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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1296, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098341

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the current pandemic context, dental professionals have greater occupational risks due to their healthcare activity, placing their expectations on the vaccine as a means of protection and at the same time hoping that the immunization process will be safe, reliable and comfortable, giving them greater peace of mind when they return to work. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop and provide a preliminary validation of a scale to measure perception of the COVID-19 vaccination process in Peruvian dental professionals. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with instrumental design. The scale was self-administered virtually. It was distributed through social networks to 220 dental professionals from two universities in the Peruvian capital between June and August 2021. The Aiken V was used for content analysis, while descriptive statistics such as mean, variance, kurtosis and skewness were used for construct validation, in addition to Pearson's correlation matrix for analysis of the 18 items. Subsequently, a Parallel Analysis based on minimum rank factor analysis was performed. Finally, the reliability of the total scale and its dimensions was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS: The Aiken V coefficient values were favorable for all items. Parallel analysis indicated the existence of three dimensions. Principal component analysis with rotation suggested grouping eight items for the first dimension, six items for the second dimension and four items for the third dimension. These dimensions showed good reliability, as Cronbach's alpha was 0.87, (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84-0.90), 0.80 (95% CI: 0.75-0.84) and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.78-0.86), respectively. In addition, the overall reliability of the scale was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.86-0.91), being acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: The perception scale of the COVID-19 vaccination process in dental professionals proved preliminarily to be a valid and reliable scale that can be used for research purposes. However, it is recommended to extend its application and evaluate its metric properties in other health professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Peru/epidemiology , Perception , Dentists , Vaccination
2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1962, 2022 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, affecting an estimated 260 million people. However, little evidence is available on how pandemic-related characteristics influence food security in a high-altitude population. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with food insecurity in high-altitude Peruvian cities during the second epidemic wave of COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in eight Peruvian cities over 1,500 m above sea level. An online survey measuring food security, presence of anxiety & depressive symptoms, sleep quality, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), resilience, and sociodemographic characteristics was disseminated through social networks between December 2020 and February 2021. Generalized linear models were used to identify an association between the study variables. RESULTS: Of 700 participants, the median age was 23 years, and more than half were female (56.7%). The prevalence of food insecurity was 37.1%. Anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and PTSD were present in 72.7%, 64.1%, and 15% of respondents, respectively. The prevalence of food insecurity was higher in people with fair (PR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.23-2.07) and very bad perception of their health (PR: 4.06, 95% CI: 2.63-6.26), individuals seeking mental health support (PR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.25-1.62), and in those who lost their job due to the pandemic (PR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.62-2.04). Having moderate (PR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.26-1.83) and moderate to severe depressive symptoms (PR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.11-2.27) also increased the prevalence of food insecurity. CONCLUSION: During the pandemic, the prevalence of food insecurity has increased in the Peruvian high-altitude population, revealing the need for preventive strategies. Identification of pandemic-related characteristics that influence food insecurity can guide interventions in at-risk individuals and reduce the long-term impact of this problem on overall health and quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prevalence , Peru/epidemiology , Cities , Retrospective Studies , Quality of Life , Altitude , Food Supply , Food Insecurity
3.
Arch Prev Riesgos Labor ; 25(3): 271-284, 2022 07 15.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080979

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the sociodemographic characteristics and determine the factors associated with psychological manifestations of depression, anxiety, and stress in healthcare workers in the context of COVID-19 pandemic in health facilities in Peru during the month of May 2020. METHODS: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted out in healthcare workers of hospital establishments in Peru. To evaluate the outcome of interest, we administered a structured questionnaire that asked about type of healthcare personnel; sociodemographic characteristics; Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7); Patient Health Questionnaire scale (PHQ-9); and the Revised Stressor Impact scale (IES-R). We used generalized linear Poisson models, with a logarithmic link function and robust variance. RESULTS: Out of 258 respondents, 254 completed the survey; 61.8% were women; the most common work area was emergency department or hospitalization (inpatient) services (62.2%). The median PHQ-9 score was 4 points (IQR: 2-7); for the GAD-7, it was 6 points (IQR: 4-8), and for the IES-R, 16 points (IQR: 8-24). The multivariate analysis showed that being a physician was associated with less anxiety (PR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.62-0.94), whereas living alone was associated with a greater risk of depression (PR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.11-1.92). CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare personnel are at risk of manifesting psychological alterations, mainly associated with the female gender, non-medical personnel and living alone.


