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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2109, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chlorine dioxide has been promoted as an alternative for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, especially in Peru, despite the lack of evidence to support its efficacy. This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with chlorine dioxide consumption in the Peruvian population. METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study. An adult Peruvian population was evaluated where chlorine dioxide consumption was divided into two groups according to the purpose of use: as prevention (individuals without COVID-19 history) and as treatment (individuals with COVID-19 history). The associated factors in each group were evaluated using Poisson regressions with the bootstrapping resampling method. RESULTS: Of 3610 participants included, 3213 reported no history of COVID-19, and 397 had been infected. The prevalence of chlorine dioxide consumption to prevent or treat COVID-19 was 8 and 16%, respectively. Factors either positively or negatively associated with chlorine dioxide consumption for prevention were male sex (aPR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.09-1.71), being an adult or older adult (aPR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.35-0.82), having a health sciences student within the family unit (aPR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.02-1.87), using medical information as the main source of information of COVID-19 (aPR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.40-0.80), having comorbidities for COVID-19 (aPR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.01-1.82), considering COVID-19 dangerous and deadly (aPR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.45-0.74), using medications (aPR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.25-2.06) and plants to prevent COVID-19 (aPR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.21-2.36), considering chlorine dioxide ineffective (aPR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.18-0.24), and being uninformed of its efficacy (aPR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.16-0.28). In addition, factors associated with chlorine dioxide consumption for treatment were considering COVID-19 dangerous and deadly (aPR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.33-0.96), considering chlorine dioxide ineffective (aPR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.12-0.42), and being uninformed of its efficacy (aPR: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.07-0.32). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of chlorine dioxide consumption to treat COVID-19 was higher than prevent. It is important to apply information strategies, prioritizing population groups with certain characteristics that are associated with a higher consumption pattern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Chlorine Compounds , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Oxides , Peru/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) ; 50(3): 189-198, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to compare the emotional effects of COVID-19 among three different groups, namely: health personnel, medical students, and a sample of the general population. METHODS: 375 participants were recruited for this study, of which 125 were medical students (preclinical studies, 59; clinical studies, 66), 125 were health personnel (COVID-19 frontline personnel, 59; personnel not related with COVID-19, 66), and 125 belonged to the general population. The PHQ-9, GAD-7, and CPDI scales were used to assess the emotional impact. A multinomial logistic regression was performed to measure differences between groups, considering potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Regarding CPDI values, all other groups showed reduced values compared to COVID-19 frontline personnel. However, the general population, preclinical and clinical medical students showed increased PHQ-9 values compared to COVID-19 frontline personnel. Finally, confounding factors, gender and age correlated negatively with higher CPDI and PHQ-9 scores. CONCLUSIONS: Being frontline personnel is associated with increased COVID-19-related stress. Depression is associated, however, with other groups not directly involved with the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Female gender and younger age correlated with COVID-19-related depression and stress.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Students, Medical/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , Psychological Tests , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257165, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The burden of the COVID-19 pandemic in Peru has led to people seeking alternative treatments as preventives and treatment options such as medicinal plants. This study aimed to assess factors associated with the use of medicinal plants as preventive or treatment of respiratory symptom related to COVID-19 during the pandemic in Cusco, Peru. METHOD: A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted on general public (20- to 70-year-old) from August 31 to September 20, 2020. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire via Google Forms, it consisted of an 11-item questionnaire that was developed and validated by expert judgment using Aiken's V (Aiken's V > 0.9). Both descriptive statistics and bivariate followed by multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess factors associated with the use of medicinal plants for COVID-19 prevention and respiratory symptom treatment during the pandemic. Prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI), and a P-value of 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. RESULTS: A total of 1,747 respondents participated in the study, 80.2% reported that they used medicinal plants as preventives, while 71% reported that they used them to treat respiratory symptoms. At least, 24% of respondents used medicinal plants when presenting with two or more respiratory symptoms, while at least 11% used plants for malaise. For treatment or prevention, the multivariate analysis showed that most respondents used eucalyptus (p < 0.001 for both), ginger (p < 0.022 for both), spiked pepper (p < 0.003 for both), garlic (p = 0.023 for prevention), and chamomile (p = 0.011 for treatment). The respondents with COVID-19 (p < 0.001), at older ages (p = 0.046), and with a family member or friend who had COVID-19 (p < 0.001) used more plants for prevention. However, the respondents with technical or higher education used less plants for treatment (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: There was a significant use of medicinal plants for both prevention and treatment, which was associated with several population characteristics and whether respondents had COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Plants, Medicinal , Respiratory System/drug effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 700921, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430693

