-19 vaccination uptake among HCW was higher (80.4%) than the percentage of willingness to vaccinate estimated from the questionnaire. Physicians not only had the highest vaccination rate, but also the highest correlation between the reported intention to vaccinate and the final decision to receive COVID-19 vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination uptake was higher than previously estimated according to the stated intentions of HCW. Doubts and fears must be addressed, particularly in persons less inclined to be vaccinated: females, younger people and those not vaccinated against influenza in recent seasons. The study of barriers and strategies aimed at promoting COVID-19 vaccination must be adapted in relation to occupational groups' attitudes, understanding their idiosyncrasies with respect to this and other vaccines.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Spain/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers
19.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(5): 604-608, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387086

ABSTRACT

In this prospective cohort of 1,012 Swiss hospital employees, 3 different assays were used to screen serum for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Seropositivity was 1%; the positive predictive values of the lateral-flow immunoassay were 64% (IgG) and 13% (IgM). History of fever and myalgia most effectively differentiated seropositive and seronegative participants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Switzerland/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(47): 1762-1766, 2020 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389859

ABSTRACT

Most persons infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), develop virus-specific antibodies within several weeks, but antibody titers might decline over time. Understanding the timeline of antibody decline is important for interpreting SARS-CoV-2 serology results. Serum specimens were collected from a convenience sample of frontline health care personnel at 13 hospitals and tested for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 during April 3-June 19, 2020, and again approximately 60 days later to assess this timeline. The percentage of participants who experienced seroreversion, defined as an antibody signal-to-threshold ratio >1.0 at baseline and <1.0 at the follow-up visit, was assessed. Overall, 194 (6.0%) of 3,248 participants had detectable antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 at baseline (1). Upon repeat testing approximately 60 days later (range = 50-91 days), 146 (93.6%) of 156 participants experienced a decline in antibody response indicated by a lower signal-to-threshold ratio at the follow-up visit, compared with the baseline visit, and 44 (28.2%) experienced seroreversion. Participants with higher initial antibody responses were more likely to have antibodies detected at the follow-up test than were those who had a lower initial antibody response. Whether decay in these antibodies increases risk for reinfection and disease remains unanswered. However, these results suggest that serology testing at a single time point is likely to underestimate the number of persons with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, and a negative serologic test result might not reliably exclude prior infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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