OBJETIVO: Describir las características sociodemográficas y determinar los factores asociados a manifestaciones psicológicas de depresión, ansiedad y estrés en trabajadores sanitarios en el contexto de la pandemia por COVID-19 en los establecimientos de salud del Perú durante mayo de 2020. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en trabajadores sanitarios de establecimientos hospitalarios del Perú. Se elaboró un cuestionario estructurado que incluía las características sociodemográficas, la profesión, área y lugar de trabajo, y cuestionarios validados para trastorno de ansiedad generalizada (GAD-7), Salud del paciente (PHQ-9) y la Escala de impacto del estresor revisada (IES-R). Para el análisis se utilizó modelos lineales generalizados de Poisson, función de enlace logarítmico y varianzas robustas. Se calculó el rango intercuartílico (RIC) y la razón de prevalencia ajustada (RPa) y su intervalo de confianza del 95% (IC95%). RESULTADOS: De un total de 258 encuestados, 254 (98%) completaron al cuestionario, siendo el 61,8% mujeres y el área de trabajo más común emergencia u hospitalización (62,2%). La puntuación mediana del PHQ-9 fue 4 (RIC:2-7), del GAD-7 fue 6 (RIC:4-8) y para el IES-R fue 16 (RIC:8-24). El análisis multivariado mostró que ser médico se asocia con una menor prevalencia de ansiedad (RPa: 0,77; IC 95%: 0,62-0,94), mientras que vivir solo se asoció con una mayor prevalencia de depresión (RPa: 1,46; IC 95%: 1,11-1,92). Conclusión: El personal sanitario manifestó alteraciones psicológicas, asociado principalmente al personal no médico y vivir solo.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Health Facilities , Delivery of Health Care
4.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 50: 102472, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To explore the association between the use of prehospital medications and the development of fatal outcomes in patients who required hospitalization due to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included adult patients who were hospitalized due to COVID-19. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, prehospital medication history, and fatal outcome development (use of high-flow oxygen therapy, intensive care unit [ICU] admission, or mortality) were extracted from the medical records of patients who were admitted due to COVID-19 to the Carlos Seguín Escobedo National Hospital of Arequipa, Peru during July to September 2021, the period after the second wave of COVID-19 cases in Peru. Survival was analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model, and crude hazard ratios and adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 192 patients were evaluated, of whom 62% were males and 46.9% did not require oxygen support at admission. Additionally, 64.6% used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 35.4% used corticosteroids, 28.1% used macrolides or ceftriaxone, 24.5% used ivermectin, and 21.9% used warfarin before hospitalization. Of the patients, 30.2% developed a fatal outcome during follow-up. The multivariate analysis revealed that prehospital corticosteroid use was independently associated with the fatal outcome due to COVID-19 with an aHR = 5.29 (95%CI: 1.63-17.2). CONCLUSION: Prehospital corticosteroid use was associated with a 5-fold increased risk of fatal outcome development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Adult , Male , Humans , Female , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Peru/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Cohort Studies , Hospitals , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Referral and Consultation , Oxygen
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 123: 212-220, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069127

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify differences in the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of patients during the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic at the EsSalud Lambayeque health care network, Peru. METHODS: An analytical cross-sectional study of 53,912 patients enrolled during the first and second waves of COVID-19 was conducted. Cluster analysis based on clustering large applications (CLARA) was applied to clinical-epidemiologic data presented at the time of care. The two pandemic waves were compared using clinical-epidemiologic data from epidemiologic surveillance. RESULTS: Cluster analysis identified four COVID-19 groups with a characteristic pattern. Cluster 1 included the largest number of participants in both waves, and the participants were predominantly female. Cluster 2 included patients with gastrointestinal, respiratory, and systemic symptoms. Cluster 3 was the "severe" cluster, characterized by older adults and patients with dyspnea or comorbidities (cardiovascular, diabetes, obesity). Cluster 4 included asymptomatic, pregnant, and less severe patients. We found differences in all clinical-epidemiologic characteristics according to the cluster to which they belonged. CONCLUSION: Using cluster analysis, we identified characteristic patterns in each group. Respiratory, gastrointestinal, dyspnea, anosmia, and ageusia symptoms were higher in the second COVID-19 wave than the first COVID-19 wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , Pregnancy
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065962