ABSTRACT

Cytokines, chemokines and growth factors present different expression profiles related to the prognosis of COVID-19. We analyzed clinical parameters and assessed the expression of these biomarkers in patients with different disease severity in a hospitalized Peruvian cohort to determine those associated with worse prognosis. We measured anti-spike IgG antibodies by ELISA and 30 cytokines by quantitative suspension array technology in 123 sera samples. We analyzed differences between patients with moderate, severe and fatal COVID-19 by logistic regression at baseline and in longitudinal samples. Significant differences were found among the clinical parameters: hemoglobin, neutrophils, lymphocytes and C-reactive protein (CRP), creatinine and D-dimer levels. Higher anti-spike IgG antibody concentrations were associated to fatal patient outcomes. At hospitalization, IL-10, IL-6, MIP-1α, GM-CSF, MCP-1, IL-15, IL-5, IL1RA, TNFα and IL-8 levels were already increased in fatal patients´ group. Meanwhile, multivariable analysis revealed that increased GM-CSF, MCP-1, IL-15, and IL-8 values were associated with fatal outcomes. Moreover, longitudinal analysis identified IL-6 and MCP-1 as the main risk factors related to mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. In this Peruvian cohort we identified and validated biomarkers related to COVID-19 outcomes. Further studies are needed to identify novel criteria for stratification of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients at hospital entry. Background: In the most severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, large numbers of innate and adaptive immune cells become activated and begin to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, establishing an exacerbated feedback loop of inflammation. Methods: A total of 55 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the Hospital Nacional Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen in Lima, Peru were enrolled during August-October 2020. Of these, 21 had moderate disease, 24 severe diseases and 10 died. We measured 30 cytokines and chemokines by quantitative suspension array technology and anti-spike IgG antibodies using a commercial ELISA. We evaluated these parameters in peripheral blood every 2-5 days until patient discharge or death. Patient information and clinical parameters related were obtained from the respective clinical histories. Results: The frequency of obesity differed among the 3 groups, being most frequent in patients who died. There were also significant differences in clinical parameters: hemoglobin, segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes,C-reactive protein, creatinine and D-dimer levels. Greater anti-spike IgG antibody concentrations were associated to fatal outcomes. In univariate analyses, higher baseline concentrations of IL-6, MIP-1α, GM-CSF, MCP-1, IL-15, IL-5, IL1RA, TNFα, IL-8 and IL-12p70 correlated with severity, while multivariable analysis showed that increased concentrations in 4 biomarkers (GM-CSF, MCP-1, IL-15, IL-8) were associated with fatal outcomes. Longitudinal analysis showed IL-6 (hazard ratio [HR] 6.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-28.7) and MCP-1 (HR 4.61, 95%CI 1.1-19.1) to be related to mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Conclusions: Cytokine, chemokine and growth factor profiles were identified and validated related to severity and outcomes of COVID-19. Our findings may be useful to identify novel criteria for COVID-19 patient stratification at hospital entry.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokines/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Comorbidity , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 455, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study has two aims. First, determine the fit of the fear model to COVID-19, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress in the general population and health-care workers. Second, determine which model best explains the relationship between depression and the triad of fear, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress in both groups. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-reported questionnaires for anxiety, fear of COVID-19, depression, and post-traumatic stress. Information was collected from adults living in Lima, the capital and the most populous city in Peru. The explanatory models were evaluated using a structural equation model. RESULTS: A total of 830 participants were included, including general population (n = 640) and health-care workers (n = 190). A high overall prevalence of depressive symptoms (16%), anxiety (11.7%), and post-traumatic stress (14.9%) were identified. A higher prevalence of depressive, anxious, or stress symptoms was identified in the general population (28.6%) compared to health-care workers (17.9%). The triad model of fear of COVID-19, anxiety, and stress presented adequate goodness-of-fit indices for both groups. A model was identified that manages to explain depressive symptoms in more than 70% of the general population and health-care workers, based on the variables of the triad (CFI = 0.94; TLI = 0.94; RMSEA = 0.06; SRMR = 0.06). In the general population post-traumatic stress mediated the relationship between anxiety and depression (ß = 0.12; 95%CI = 0.06 to 0.18) which was significant, but the indirect effect of post-traumatic stress was not significant in health care workers (ß = 0.03; 95%CI = - 0.11 to 0.19). LIMITATIONS: The prevalence estimates relied on self-reported information. Other variables of interest, such as intolerance to uncertainty or income level, could not be evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Our study proposes and tests one model that explains more than 70% of depressive symptoms. This explanatory model can be used in health contexts and populations to determine how emotional factors can affect depressive symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Fear , Humans , Peru/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
9.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 38(2): 214-223, 2021.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381502