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify changes in the prevalence of childhood (children under five years of age) overweight and obesity in Peru as a whole and at the departmental level, before and during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. We performed a secondary data analysis of two Demographic and Family Health Surveys (2019 and 2021) in Peru. The outcome was childhood overweight and obesity, defined as a weight-for-height score greater than 2 standard deviations. Poisson log generalized linear regression models adjusted for sex and/or age in months of the child were fitted to obtain the prevalence ratios of the changes in childhood overweight and obesity from 2019 to 2021. The analysis included 41,533 (2019: 20,414; 2021: 21,119) participants. The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity was 6.4% in 2019 and 7.8% in 2021. Female children, aged 2, 3 and 4 years, and mothers who self-identified as non-native, had secondary and higher education, belonged to the middle and richer wealth quintile and resided in an urban area, in a village, in a small city and in the coastal region showed the largest increases in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in 2021 compared to 2019. The departments of Pasco, Apurímac, Junín, Cusco, Lambayeque and La Libertad presented the largest increases in the prevalence of these nutritional disorders. During the pandemic, an increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity was observed, with demographic and socioeconomic factors accounting for the largest increases in the prevalence rates. A restructuring of overweight and obesity control strategies is required to curb this steady increase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Prevalence , Socioeconomic Factors
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055247

ABSTRACT

A range of health-related and behavioral risk factors are associated with COVID-19 incidence and mortality. In the present study, we assess the association between incidence, mortality, and case fatality rate due to COVID-19 and the prevalence of hypertension, obesity, overweight, tobacco and alcohol use in the Peruvian population aged ≥15 years during the first and second year of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this ecological study, we used the prevalence rates of hypertension, overweight, obesity, tobacco, and alcohol use obtained from the Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar (ENDES) 2020 and 2021. We estimated the crude incidence and mortality rates (per 100,000 habitants) and case fatality rate (%) of COVID-19 in 25 Peruvian regions using data from the Peruvian Ministry of Health that were accurate as of 31 December 2021. Spearman correlation and lineal regression analysis was applied to assess the correlations between the study variables as well as multivariable regression analysis adjusted by confounding factors affecting the incidence and mortality rate and case fatality rate of COVID-19. In 2020, adjusted by confounding factors, the prevalence rate of obesity (ß = 0.582; p = 0.037) was found to be associated with the COVID-19 mortality rate (per 100,000 habitants). There was also an association between obesity and the COVID-19 case fatality rate (ß = 0.993; p = 0.014). In 2021, the prevalence of obesity was also found to be associated with the COVID-19 mortality rate (ß = 0.713; p = 0.028); however, adjusted by confounding factors, including COVID-19 vaccination coverage rates, no association was found between the obesity prevalence and the COVID-19 mortality rate (ß = 0.031; p = 0.895). In summary, Peruvian regions with higher obesity prevalence rates had higher COVID-19 mortality and case fatality rates during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, adjusted by the COVID-19 vaccination coverage, no association between the obesity prevalence rate and the COVID-19 mortality rate was found during the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e061332, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053211

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in adults and children, but most of the world lacks diagnostic imaging for its assessment. Lung ultrasound is a portable, low-cost, and highly accurate imaging modality for assessment of pulmonary pathology including pneumonia, but its deployment is limited secondary to a lack of trained sonographers. In this study, we piloted a low-cost lung teleultrasound system in rural Peru during the COVID-19 pandemic using lung ultrasound volume sweep imaging (VSI) that can be operated by an individual without prior ultrasound training circumventing many obstacles to ultrasound deployment. DESIGN: Pilot study. SETTING: Study activities took place in five health centres in rural Peru. PARTICIPANTS: There were 213 participants presenting to rural health clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Individuals without prior ultrasound experience in rural Peru underwent brief training on how to use the teleultrasound system and perform lung ultrasound VSI. Subsequently, patients attending clinic were scanned by these previously ultrasound-naïve operators with the teleultrasound system. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Radiologists examined the ultrasound imaging to assess its diagnostic value and identify any pathology. A random subset of 20% of the scans were analysed for inter-reader reliability. RESULTS: Lung VSI teleultrasound examinations underwent detailed analysis by two cardiothoracic attending radiologists. Of the examinations, 202 were rated of diagnostic image quality (94.8%, 95% CI 90.9% to 97.4%). There was 91% agreement between radiologists on lung ultrasound interpretation among a 20% sample of all examinations (κ=0.76, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.98). Radiologists were able to identify sequelae of COVID-19 with the predominant finding being B-lines. CONCLUSION: Lung VSI teleultrasound performed by individuals without prior training allowed diagnostic imaging of the lungs and identification of sequelae of COVID-19 infection. Deployment of lung VSI teleultrasound holds potential as a low-cost means to improve access to imaging around the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Child , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , Pilot Projects , Reproducibility of Results , Ultrasonography/methods
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16737, 2022 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050548

ABSTRACT

A total of 188,859 meteorological-PM[Formula: see text] data validated before (2019) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020) were used. In order to predict PM[Formula: see text] in two districts of South Lima in Peru, hourly, daily, monthly and seasonal variations of the data were analyzed. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and linear/nonlinear modeling were applied. The results showed the highest annual average PM[Formula: see text] for San Juan de Miraflores (SJM) (PM[Formula: see text]-SJM: 78.7 [Formula: see text]g/m[Formula: see text]) and the lowest in Santiago de Surco (SS) (PM[Formula: see text]-SS: 40.2 [Formula: see text]g/m[Formula: see text]). The PCA showed the influence of relative humidity (RH)-atmospheric pressure (AP)-temperature (T)/dew point (DP)-wind speed (WS)-wind direction (WD) combinations. Cool months with higher humidity and atmospheric instability decreased PM[Formula: see text] values in SJM and warm months increased it, favored by thermal inversion (TI). Dust resuspension, vehicular transport and stationary sources contributed more PM[Formula: see text] at peak times in the morning and evening. The Multiple linear regression (MLR) showed the best correlation (r = 0.6166), followed by the three-dimensional model LogAP-LogWD-LogPM[Formula: see text] (r = 0.5753); the RMSE-MLR (12.92) exceeded that found in the 3D models (RMSE [Formula: see text]) and the NSE-MLR criterion (0.3804) was acceptable. PM[Formula: see text] prediction was modeled using the algorithmic approach in any scenario to optimize urban management decisions in times of pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dust , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043718

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The current study will evaluate the association that the COVID-19 pandemic has had with health-care workers and identify the factors that influenced the female gender being more affected. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in two hospitals in Arequipa (a Peruvian city). The participants were health-care workers. We applied a questionnaire with sociodemographic information and three scales: the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Primary Care Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screen for DSM-5. The main outcomes were anxiety, depression, and PTSD scores. The exposure of interest was gender. The scores of the scales were estimated by medians and percentiles 25-75 (p25-p75), and we used linear regression to estimate the crude and adjusted coefficients and their respective confidence intervals at 95% (CI 95%). RESULTS: There were 109 participants, and 43.1% were women. The anxiety, depression, and PTSD median (p25-p75) scores in the study population were 6 (2-11), 6 (2-10), and 1 (0-3), respectively. The adjusted analysis showed that the female sex had 4.48 (CI 95% 2.95-6.00), 4.50 (CI 95% 2.39-6.62), and 1.13 (CI 95% 0.50-1.76) higher points on average for the scales of anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms in comparison to males, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Female health-care workers showed increased scores of mental health issues in comparison to male health-care workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 946697, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043530