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, laboratory and treatment characteristics of COVID-19 patients and to determine the factors associated with mortality during hospital stay. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort study of adult COVID-19 inpatients. The clinical, laboratory and treatment data were obtained from the medical records of patients from the Hospital Nivel III Daniel Alcides Carrión in Tacna. For the survival analysis we used the Cox proportional hazards model, and we calculated crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: We evaluated 351 patients; 74.1% of them were men. The most common comorbidities were obesity (31.6%), hypertension (27.1%) and diabetes mellitus (24.5%). The median time of hospitalization was 8 days (IQR: 4-15). From the total of patients, 32.9% died during follow-up. The multivariate analysis showed an increased risk of dying associated with the following: age ≥65 years, HR = 3.55 (95% CI: 1.70-7.40); increase in lactate dehydrogenase >720 U/L, HR = 2.08 (95% CI: 1.34-3.22); and oxygen saturation less than 90%, mainly when it was less than 80%, HR = 4.07 (95% CI: 2.10-7.88). In addition, the use of colchicine during treatment showed a protective effect, HR = 0.46 (95% CI: 0.23-0.91). CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for mortality due to COVID-19 included being older than 65 years, having oxygen saturation less than 90%, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase >720 U/L; colchicine treatment could improve the prognosis of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Male , Peru/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 38(2): 261-266, 2021.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381501

ABSTRACT

We carried out an observational, retrospective and descriptive study in order to identify the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to a Peruvian national referral hospital. We included patients from one month old to fourteen years old hospitalized between March and August 2020. A total of 125 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted, 18.4% (n = 23) had critical illness and 16.8% (n = 21) had multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). The absence of comorbidities and previous history of epidemiological contact were more frequent in patients with MIS-C. Patients in critical condition and patients with MIS-C had lower lymphocyte and platelet counts, and higher C-reactive protein, ferritin and D-dimer values than patients who did not have said conditions. Six (4.8%) out of 125 children died, as well as 3 (13%) children from the group of patients in critical condition. None of the children with MIS-C died.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Peru/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
13.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen ; 36: 15333175211039089, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367663

ABSTRACT

To evaluate neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their association with cognition and functionality during lockdown of the COVID-19's first wave. We included 91 patients and caregivers of people with AD from a memory clinic. The RUDAS, M@T, and CDR were administered to patients and NPI/ADCS-ADL to caregivers. Baseline and lockdown measurements scales were analyzed to compare the frequencies at baseline versus lockdown and conditional Odds Ratio (ORc) was calculated for the neuropsychiatric symptoms. During the pandemic, significant increase in the number of cases was observed in depression (23%), agitation (36.8%), aberrant motor activity (12%), sleep disorders (26.3%), and appetite change (12.1%). In worsening of pre-existing symptoms, the most frequent were delusions (75%), followed by sleep disorders (71.7%). Lockdown induces a rapid increase of neuropsychiatric symptoms affecting cognitive symptoms and functionality of Peruvian patients with AD.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6845-6849, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347416

ABSTRACT

The pandemic generated by SARS-Cov-2 has caused a large number of cases and deaths in the world, but South America has been one of the continents that were most hard hit. The appearance of new variants causes concern because of the possibility that they may evade the protection generated by vaccination campaigns, their greater capacity to be transmitted, or their higher virulence. We analyzed the circulating variants in Peru after improving our Genomic Surveillance program. The results indicate a steep increase of the lambda lineage (C.37) until becoming predominant between January and April 2021, despite the cocirculation of other variants of concern or interest. Lambda lineage deserves close monitoring and could probably become a variant of concern in the near future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Genomics/methods , Humans , Mutation/genetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peru/epidemiology
16.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255594, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344156

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Implementation of evidence-based care for heavy drinking and depression remains low in global health systems. We tested the impact of providing community support, training, and clinical packages of varied intensity on depression screening and management for heavy drinking patients in Latin American primary healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quasi-experimental study involving 58 primary healthcare units in Colombia, Mexico and Peru randomized to receive: (1) usual care (control); (2) training using a brief clinical package; (3) community support plus training using a brief clinical package; (4) community support plus training using a standard clinical package. Outcomes were proportion of: (1) heavy drinking patients screened for depression; (2) screen-positive patients receiving appropriate support; (3) all consulting patients screened for depression, irrespective of drinking status. RESULTS: 550/615 identified heavy drinkers were screened for depression (89.4%). 147/230 patients screening positive for depression received appropriate support (64%). Amongst identified heavy drinkers, adjusting for country, sex, age and provider profession, provision of community support and training had no impact on depression activity rates. Intensity of clinical package also did not affect delivery rates, with comparable performance for brief and standard versions. However, amongst all consulting patients, training providers resulted in significantly higher rates of alcohol measurement and in turn higher depression screening rates; 2.7 times higher compared to those not trained. CONCLUSIONS: Training using a brief clinical package increased depression screening rates in Latin American primary healthcare. It is not possible to determine the effectiveness of community support on depression activity rates due to the impact of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholics/psychology , Depression/therapy , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Alcoholic Intoxication/psychology , Alcoholism/diagnosis , Colombia/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Delivery of Health Care , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Depressive Disorder/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , Primary Health Care/methods , Primary Health Care/trends , Referral and Consultation , Substance Abuse Detection/methods
18.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 36(6): 2441-2445, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328597