ABSTRACT

This study aims to examine the relationships between symptoms of anxiety, depression, stress, worry about COVID-19 and fear of loneliness during COVID-19 lockdown in Peru using network analysis. There were 854 participants aged 18 to 50 years (Mean = 36.54; SD = 9.23); 634 females (74.20%) and 220 males (25.80%), who completed the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Preoccupation with COVID-19 Contagion (PRE-COVID-19), Brief Scale of Fear of Loneliness (BSFL). A partial unregularized network was estimated through the ggmModSelect function. Expected influence (EI) and bridging EI values were calculated to identify central symptoms and bridging symptoms respectively. The results reveal those two symptoms of depression-stress and anxiety-were the most central symptoms in the network. Depressive symptoms are at the same time the most comorbid and it is shown that there are no differences in the network when compared between those who left home and those who did not leave home during lockdown. Depressive symptoms are concluded to be central and bridging in the network and interconnected with some symptoms of stress and anxiety. These findings may be important to understand the experience of COVID-19 lockdown in Peru.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Fear , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Peru/epidemiology
12.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 39(3): 273-286, 2022 06.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2044074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the proven efficacy and safety of COVID-19 vaccines, pediatric vaccination coverage remains low in many countries. There are still doubts and fears in parents about vaccination in their children under 12 years of age. AIM: To evaluate the perceptions and intention of parents to vaccinate their children under 12 years of age. METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study based on an online survey that evaluated the parents' perceptions regarding the risk of COVID-19 infection, the need for a vaccine, and the vaccine adverse events in their children under 12 years. We assessed the factors associated with the intention to vaccinate through crude (cPR) and adjusted prevalence rates (aPR), with confidence interval of 95% (CI 95%). RESULTS: 83.5% of respondents had the intention to vaccinate their children under 12 years of age. In the multivariate analysis, the factors associated with a decrease in the intention to vaccinate were to believe that the vaccine was not necessary (aPR 0.65; 95% CI 0.44 - 0.94), that it would not protect (aPR: 0.14; 95% CI 0.03 - 0.63), it would not be safe (aPR: 0.80; 95% CI 0.70 - 0.92) and it would cause long-term side effects (aPR: 0.92; 95% CI 0.85 - 1.00). On the other hand, living on the highlands or jungle was associated with an increase in the intention. CONCLUSION: In Peru, 16.5% of parents would not vaccinate their children under 12 years of age, because they perceived that the vaccine was not necessary and would not protect against COVID-19. In addition, they expressed concerns about the development of possible adverse events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Intention , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Parents , Perception , Peru/epidemiology
13.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(10)2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043862

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Sleep disorders are a common public health problem among college students. The objective of this study was to evaluate sleep quality and its associated factors in medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional analytical study-we conducted a secondary analysis of the survey "Nomophobia in medical students in Peru" database between 2020 and 2021. Sleep disturbances were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). To evaluate associated factors, crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Results: We analyzed data from 3139 participants from 18 cities in Peru (61.1% were women, median age: 22 years). 43.4% had a quality of sleep that could require medical attention; the PSQI dimension with the highest score was daytime dysfunction. The poor sleep quality was associated with symptoms of anxiety (aPR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.27-1.72), depression (aPR: 2.03; 1.72-2.39), or nomophobia (aPR: 1.28; 1.09-1.51). Conclusions: Sleep disorders were a common problem among Peruvian medical students and were associated with anxiety, depression, or nomophobia symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Students, Medical , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Male , Peru/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/diagnosis
14.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274697, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039424

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence, associated factors and socioeconomic inequalities in chronic disease relapses (CDR) during 2020 in Peru. METHODS: A secondary analysis was made of the National Household Survey on Living Conditions and Poverty (ENAHO) 2020. Participants older than 18 years who suffered from a chronic disease and with information about the occurrence of a CDR in the last 4 weeks prior to the survey were included. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) were estimated to determine the associated factors. Socioeconomic inequality in CDR was estimated using concentration curves (CC) and the Erreygers concentration index (ECI). RESULTS: Data from 38,662 participants were analyzed; the prevalence of CDR in the last 4 weeks prior to the survey was 16.5% (95% CI: 15.8-17.2). Being female (aPR 1.29; 95% CI: 1.21-1.37), with regards to being male; being 30-39 (aPR 1.22; 95% CI: 1.05-1.42), 40-49 (aPR 1.29; 95% CI: 1.12-1.48), 50-59 (aPR 1.60; 95% CI: 1.41-1.82), and 60 years or older (aPR 1.80; 95% CI: 1.58-2.04), compared to 18-29; reaching up to primary (aPR 1.18; 95% CI: 1.07-1.31), or secondary education (aPR 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02-1.24), in contrast to tertiary education; presenting some physical, psychological or cognitive limitation (aPR 1.33; 95% CI: 1.21-1.46), with respect to experiencing no limitations; and being affiliated to a health insurance (aPR 1.18; CI 95%: 1.09-1.29), opposed to not having health insurance; were associated with a higher probability of CDR. Residing in the natural region of the coastal area (aPR 0.83; 95% CI: 0.74-0.92) was associated with a lower probability of relapse compared to residing in the jungle area. In people with limitations and residents of the jungle areas, the prevalence of CDR was concentrated in those with higher per capita spending. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 1 in 6 Peruvians with chronic diseases had a relapse within the last 4 weeks prior to the survey of 2020 and certain geographic and sociodemographic factors were found to be associated with CDR. It was also found that a higher concentration of CDR was observed in the population with the highest per capita spending with some limitations, as well as in residents of the jungle, implying the need for appropriate policy interventions that address CDR with a special focus on these populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , Recurrence
15.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271044, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039359

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Human rhinovirus is a major cause of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) worldwide. Epidemiological data on human rhinovirus (RV) in Peru is still scarce, as well as its role in respiratory infections in children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of rhinovirus and to identify the circulating species in nasopharyngeal swabs from children with acute respiratory infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed nasopharyngeal swab samples that were collected from children younger than 17 years old, who had a clinical diagnosis of ARI from the "Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia" between May 2009 and December 2010. The original study recruited 767 inpatients with ARI, 559 samples of which were included and analyzed in the current study. Detection of rhinovirus and determination of rhinovirus species were characterized by PCR. RESULTS: Rhinovirus was detected in 42.22% samples (236/559), RV-A was detected in 10.17% (24/236) of the cases, RV-B in 16.53% (39/236), and RV-C in 73.31% (173/236). The age group with the highest number of cases was the 0-5 months group with 45.97%, followed by the 1-5 years group with 25.22%. Most of the positive RV cases, i.e., 86.44% (204/236), were hospitalized. The most common signs and symptoms found in patients who tested positive for RV were cough (72.88%), fever (68.64%), rhinorrhea (68.22%), and respiratory distress (61.44%). Infection with RV-A was associated with wheezing (p = 0.02). Furthermore, RV-C was related to cough (p = 0.01), wheezing (p = 0.002), and conjunctival injection (p = 0.03). A peak in RV-C cases was found in March (32 cases in 2010); June (18 cases in 2009 and 12 cases in 2010), which corresponds to the fall season in Peru; and also November (17 cases in 2009 and 4 cases in 2010), which corresponds to spring. RV-A and RV-B cases were constant throughout the year. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we found a high prevalence of rhinovirus C infection among pediatric patients with acute respiratory infections in Lima, Peru. This viral infection was more common in children between 0 to 5 months old, and was associated with cough, wheezing, and conjunctival injection. Epidemiological surveillance of this virus should be strengthened/encouraged in Peru to determine its real impact on respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
Enterovirus Infections , Picornaviridae Infections , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adolescent , Child , Cough/complications , Enterovirus Infections/complications , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Peru/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Prevalence , Respiratory Sounds/etiology , Rhinovirus/genetics
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e063411, 2022 09 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038313

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been used in clinical medicine (eg, X-rays classification). Whether CNNs could inform the epidemiology of COVID-19 classifying street images according to COVID-19 risk is unknown, yet it could pinpoint high-risk places and relevant features of the built environment. In a feasibility study, we trained CNNs to classify the area surrounding bus stops (Lima, Peru) into moderate or extreme COVID-19 risk. DESIGN: CNN analysis based on images from bus stops and the surrounding area. We used transfer learning and updated the output layer of five CNNs: NASNetLarge, InceptionResNetV2, Xception, ResNet152V2 and ResNet101V2. We chose the best performing CNN, which was further tuned. We used GradCam to understand the classification process. SETTING: Bus stops from Lima, Peru. We used five images per bus stop. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Bus stop images were classified according to COVID-19 risk into two labels: moderate or extreme. RESULTS: NASNetLarge outperformed the other CNNs except in the recall metric for the moderate label and in the precision metric for the extreme label; the ResNet152V2 performed better in these two metrics (85% vs 76% and 63% vs 60%, respectively). The NASNetLarge was further tuned. The best recall (75%) and F1 score (65%) for the extreme label were reached with data augmentation techniques. Areas close to buildings or with people were often classified as extreme risk. CONCLUSIONS: This feasibility study showed that CNNs have the potential to classify street images according to levels of COVID-19 risk. In addition to applications in clinical medicine, CNNs and street images could advance the epidemiology of COVID-19 at the population level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023668