ABSTRACT

Peru is one of the countries with the highest incidence of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the world. Although public health measures adopted in the country have improved the care, diagnosis and management of patients with tuberculosis, there are still failures in the control of the disease in the country, especially of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and among the prison population or people living with HIV. The COVID-19 pandemic has added a great burden to the Peruvian public health system, negatively impacting tuberculosis-focused health programs due to the diversion of resources to control the pandemic. Consequently, combat measures, epidemiological surveillance of tuberculosis cases were affected, and data point to an increase in the number of cases, especially of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and to the underdiagnosis of the disease. To deal with this problem and avoid a future catastrophe for the country's health system, multidisciplinary measures involving the population, health professionals and government bodies are needed. It is essential that education, diagnosis, contact screening and treatment programs are prioritised and given greater financial support. Furthermore, it is necessary to raise awareness in the population about the need for isolation and maintenance of treatment, especially among the most vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Humans , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
19.
Medwave ; 21(6): e8231, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320619

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To describe and assess clinical characteristics and factors associated with mortality in adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to a national referral hospital in Peru. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study that included hospitalized patients older than 18 years with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection diagnosis. Patients with a positive rapid serological test on admission but no respiratory symptoms nor compatible images were excluded. We collected the data from clinical records. Results: A total of 813 adults were included, 544 (66.9%) with confirmed COVID-19. The mean age was 61.2 years (standard deviation: 15.0), and 575 (70.5%) were male. The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (34.1%) and obesity (25.9%). On admission, the most frequent symptoms were dyspnea (82.2%) and cough (53.9%). A total of 114 (14.0%) patients received mechanical ventilation, 38 (4.7%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 377 (46.4%) died. The requirement for ventilatory support, greater lung involvement, and inflammatory markers were associated with higher mortality. It was found that for every 10-year age increase, the risk of dying increased 32% (relative risk: 1.32; 95% confidence interval: 1.25 to 1.38). Those who were admitted to the intensive care unit and and were placed on mechanical ventilation had 1.39 (95% confidence interval: 1.13 to 1.69) and 1.97 (95% confidence interval: 1.69 to 2.29) times the risk of dying compared to those who did not, respectively. Conclusion: We found a high mortality rate among hospitalized patients associated with older age, higher inflammatory markers, and greater lung involvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
20.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 351, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus pandemic has disrupted health systems across the world and led to major shifts in individual behavior by forcing people into isolation in home settings. Its rapid spread has overwhelmed populations in all corners of Latin-American countries resulting in individual psychological reactions that may aggravate the health crisis. This study reports on demographics, self-reported psychological disturbances and associated coping styles during the COVID-19 pandemic for the Peruvian population. METHODS: This cross-sectional study uses an online survey with snowball sampling that was conducted after the state of emergency was declared in Perú (on April 2nd). The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) was used to identify somatic symptoms, incidence of anxiety/ insomnia, social dysfunction and depression and the Coping Strategy Questionnaire (COPE-28) mapped personal strategies to address recent stress. RESULTS: 434 self-selected participants ranging in age from 18 to 68 years old (Mean age = 33.87) completed the survey. The majority of participants were women (61.30%), aged between 18 and 28 (41.70%), well-educated (> = 85.00%), Peruvian (94.20%), employed (57.40%) and single (71.20%). 40.8% reported psychological distress, expressing fear of coronavirus infection (71.43%). Regression analysis shows that men had lower somatic-related symptom (ß = - 1.87, 95%, CI: - 2.75 to -.99) and anxiety/insomnia symptom (ß = - 1.91, 95% CI: - 2.98 to 0.84) compared to women. The risk for depression and social dysfunction are less likely with increasing age. Educational status was protective against developing psychological conditions (p < 0.05). While active responses (acceptance and social support) are scarcely used by individuals with psychological distress; passive strategies (such as denial, self-distraction, self-blame, disconnection, and venting) are more commonly reported. CONCLUSION: This study provides a better understanding of the psychological health impact occurring during the COVID-19 pandemic on the Peruvian population. About half of the respondents reported psychological distress and poor coping responses. This evidence informs the need for broader promotional health policies focused on strengthening individual's active strategies aiming at improving emotional health and preventing psychiatric conditions, during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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