ABSTRACT

Abdominal obesity (AO) is a serious public health threat due to its increasing prevalence and effect on the development of various non-communicable diseases. A multilevel analysis of the 2019 Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES in Spanish) using the Latin American Diabetes Association (ALAD in Spanish) cut-off points was carried out to evaluate the individual and contextual factors associated with AO in Peru. A total of 30,585 individuals 18 years and older were included in the analysis. The prevalence of AO among Peruvians in 2019 was 56.5%. Individuals of older age (aOR 4.64; 95% CI: 3.95-5.45), women (aOR 2.74; 95% CI: 2.33-3.23), individuals with a higher wealth index (aOR 2.81; 95% CI: 2.40-3.30) and having only secondary education (aOR 1.45; 95% CI: 1.21-1.75) showed increased odds of presenting AO compared to their peers. At a contextual level, only the Human Development Index (aOR 1.59; 95% CI: 1.17-2.16) was associated with the development of AO. A high Human Development Index is the contextual factor most associated with AO. It is necessary to formulate and implement new public health policies focused on these associated factors in order to reduce the prevalence of OA and prevent the excessive burden of associated noncommunicable diseases.


Subject(s)
Obesity, Abdominal , Obesity , Female , Humans , Multilevel Analysis , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity, Abdominal/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010048

ABSTRACT

Greater occupational exposure may have a positive effect on the development of resilience. We aimed to determine the association between working time and resilience in Peruvian military personnel during the COVID-19 pandemic. A secondary data analysis was performed including 586 records of military personnel who supported the health emergency during the second epidemic wave in Lambayeque, Peru. Resilience was measured with the short form of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Working time and other relevant covariates were collected by self-report. Generalized linear models were used. The mean resilience score was 22.18 and 43.2% scored high for resilience. Participants reported that they are strong individuals when facing difficulties (42.3%), are able to handle unpleasant feelings (40.3%), and achieve their goals despite obstacles (40.4%). Working more than 18 months was associated with a 35% higher prevalence of high resilience (PR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.05-1.75). In conclusion, a notable number of military personnel experienced high levels of resilience during the pandemic. Working time may have played an important role in the development of this ability. Our findings could help guide the deployment and organization of the military in health emergency support missions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Military Personnel , Resilience, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology
19.
Holist Nurs Pract ; 36(5): E48-E56, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992377

ABSTRACT

Evidence has been found of how the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has increased stress and anxiety indicators. Against this background, the present research aims to determine the effect of a distance Reiki intervention program on stress and anxiety during the period of isolation due to COVID-19 among people working in the city of Lima, Peru. The related hypothesis was that distance Reiki would generate a reduction in stress and anxiety levels. It was a quasiexperimental design with pre- and posttests, with nonprobabilistic purposive sampling. In total, 28 employees participated (12 in the experimental group and 16 in the control group). As part of the method, the following instruments were used: the EPGE, IDARE, and Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS). There was a large decrease in the distress parameter (Cohen's d = 1.006), as well as in the state anxiety parameter (d = 1.678) and a large increase in eustress (d = 0.921). Similarly, there was an overall reduction in the trait anxiety parameter (d = 0.373) in all cases as compared with the control group. Coronavirus anxiety showed no major impact. These results provide initial evidence on the effects of distance Reiki among Peruvians and provide the basis for promoting this cost-effective therapy, generating a practical and social contribution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Therapeutic Touch , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Depression/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , Therapeutic Touch/methods
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969242

ABSTRACT

Although the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on children and adolescents' mental health has been studied, there is still scarce evidence of the influence of nuclear family on the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study aimed to determine the association between family dysfunction and PTSD in Peruvian high-school students during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a virtual survey administered to 562 high-school students in three schools in Chiclayo, Peru. The dependent variable was PTSD, which was measured with the Child PTSD Symptom Scale. Family dysfunction was the main independent variable, measured with the Family APGAR Questionnaire. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated with generalized linear models. Most of the students were female (88.3%) and the average age was 14.4 years. We found that 21.4% showed severe family dysfunction and 60.3% had PTSD. Students with mild and moderate family dysfunction had 37% (PR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.14-1.65) and 26% (PR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.04-1.54) higher PTSD prevalence, respectively. In conclusion, family dysfunction may influence the development of PTSD in adolescents. This study suggests the importance to develop a healthy family environment to help adolescents face critical situations experienced during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Students/psychology
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